Section 10 dance art after the Renaissance in Europe in the middle and late Middle Ages, the emergence of cities and the development of Commerce made people gradually bid farewell to the continuous war caused by territory, nationality, religion and class, and stay away from famine and the black death.

The huge commercial profits brought by the eastern Crusade also broadened people’s vision and thinking.

In the early Middle Ages of Europe, the ascetic Christianity believed by people because of fear and despair developed into a religion with rationality and humanity.

People opposed the ascetic and self abusive cruelty of monks and hermits and began to worship saints and the Virgin Mary.

In the religion of the middle and later period, the strongest manifestation of human nature is the worship of the Virgin Mary as a beautiful and kind mother.

The emergence of walking monks shows that priests no longer close their doors to save their souls, but began to do welfare work for the society and become teachers to teach people to get rid of the current situation of ignorance and ignorance.

“The peak of the Middle Ages marks the revival of civilization, that is, people have also got rid of the chaos and ignorance of the previous centuries.

In particular, they are no longer subject to the disastrous harassment of Vikings, Slavs, Mazars and Islam in the 10th century.

It also represents the integration of classical culture, Hebrew culture and Gothic Culture, and means that culture is the foundation of the three in the process of creating a new culture Ben has achieved a balance of confrontation.

” Under the influence of Saracen culture and Byzantine Culture, the revitalization of trade and the development of cities have promoted the development of civilization.

From the 11th to the 13th century, “the king’s right relied on the citizens to destroy the power of the feudal aristocracy and established a huge monarchy based on national standards in essence, in which the modern European nation and modern bourgeois society developed.

” its obvious result was the famous Renaissance movement in the 14th century and the following centuries.

The Renaissance aims to oppose the old ideas of scholasticism, abstinence and theology, and advocate human personality, human creation and human emotion.

They obtain the new strength of art from Greek and Roman art, emphasize the spirit of humanism and reflect real life.

Under the guidance of this progressive thought, Italy, France, Germany, Britain There was an artistic boom in Spain.

The trend of thought of the Renaissance also had a great impact on the dance art in Europe.

Dante, Patrick and Boccaccio, the pioneers of the Renaissance movement, played an exemplary role in the Renaissance of various countries.

Due to individual spiritual liberation, a group of great artists emerged in the Renaissance, such as Michel Angelo and he, who made the Western plastic arts reach the peak stage.

It can be said that the aesthetic thought of the Renaissance was based on their artistic practice.

The dance art of the Renaissance was also influenced by it to form and develop.

Dance art is no longer controlled by Christianity.

It has developed fully and freely.

During the Renaissance and the following centuries, dance art has developed in two aspects.

One is court etiquette dance, the other is ballet. I. court etiquette dance during the Renaissance, secular dance had a great development.

It gradually gained an important position in all parties and dances.

We can know from the paintings and poems at that time that dance performance is indispensable in the grand festival and auspicious days.

At that time, the instruments that accompanied the dance were mainly Vivor (violin instruments), lute (plucked instruments similar to mandolin and guitar), and organ.

There are many more complex lyrics from the Greek Renaissance and Roman dance than those from the early Roman Renaissance.

The circle dance and line dance are replaced by the pair dance of various dance compositions.

The dance also forms different styles according to the needs of dance, party and festival activities.

In the middle ages, secular dance was divided into court etiquette dance and folk dance.

Court etiquette dance mainly trains the manners of princes and nobles.

It includes some etiquette norms at walks, banquets and dances, that is, the ruling class trains the manners of princes and nobles with processed folk dance.

There are special dance teachers in the court who teach people elegant manners.

They teach people how to curtsy, how to use hat skills to salute, how to put their hands on their swords, and how to shake their shawls gracefully.

These movements are generally stylized.

Due to the stylized and ceremonial movements of court etiquette dance, coupled with the inconvenient long skirts, leggings and long coats, the dancers’ movements cannot be stretched freely.

Therefore, court dance has no large jumping movements and stretching pattern movements, but only small symbolic movements.

On the contrary, folk dance is a dance art without any constraints.

It is simple, natural, hot and warm, so that people’s feelings can be brought into full play.1. Overview of court etiquette and dance in the Renaissance, various dances were often held in the palaces of princes and nobles, especially at various celebrations.

Dances became an integral part of people’s life.

At that time, many famous poets, singers, painters, musicians and dance directors participated in various celebration dances.

They extracted materials from folk dances, absorbed folk healthy and happy movements and dances, and accompanied the dance with the melody and rhythm of folk songs.

The movements and skills of court dance in the 14th ~ 15th centuries are still simple.

There are not many upper limb movements.

It is basically like a parade dance.

The dance is composed of some salute movements or movements of dancers approaching or separating, and there are some small broken steps at the foot.

In some ceremonies, candle dance or torch dance is performed.

There is no fixed movement pattern in the dance.

From the 16th to the 17th century, Palace dance began to have unique characteristics.

It has rigorous stylized movements.

Palace dance has been very different from folk dance.

Dance pays attention to noble demeanor, elegant gestures and rigid movements.

It is not like the popular and cheerful folk dance.

If it is done in that way, it will be considered disgraceful.

When dancing, you should keep the correct posture.

