Crusade against “usurper valoa” and
— the hundred year war between Britain and France broke out in 1337.
. In 1066, the famous “Norman Conquest” took place between Britain and France. The conflict broke out between Britain and France because of the competition for Normandy. Duke William of France led France to conquer Britain, occupy Normandy and call himself the king of England. In 1154, count Anjou, the great grandson of Duke William, ascended the British throne, that is, Henry II. In this way, Henry II had a dual identity: he was both king of England and count of France. Henry II continued to occupy the territory of Normandy. In addition, he occupied many French territories through marriage and other means. As a result, Henry II’s territory in France was five times larger than that of the French royal family, which caused great dissatisfaction of the French royal family.
during the reign of French King Philip II, the tough Philip II took advantage of the tyranny and extravagance of British King John to arouse public anger and recovered most of the French territory. This has aroused the dissatisfaction of Britain. The British royal family believes that Normandy and other territories are their ancestral fiefs, and it is a shame for them to be occupied by France, so they can’t face their underground ancestors.
more than 200 years later, the British who knew shame and then braved were determined to recapture their lost territory. However, this time their purpose was not only Normandy, but even the whole of France. Therefore, King Edward III of England began to find an excuse for invading France.
in 1328, the French caper Dynasty lost its heir when King Philip IV was in power. Since Philip IV had no children, his cousin Philip VI succeeded to the throne. However, King Edward III of England lodged a solemn protest against the matter and declared that he was the only candidate for the king of France. The reason is that his mother is a direct descendant of the Kape Dynasty and he is the grandson of Philip IV. According to European practice, a daughter can inherit in the absence of a son. Therefore, Philip IV should pass the throne to his mother after his death, and he (Edward III) is naturally entitled to inherit from his mother.
however, the French aristocracy replied that “we recognize that women have the right to inherit, except the throne”, and rejected Edward III’s request to inherit the French throne. France’s rejection of Edward III’s proposal to inherit the throne became an excuse for Britain’s invasion of France.
in 1337, King Philip VI of France announced the recovery of all British territories in France as a punishment, and Edward III could no longer restrain his ambition to covet the French crown. In July of that year, the early summer sun shone on the sea surface of the English Channel. Edward III sat on the warship of the “Thomas” and commanded the fleet composed of three detachment and 147 warships. Under the pretext of crusading against the “usurper valoa” – King Philip VI of France, he sailed to the coast of Flanders, opening the prelude of the Anglo French war. The war has been fought for more than 100 years since 1337. It is the longest war in the world and has set a Guinness record, which is known as the “hundred year war between Britain and France”.
the first stage of the Centennial War (1337 ~ 1360):
the heroine Joan of arc
in the Centennial war, the British army won a great victory. In the battle of Marius (1340), the British army hit the French army hard and won the sea power. After the battle of kresi in August 1346, the British army gained land advantage again and occupied the coastal fortress port of Calais (1347) after an 11 month siege. Since then, there has been a truce between the two countries for nearly 10 years (1347-1355). Then Britain launched an attack and occupied the southwest of France (Keith and Gascoigne). In the battle of Poitiers (1356), the French army was defeated again. In 1360, France was forced to sign the extremely harsh brettini peace treaty in brettini. In the contract, France ceded the territory from the south of the Loire River to the Pyrenees to Britain, and Edward III gave up his demands for the French throne and Normandy. It can be seen from the brettini peace treaty that Edward III’s request for succession to the French throne is false, the occupation of French territory is true, and the question of succession to the throne is just an excuse.
the second stage of the Centennial War (1369 ~ 1396):
the two sides are evenly matched. In order to recapture the British occupied area, the then French King Charles V (1364-1380) reorganized the army and reorganized the tax system. He replaced some knights with mercenary infantry, and established field artillery and a new fleet. The growing French army used raids and guerrilla tactics to expel the British army. By the end of the 1970s, it had gradually forced the British army to retreat to the coastal area and recovered most of the lost land. In order to preserve several coastal ports in France (Bordeaux, Bayona, Brest, Cherbourg and Calais) and some areas between Bordeaux and Bayona, and in view of the deterioration of the domestic situation, Britain signed a 20-year armistice agreement with France, and Britain still retains some territory between Calais and Bordeaux in Pakistan.
in the third stage of the Centennial War (1415 ~ 1424),
the British army won again. France’s national strength was weakened by the intensification of domestic contradictions, and Britain took the opportunity to reopen the war. In 1415, the French army defeated the French Duke of truzan under the alliance of the French Duke of truzan in the battle of Cruzan in 1425. According to the provisions of the treaty, France became part of the United Kingdom of Britain and France. King Henry V declared himself the Regent of France and had the right to inherit the French throne after the death of King Charles VI.
the fourth stage of the Centennial War (1424 ~ 1453):
Joan of arc blessed France. Charles VI and Henry V both died suddenly in 1422. The British royal family announced that Henry VI, who was under the age of one year, inherited the king of France, while Prince Charles, the son of Charles VI, controlled the central and southern parts of France and fought for the throne with the British royal family。 Due to the intensification of the struggle for the throne, France is likely to be looted and divided up by the aggressors, and the situation is very difficult. In addition, taxes and compensation are heavily on the French residents in the British occupied area. For France, the war for the throne has turned into a war of national liberation.
in October 1428, the British and Burgundy troops launched a fierce attack on the last strong fortress in Orleans outside the French occupied area. The French people rose up to resist and guerrilla warfare was carried out more widely (especially in Normandy). The guerrillas formed by the French people gave great help to the French Army: they set up ambushes, captured tax collectors, eliminated small groups of enemy troops, and restrained a large part of the energy of the British army.
at the beginning of 1429, the farmhouse privet de Champagne district asked Prince Charles to fight and was appointed as the military commander of the former enemy. From April to may, Joan of arc led the army to break the siege of Orleans and then marched towards Lance. In May 1430, she was captured by the pro British Burgundy faction in the battle and then sold to the British army. Joan of arc suffered all kinds of torture by the British army, remained faithful and unyielding, and was burned alive in May 1431.
Joan of arc’s heroic death aroused the great indignation and high patriotic enthusiasm of the French people. The whole country of France united more closely and launched a more fierce and firm resistance to the British army. In 1437, the French army captured Paris, recovered champagne in 1441, recaptured Mann and Normandy in 1450, and recovered gyenne in 1453. On October 19, 1453, the British Army surrendered in Bordeaux, ending the hundred year war between Britain and France. The hundred year war of
brought profound disasters to the French people and caused great losses to the French economy. However, it promoted the awakening of the French nation. After driving out the British, the historic progress of unifying France was completed.