The male partner is noble and arrogant, while the female partner is modest and gentle, with drooping eyes.

There are some slow turns, moving back and forth, and cross movements of dance steps and feet.

This kind of dance also belongs to ground dance, which is different from the light and elegant movement style of ballet art.

Such as peacock dance and kurante danceSome people say that low step dance is a graceful, gentle and slow palace style dance.

Its movements are composed of bowing, single step and double step, as well as various spatial swing movements.

The dance consists of two or three or four people.

Sometimes it is a pair dance and sometimes a chain dance.

The instruments to accompany the dance include six string piano, horizontal flute, drum, Oboe, horn, etc.4. Volta dance Volta dance originated in Italy and prevailed in the French court.

The dance form is pair dance.

There are some turning movements in the dance and the movement of male partners throwing female partners in the air.

Dance is generally performed at celebration parties.

It prevailed in European countries in the 16th century.

In the era of Louis XIII, the French court no longer danced this dance, and Italy retained this dance for the longest time.5. Gayald dance is a traditional Italian dance.

It is popular in European countries with its unique happy and lively style.

At the beginning, it was welcomed by college students.

With the emergence of various melodies of gayald, the dance movements were gradually formed and standardized.

Gayald dance is also called five step dance or Roman dance.

It consists of five basic movements, namely four small steps and one jump.

After the small jump, it forms a pause, and then starts from the other foot.

The action can be carried out forward, backward, sideways or diagonal.

This dance still maintains the noble arrogance, no matter how fast the shoulders shake and how the steps jump, it will not lose the noble style.

The dancing clothes are gorgeous and colorful, men wear swords and shawls, women wear long skirts, and there are many small mirrors on the skirt belt.6. Peacock dance has its own style in France, Italy and Spain.

In French peacock dance, the dance steps are slow and stable, and there are many sliding dance steps.

Italy’s peacock dance is lively and intense, with some small jumps in its movements.

Spanish peacock dance has a bright rhythm, lively and cheerful.

Peacock dance, as its name suggests, is an imitation of peacock movements.

Peacock dance has strict hierarchical norms in French and Italian courts: at the court ball, the dance should be performed by the king and queen first, then the prince and his wife, and then the prince and nobles.

The instruments that accompany the peacock dance include tambourine, woodwind and horizontal flute.

The rhythm is beat.

Dance costumes are: male partners wear swords and shawls, and female partners wear floor skirts.

At the beginning of the dance, the Queen’s confidant first lifted her long skirt and walked around the hall before dancing.

The steps of Peacock Dance consist of one step and two steps.

A single step is a sliding step forward or sideways, with the center of gravity on the stepping foot and the power leg raised to 90 ° in the air.

The two-step action is a combination of two one-step sliding steps.

The center of gravity moves to the legs of the stride, and the power legs are lifted to 90 degrees in the air.7. Kurante dance kurante is a court dance originated in Italy, which means like flowing water, and the dance action is like a swimming posture rising and falling on the water.

Dance formations include ellipses, rectangles, octagons and zigzags.

The dance can be divided into simple or complex forms.

The simple ones include some sliding steps, and the complex ones have some plots.

For example, the female partner refuses the invitation of the male partner, and the male partner kneels in front of the female partner.

After this episode, the male and female partners begin to dance.

The dance action includes forward, backward and backward steps.

The dance step is divided into short steps.

It includes stepping straight, bending knees, raising legs and sliding forward.

Long steps include knee bending walking step and knee bending sliding step.

In dance, short and long steps are connected with each other and jump alternately.

It is said that Louis XIV of France likes this dance very much.

Kurante was later chosen as the opening dance at the wedding ball.

By the 18th century, the upper class stopped dancing this dance.

Similar to Kurant’s dance are alemand dance, saltaleira dance, sarabonda dance, etc.

Alemand dance originated from Germany.

It is a collective dance without jumping.

The dance moves include simple and stable footwork, sometimes raising the legs to 90 degrees without jumping.

Saltarella dance, a folk dance originated from Italy, is a pair dance with fierce movements, fast rhythm and many jumping movements.

There are some pantomime elements in the dance.

Sometimes, the female dancer dances with a cup full of water on her head and does complex and fast movements without spilling a drop of water.

Sarabonda dance originated from Spain.

At the beginning, it was danced by women and accompanied by castanets, guitars and singing.

The dance rhythm was lively and the dance posture was elegant.

When it was introduced to other countries, it became a steady rhythm of men’s and women’s duet dance.

In the court dance, the dance style became elegant and steady.8. Minuet is the most popular dance from the 16th century to the 17th century.

It is performed at weddings, parties, banquets or carnivals in courts and towns.

The movements of Minuet dance include two knee bending steps and two straight knee steps.

Four steps are a group.

Crossing the bar line is a difficulty when dancing.

The minuet formation has a figure of eight, which later developed into a figure of two and a figure of Z.

It has certain skills.

It can be said to be an artistic dance.

If you don’t accept training, you can’t dance well.

Minuet dance is considered to be the most beautiful dance in the Louis XIV era.

Although the dance steps are relatively simple, its elegant and exquisite style is difficult to master.

Although it originated from the folk, after arriving at the court, it got rid of the simple and clumsy nature of the folk and became a solemn and elegant dance.

It takes a long time to master the style.

The connection between actions should be coherent and beautiful.

Men should make all kinds of hat actions gracefully, and women’s gestures should be soft and gentle.

Minuet later spread from France to Russia and became a stage art.

It was systematically sorted out by later generations and became one of the contents of training actors’ dance education.9. Bolognese dance Bolognese dance is a famous dance popular in Europe in the 18th century.

It originates from Polish folk dance.

Its dance movements are different from the minuet dance.

The dance steps are coherent, soft and rhythmic.

The dance includes curtsy and bow.

There is no redundant decorative movements.

It is a dance with Knight like dignity.

The music master te once pointed out that polonides in the 18th century was “a grand procession.

At this time, the upper class seemed to become more solemn, feeling incomparably glorious, feeling how noble, gorgeous and respectful he was.

Polonides became a dance that often showed his brilliance, honor and status”.

Bolognese dance is generally performed at major dance parties and court dances.

The dance is performed according to the level.

Male and female dancers wear gorgeous clothes, and male partners are polite to female partners, showing a kind of noble knightLike an air.

When dancing, men sometimes touch their beards, sometimes fiddle with their hats, and alternately extend their left and right hands to their female partners.

Liszt continued: “The happy upper class, shining in all colors, is in the shape of a snake, which unfolds and rolls into a ball, bending and dazzling.

The gold practice on the neck and the army knife sweeping the floor jingle, and the luxurious and heavy shawl is decorated with pearls, precious stones, streamers and flowers.

In the distance, the sound of catchwords comes, like the noise of this fiery red rapids Wow.

” Liszt vividly depicts the scene of Borneo dance.

The scene of polonides dance is flexible, sometimes in the hall, sometimes in the garden, sometimes in other rooms, and then back to the hall.

The dance popular in European courts has been very different from its original folk dance in Poland.

It has lost the simple essence of Polish folk dance and become an aristocratic dance.10. Waltz dance waltz dance is a representative dance popular in the 19th century.

It is a social dance with both refined and popular tastes.

It comes from Vienna.

The music rhythm of the dance is free and lively.

There are no strict normative requirements for dance movements.

The movements are coherent and beautiful, the expression is delicate, and the emotion is rich, which makes people intoxicated.

This dance was once excluded by the church.

Later, people continued to dance this dance regardless of resistance, making the dance a standardized dance accompanied by a band.

The dance form is a large wheel dance composed of many dance pairs.

The dance rhythm is 3 beats, with the focus on the first beat.

Turn the dance once every two bars, and jump along the ring at the same time.

Waltz dance is more perfect with the input of great musicians, such as Waltz melody, Schubert’s Waltz, Chopin’s Waltz, Tchaikovsky’s Symphonic Waltz and so on.

The musician Strauss pushed the waltz to its peak, and the waltz music played by his Vienna band made the art of Waltz more light, beautiful, smooth and moving.

Today, waltz dance continues to survive and become the first international standard dance.

In addition to the Hungarian waltz, it also has many national characteristics, such as the Hungarian waltz.

Waltz has also played a great role in promoting the popularization of classical ballet art.

Many classical art works are based on waltz.4.11. Mazurka Mazurka originated in Poland and prevailed in European countries in the 19th century.

It has rich movements and rapid rhythm.

In the early stage, young men and women danced in pairs around the table full of food.

Later, people adapted it in style to increase the dance steps and dance patterns.

Folk Mazurka’s dance movements are static and dynamic, as well as some jumping movements, sliding dance steps, rhythm and light running movements.

After being transferred to the court, Mazurka dance lost the simple style of farmers and became an imposing, elegant and noble noble noble dance with military demeanor.

“The scene of the Polish ball was very beautiful.

After everyone danced and walked solemnly along the circle, the attention of the whole hall was focused on the beautiful couple who came out to the center.

How rich the movements of this dance were! At the beginning, the female dancer stood up a little timidly and slightly forward.

She shook slightly like a bird before taking off.

She put one foot on the bright ground Skate on the floor, just as a skater skates on the ice.

Then, suddenly, he spread his wings and flew forward like a naughty child, but his feet did soft and consistent movements.

She opened her eyes like a huntress, raised her head, raised her chest, and split the air with her leisurely action, just like a big ship breaking through the waves.

Then she glided coquettishly on the floor, saw some spectators, said a few words or smiled at the people she liked, extended her beautiful hand to her partner, and then they rushed from one corner of the hall to the other.

She glides, runs and flies.

Her face turned ruddy with fatigue.

Finally, she gasped and fell into the arms of her male partner exhausted, and he lifted her into the air with his powerful hand for a moment, and then ended the intoxicating dance.

” In Mazurka dance, the man always holds the initiative.

He controls the movement and speed of the dance, and the female dance partner should keep up with and cooperate with the man’s dance patterns at any time.

If the two people cooperate with each other, they will make the male partner feel proud and proud.

At the end, the male partner will kneel in front of the female partner, kiss her skirt and thank her for her cooperation, and the female partner will be proud of it.

When dancing Mazurka, female dance partners wear gorgeous clothes, while male dance partners mostly wear military uniforms, which makes Mazurka look brave and beautiful.12. Tango Dance Tango dance is a ballroom dance popular in the 20th century.

It originated from America, but it has a lot of Spanish dance elements.

It gets rid of the American dance style of waving arms and shaking shoulders.

According to the rules of social dance, it has been processed and added some smooth sliding dance steps.

At present, it has become the dance in the international standard dance.

People in modern society use this dance to relieve the physical and mental fatigue caused by fast-paced work. II. The development of ballet art after the Renaissance 1 The origin of ballet ballet originated in Italy, flourished in France, and finally became a dance art sweeping the world.

The word “ballet” comes from a transliteration of the French ballet.

And ballet comes from ballo in Italy.

Its earliest meaning was dancing, which means dancing without any plot content.

In Europe, the concept of dancing is different from that of Eastern countries.

Eastern countries often call dance, that is, hand dancing and foot dancing.

The movement of the arm is more and complex than that of the foot, and the body is in a sinking state.

Western dance is mainly based on the jumping action of legs.

Western dance is a complex of jumping and jumping, and the dance momentum is rising.

The two different pronunciations of French ballet and Italian ballet suggest that the two styles of ballet are also different.

Baro in Italy is a popular mass self entertainment dance in Italian civil society.

It has a strong local flavor.

French ballet is an ornamental art with certain norms and technical performances.

It is an elegant aristocratic dance.

From the different meanings of Italian baro to French ballet, we can know the changes of dance art originated in Italy in France.

The Renaissance is a cultural revolution in the western world to get rid of the shackles of feudal autocracy and church theocracy in the middle ages.

It is a kind of displayIt belongs to the Palace dance mode.

There is no difficult skill performance.

The dance costumes are cumbersome and bulky, and you have to wear some wigs and masks.

Dance has elegant, arrogant, leisurely, formal, standard, tall and straight, courteous, radiant and other styles.

The greatest contribution of French King Louis XIV to the development of ballet art is to promote the development of dance education.

He believes that dance art can cultivate a person’s elegant and noble temperament and strengthen people’s physique.

Just as the ancient Greeks took sports as a symbol of whether a country is strong or not, he believes that whether dance art is developed also symbolizes whether a country is strong or not.

With his advocacy and support, the Royal Ballet Academy was established in 1661, which lasted for ten years.

In the ten years, the ballet rules were established, the basic positions of arms and legs were specified, and the basic movement norms were set.

In 1671, Louis XIV re issued a decree to merge the Royal Conservatory of music and the Academy of dance, and set up a special theater.

The theater was once built by Cardinal Richelieu for the palace.

Later, people rebuilt it to make it an Italian theater.

This theater has a stage and an audience, which is similar to the modern theater.

Theater plays a key role in the development of ballet.

It makes dancers no longer take care of their sight and body in three directions, but just look ahead and focus on the audience in front.

When the actor walks off the side of the stage, his feet open, resulting in his knees open, so that the tips of his feet are not straight to the front.

Later, this action became more and more open, so opening, collapse and straight became the basic action rules of ballet.

Later, it evolved into five basic positions of feet and seven hand positions of arms.

The ever-changing actions of ballet are shown here.

Another important role of theater in the formation of ballet art is that it separates the performer from the audience, “distance produces beauty”.

Such a distance on and off the stage makes ballet separate from life action and become stage art.

When people watch the program, an information exchange is formed on and off the stage.

With the magnetic field of information expression and feedback, dance has taken off the social coat and become a professional and ornamental dance, which is no longer a noble self entertainment dance.

There are two artists who have made great contributions to the development of French royal ballet.

They are Luli and Beauchamp.

Jean Baptiste Luli, a musician, dancer, politician and Minister trusted by Louis XIV.

He has written music for many operas and ballet.

Because he is also a dancer and knows the true meaning of ballet art, his ballet music and dance movements are very appropriate.

In 1672, he was appointed the first president of the Royal Ballet Academy.

After becoming the Dean, he made a great reform of the traditional ballet comedy, using rhythmic poetry recitation as the musical melody of the ballet, and using this main melody to connect various dance segments together, making it an independent ballet art.

Luli not only created many lively, quiet, refined and lyrical music for ballet, but also created many wonderful dance movements.

The artistic style of French ballet he founded has influenced for a century.

Because of his outstanding achievements, he was awarded the title of master of French ballet at that time.

Pierre Beauchamp was a dancer in the French court troupe.

He came from a musical family.

His grandfather was a violinist and his father was both a musician and a dancer.

Influenced by the family art atmosphere, he also has superhuman talent for music and dance.

At the age of 15, he wrote music for Moliere’s “annoying ghost”.

His understanding of music makes his dancing posture and movements radiant.

In addition, he created and invented many skills, such as jumping in the air, rotating, one leg turning in place, idling and so on.

He is not only superior in movement skills, but also excellent in performance.

People praise his dance for its ability to explain music and reflect the style of Versailles.

Beauchamp’s outstanding contributions to the development of French court ballet are as follows: ① organically combine pantomime and dance skills.

② Different formations such as geometry and symmetry are used to arrange the dance.

③ It enriches the dancing posture of arms and trunk and various variants of jumping and turning.

④ Standardizing the “outward opening principle” and five foot positions of ballet.

⑤ Encourage the training of professional actresses to replace Mrs.

Gong Tinggui.

The most outstanding contribution is that he standardized the “opening principle”, five positions of feet, rotation, one leg in-situ fast rotation, air rotation and other movements, which are the aesthetic core of classical ballet and have become the basic skills that ballet dancers must practice for hundreds of years.2. Ballet in the Enlightenment period, the Renaissance in the 17th century, when Italy declined, the center of European political and cultural activities shifted from Italy to France.

France became a country leading the new trend of European Cultural Revolution, and the enlightenment movement set off in France.

The French advocate Roman culture and show their worship and infatuation for ancient Roman culture in literature and art.

Marx said that the French “wear this long respected costume and use this borrowed language to perform a new scene in world history.

” The French express their life ideals through literary works, which is an artistic phenomenon of neoclassicism.

The enlightenment is a movement against neoclassicism.

It reflects the thought of the rising bourgeoisie, who used literature and art to promote the enlightenment.

In order to make art better serve the rising bourgeoisie, scholars have made an in-depth discussion on art.

Famous representatives in this regard include Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau and others.

They publicized materialism and atheism, advocated rationality and science, put forward slogans such as “freedom, equality and fraternity” politically, and launched a fierce offensive against feudal autocracy and church theocracy.

In addition, they also expressed some aesthetic views on the development of ballet art, which greatly affected the development of ballet art.

Like Voltaire, He said in “on epic”: “Since the Renaissance, people have taken ancient writers as models.

Homer, Demosthenes, Virgil and Cicero seem to have unified all the nationalities in Europe under their rule and formed a single literary Republic.

However, in general coordination, the customs and habits of each nationality also create a special aesthetic taste “Here he put forward the universality and particularity of artistic aesthetics, in the recognition of the essence of beautyIntellectually, he believes that beauty is an emotion that can make people marvel and happy.

He also believes that art can cultivate people’s elegant taste.

He actively supported the dance theory thought of the 18th century dance theorist Norville.

He said with praise: “like Prometheus, you created the shape of man and put the soul in it.

” Voltaire’s thought directly influenced the artistic reform of ballet at that time.

Under the influence of his thought, ballet separated from the aftertaste of the opera and became an art to express the dramatic plot.

The posture and action of dance closely revolved around the plot.

Diderot also played a guiding role in the development of ballet art.

Diderot was one of the most important leaders during the French Enlightenment, and also the most outstanding materialist philosopher and aesthetician.

Diderot has a wide range of interests in art, especially in dramatic art.

These artistic opinions have influenced the formation of ballet art, For example, he elaborated his artistic thought in the conversation with rawall: “.

in drama, as in nature, everything is interrelated.

If we come into contact with reality in one way, we will come into contact with reality in many other ways at the same time.

Real clothes, real language, simple and natural plot.

If such scenes are not more impressive than those of characters dressed in gorgeous clothes and affectation If we move, we can only blame our aesthetic taste for being rotten.

” Diderot emphasizes nature, and emphasizes the artistry in nature more.

He thinks: “.

How can we cultivate a great actor if there is only nature but no art? Because the development of plot on the stage is not exactly like that in nature.

Drama works are written according to some principle systems.

” His artistic thought of emphasizing nature rather than hypocrisy has a strong rebellious spirit.

The core of his thought is to ask the citizen culture not the noble culture.

He believes that the noble culture is moaning without illness, divorced from real life and a decadent civilization.

He advised artists to reflect civilian life and go deep into life, “to live in the countryside, live in huts and visit neighbors, it’s best to have a look at their beds, food, houses, clothes and so on”.

He also has his own unique views on the merits of actors, He said: “.

there is a fact that confirms my opinion: actors who act with their hearts are always good and bad.

You can’t expect to see any integrity in their performances.

their performances are strong, weak, cold, hot, smooth and majestic.

Where they do well today, they will fail tomorrow, and where they failed yesterday, they will succeed today.

But another way The actor is not so.

When he performs, he should rely on thinking, study of human nature, often imitate an ideal model, imagination and memory.

He is always consistent.

Every performance is a way and is the same perfect.

Everything has been measured, coordinated, studied and arranged in his mind in advance.

His lines are neither monotonous nor incongruous.

The upsurge of performance has development, leap, pause, start, midway and peak.

In many performances, the tone is always the same every time, and the action is always the same every time.

If this time is different from last time, it is always better than last time.

Instead of changing his appearance every day, he is a mirror, often ready to reflect the same things with the same accuracy, the same intensity and the same authenticity.

” Diderot elaborated his ideal actor standard here, and his measure of actor quality still has guiding significance for us today.

In the society at that time, Diderot’s series of aesthetic thoughts about dance greatly influenced the art of ballet in the Enlightenment period.

Diderot also expounded his own views on the essence of Dance Aesthetics.

He said: “dance is to pantomime, just as poetry is to prose.

More specifically, just as recitation is to singing, it is a kind of pantomime with rhythm.

” He also said: “dance is poetry.

This kind of poetry should have its own expression content.

This is imitation by means of action.

It requires poets, aestheticians and musicians to cooperate with mime actors.

This kind of poetry has its own plot, which can be divided into scenes and scenes.

Each scene has its own or interrelated narration and its own aria.

” Diderot’s aesthetic thoughts promoted the development of French ballet art.

Since the Enlightenment period, the content of ballet works of art has changed from gods, emperors and nobles to the life of ordinary people.

From music and stage settings, clothing, make-up to every action and posture of dancers are simple and natural.

For example, the ballet “daughter who can’t be locked up” created by ballet master doberval is a representative work reflecting the life of ordinary people.

The play is the earliest one in the history of ballet, which reflects the life of the times and depicts the third-class civilians.

It has plot, content and characters’ emotion, which is very close to real life.

Rousseau was one of the important leaders of the enlightenment.

He is a musician and composer, a typical representative of the petty bourgeoisie.

He emphasizes returning to nature, liberating emotion, and emphasizing the commanding role of emotion in artistic expression.

He sharply criticized the neoclassical dance phenomenon at that time.

He said: “the more beautiful their dance posture and rhythmic movements are.

The more distorted they are to the whole”.

The reason is that it “forces people to forget the main plot and become indifferent”.

He believes that the opera is interspersed with some dances that are divorced from the plot, making the dance irrelevant to the plot.

His thought is also concentrated in the aspect that dance should serve the plot.

He opposes the dance phenomenon that dance performed on the same stage with drama in the past, but has no connection with drama.

His thought promoted the development of enlightenment ballet.

Under the influence of bourgeois Enlightenment thinkers, three dancers made great reforms to traditional ballet in the Enlightenment period.

They are Mary camago, Mary Sally and Jean George Novell.

Mary camago, born in 1710, died in 1770.

A French dancer of mixed Spanish and Italian ancestry.

Born in a musical family in Brussels, she showed her musical talent from an early age.

After growing up, he went to Paris to study dance.

After a period of hard training, he became a dancer of the ballet of the Paris Opera House.

All her life, she danced in the dance drama ayakShe plays a sailor in the dance of Paris, a shepherdess, a seamstress and a Dionysian priestess in the walk of the gods, and plays the protagonist in the dance drama Paris’s ruling.

He has played various personas respectively, and his relaxed, beautiful, dynamic and natural expression style is appreciated by people.

Voltaire, the enlightenment leader, said she was an “actress who dared to compete with men”.

At that time, the art of ballet was basically monopolized by men.

She not only broke some traditions of men monopolizing dance in the past, but also made many air foot striking skills that only men could complete.

She is good at making up for her shortcomings with skill and excellent performance.

As Norville said of camago: “Her talent is not ideal.

She is neither beautiful nor slender.

However, her dance is fast, light, full of brilliance and vitality.

These once flashed charming brilliance.

For the dance steps that have been cancelled by the dance list today, miss kamago is extremely light.

She is smart and good at choosing fast movements to prevent the audience from having time to see her body, Cover up your defects with the brilliance of talent – this is a great art.

” Kamago’s greatest contribution to the art of ballet is to abandon the floor long skirt, heavy headdress, mask and hard leather shoes supported by hard iron rings in the past and replace them with ankle skirt, tight jacket and soft soled dance shoes.

This makes her ballet show lightness, relaxation, straightness and elegance.

Kamago is mainly an acting dancer.

Her dance skills are divorced from the plot of the dance drama and can not perfectly shape the character image.

Mary Sarai is a dance artist with a completely different performance style from kamago.

She belongs to the art performance school.

Mary Sally was born in 1707 and died in 1756.

Born in an acrobat’s home in Paris, she performed on the stage at an early age and became a dancer of the ballet of the Paris Opera House at the age of 11.

Sarai is a dancer who performs with delicate emotion.

She combines dance movements with dance drama plot, and is good at using various dance movements and rich facial expressions to perform dance plot.

Her performance intoxicated the audience and entered a wonderful aesthetic situation.

Sally’s contribution to the reform of ballet art is to make ballet art a stage art full of dramatic expression.

Pay attention to the connotation of body movement performance.

Heavy dance costumes have been reformed.

Sally’s reform is of great historical significance to the development of ballet art.

Jean George Novell was a famous dance reformer in the Enlightenment period.

He was born in a French officer family in 1727.

He danced in primary school and performed on the stage at the age of 15.

Later, he worked in Berlin, Dresden, Strasbourg, Marseille, Lyon and other places.

In 1754, he became a ballet master of the ballet of the Paris Opera House and rehearsed his work “Chinese festivals”.

Dance dramas strive to pursue Chinese style, and there are scenes with dozens of Chinese porcelain vases.

His ability to create dance dramas soon made him known as the “dancer”.

However, the book “correspondence of dance and ballet”, which best represents his concept of ballet reform, has a great influence in the world dance circle.

It has been translated into English, Russian, Italian, Hungarian and other languages, and has become a must read book for dancers and choreographers in various countries.

The content of Novell’s “letters of dance and ballet” can be summarized as follows: (1) advocate the “plot” in ballet.

The dance drama should have plot content, which is the goal of Nowell’s continuous pursuit.

In the first letter of this collection of letters, he said: “good dance doesn’t turn to words at all.

” he also said: “There are two kinds of dances.

The first is mechanical or technical dance, and the second is pantomime or plot dance.

The former only talks to the eyes and pleases people with their symmetrical movements and brilliant dance steps.

All these are only the material aspects of dance.

The latter is commonly known as’ plot dance ‘, which is the soul of dancers.

It gives the former life and expression, While entertaining people’s eyes and eyes, we should also grieve our hearts and fill our hearts with touching passion.

” (2) Nowell believed that nature was the source of ballet creation.

He accepted the influence of Diderot, a great philosopher and aesthetician during the enlightenment.

(3) pay attention to the structural arrangement in ballet.

(4) pay attention to the cultivation of the overall quality of dancers.

He proposed that dancers should not only have superb dance performance skills, but also have the knowledge of history, mythology, ancient poetry and science, so as to more accurately and deeply express the characters’ emotions and shape the characters’ images.

Nowell’s innovative thought influenced ballet in the Enlightenment period.

For example, his student dobeval created the “daughter who can’t be locked up”, which criticizes the ugly idea of feudal arranged marriage, which only stresses financial gifts but not love, and praises the story of a young man and woman who broke through the family and pursued sincere love.

The significance of this work is that it is created according to the principle of “plot ballet” of Nowell, and it is a stage art that reflects the life of ordinary people.

In addition, there are European folk dances in the play.

The most important thing is that it reflects the bourgeois revolutionary ideal in the Enlightenment period, the political concept of equality and democracy, and the common people’s pursuit of free and happy life.

Under the influence of Nowell’s reform thought, ballet got rid of the aristocratic rigid model, appeared a number of excellent works with novel themes, rich contents, distinctive performance and strong life situations, and cultivated excellent actors with delicate feelings and true expression.

Nowell’s reform thought affected ballet workers all over the world.3. Ballet in the romantic period ballet in the romantic period refers to the art of ballet influenced by the ideological trend of romantic movement.

The romantic movement refers to a new trend of literary thought rising in Europe at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.

Under the influence of the new trend of literary thought, European literature, painting, music and dance all appeared different from the old classical style, and began to pursue various romantic sentiments.

The romantic movement reflects the disappointment of the bourgeoisie in the reform movement.

After the bourgeoisie launched the reform, the social system has not been fundamentally changed, and the society is still dull.

In order to escape and avoid the real society, people began to turn their interest to the magical world and the natural world, planning to learn from the natural forests, fields, streams, mountains and other scenery and Shakespeare In the works of Heine and other literary giants, they look for some spiritual comfort and their illusory and beautiful ideal society.

RomanceDuring the socialist period, there appeared some outstanding dance theorists, excellent dance drama works and performing artists.

Dance theorists include vigano, Carlo brassis and Theophile Gautier.

Vigano (1769-1821) was a student of Novell.

He was a ballet master at the scala theatre in Italy and the opera and dance houses in Vienna, Venice and other European countries.

He has explored the theory of realizing the unified form and plot expression of Nowell’s dance art.

He developed and enriched the dance expression form of pantomime and created a new dance drama.

He used sculpture to shape the dance shape of the group, and invented a new method for the development of ballet art.

Brassis (1787-1878) was also an Italian dancer influenced by Nowell’s thought.

He was also a famous sculptor.

He published a book called “dance code” in 1830, with some dance images, including some national and folk dances.

Brassis requires students to carry out body training according to ballet rules, understand the mechanical mechanics of ballet skills, and study figure dance, pantomime dance, etc.

Brassis was a dance educator in the 19th century.

He promoted the development of ballet art to romantic ballet art.

Gautier (1811-1872) is a famous French poet and art critic.

He wrote a large number of articles to comment on the excellent dancers and excellent dance works at that time, and also discussed the aesthetic characteristics and dance technology of dance, which promoted the in-depth development of romantic ballet art.

Gautier is not only an authoritative dance critic, but also an outstanding dance screenwriter.

He has written dance dramas such as Giselle, pakaileta, shagongdaro and so on.

Among them, Giselle written by him has become a representative work of the famous romantic period in the history of European ballet.

Gautier read the book on Germany by Heine, a famous German poet, which introduces the story of the female ghost Willis who died before marriage, they “When they die before marriage, they are not willing to be lonely in the grave.

In their dead hearts, in their dead legs and feet, there is still a passion for dance that has not been satisfied in life.

So they climb out of the grave in the middle of the night and walk on the road in groups.

If they meet their young people, they will be unlucky! He must dance with them.

They hug him crazily.

He doesn’t want to dance I kept dancing with them and couldn’t catch my breath until I fell to the ground and died. “. According to this legend, Gautier combined with the image of Spanish girls dancing wildly described in a short poem in the book of poems “ghost”, and wrote the dance drama “Giselle”.

The excellent ballet in the romantic period includes Giselle, fairy and Gloria.

The plot of Giselle is that Giselle, a peasant girl, falls in love with Albert, a young earl disguised as a farmer.

Later, the forest keeper who was secretly in love with Giselle took the count’s sword and clothes and revealed the count’s true identity in front of the count’s fiancee and father.

Giselle was hit and died.

The count felt guilty and came to the cemetery of Giselle in the forest.

At this time, the female ghost surrounded the count and forced him to dance.

Giselle protected the count.

At dawn, the female ghost left, leaving the count alone on the ground in grief and regret.

“Giselle” dance drama consists of two acts.

The first act is the country girl Giselle falling in love with the count.

The scene is colorful and the music is lively.

The latter scene is an illusory ghost world.

Female ghosts surround the count, but Giselle’s sincere love liberates the count.

There is a strong contrast between the light and shade of the two plays, forming an obvious contrast.

In this dance drama, the design of dance movements is full of personality.

Giselle has been dancing light and elegant dance.

The count dances pantomime and traditional ballet, and the forest keeper gestures.

The representative actions of female ghosts are “alabeth” and so on.

This action is ingenious, beautiful and erratic.

It implies that female ghosts wearing white gauze shuttle around the dark forest at night.

Giselle is a work representing the heyday of Romantic Ballet.

“Fairy” reflects the French people’s disappointment with the great revolution, passive escapism, and attempts to find some spiritual comfort from the fantasy supernatural world.

Dance choreographers in the romantic period catered to the social trend, took various myths and stories such as folklore of various countries and the relationship between man and nature as the main materials for ballet performance, and attracted the audience with novel and sensory stimulating exotic atmosphere, fairies, ghosts and landscape ghosts.

Dance dramas end in tragedy, such as Giselle, fairy and so on.

In the romantic period, ballet art developed greatly.

The dance content changed from Zeus and muse in Greek and Roman mythology to reflect the life of ordinary people and the performance of fairies and natural elves.

The dance form has changed from dramatic insertion dance to independent stage art.

Performers pay more attention to the plot and dance to shape the character image.

Some techniques of dance also focus on the plot and shape the character image.

The dance dress changed from a heavy floor long skirt to a white gauze skirt.

The biggest dividing line between romantic ballet and fairy ballet.

The most prominent features of this work are: ① there is a light, elegant and delicate lyrical performance style, as well as the big jump, kicking, toe broken steps in the dance, as well as the post “atichu” (one leg upright and one leg bent back) and “alabeth” (the main leg upright and half bent, and the shape of the power leg extending backward).

These movements are closely around the plot, shaping the image of “Fairy”, and making the dance full of poetic and picturesque beauty.

② It is a great milestone in the history of ballet that the toes are set up for the first time in the ballet.

The white gauze skirt and ballet toe shoes in the ballet have become the typical artistic symbols of Romantic Ballet, and the fairy has set off a new page in the ballet.

“Fairy” is a two act dance drama composed by Joan schneitzhofer and choreographed by Philip talioni.

It premiered at the theatre of the Royal Conservatory of music in Paris on March 12, 1832.

Mary talioni plays the fairy.

In 1836, the Royal Danish Ballet reorganized it and became a reserved play of the Royal Danish Ballet.

The dance story of fairy comes from Scottish folklore.

The characters in the play include Scottish youth James, fairy silfida, James’ fiancee Effie, friend Glen and witch, James’ mother and young men and women in the village.

The dance drama shows that James is infatuated with fairies, abandons his fiancee, and is finally instigated by witches to kill fairiesThe girl was killed, and his fiancee married his friend Glenn again.

The wedding team passed by him.

This dance drama is similar to Giselle.

It is the ending of a heartless man who killed his lover and lost his happiness.

Finally, he was condemned by his conscience, regretted and despair and fainted to the ground.

It can be said that it is a love tragedy of “beauty is destroyed and shown to people in public” that hits people’s hearts violently.

“Gloria” is a ballet work in the romantic period, which is completely different from the expression method of “Fairy” and “Giselle”.

The difference is that it is a comedy ballet, which is full of ironic and humorous comedy color.

“Gloria” is a three act dance drama.

Composer: Leo dribb.

Choreographer: Arthur Saint Leon.

It premiered at the imperial opera house in Paris on May 25, 1870.

“Gloria” is a romantic comedy.

The heroine swanilda is a beautiful and healthy young woman who pursues loyal love.

Gebeilia is a puppet girl made by a hunchback old man.

At first, swanilda and fiance Franz didn’t know, but thought it was the girl of whose family.

Franz is half hearted about love.

He often pays attention to gabelia.

At the same time, the dance drama also satirizes the hunchback old man’s fantasies about Gloria.

Finally, with the help of her friends, svanilda dressed up as gabelia, teased the hunchback old man, educated Franz, and explained that gabelia was a lifeless puppet toy.

As a result, svanilda and Franz dissolved their contradictions and married happily.

The dance drama “Gloria” reflects the social situation of the French people living a difficult life and social unrest in the middle of the 19th century, and people looking for spiritual comfort in the theater.

This dance drama is famous for its humorous and relaxed style.

Many European folk dances are interspersed in the dance drama, but the folk dance is transformed by the choreographer into a “character dance” arranged in the dance drama.

Such as Mazurka, chardash, ballero, Spanish dance, Italian dance, etc.

Since this ballet, character dance has become an integral part of ballet.

Famous ballet artists in the romantic period include Mary talioni, Fanny Elsley and Auguste bunonville.

Mary talioni (1804-1884) was born in Stockholm, Sweden.

Her father was Philip talioni, a famous Italian choreographer and director.

The choreographer strictly trained his daughter to make her fast.

Talioni was born with poor physical conditions and general appearance, but after her extraordinary training, she became the first beautiful ballet dancer to stand on her toes in the history of ballet.

Her famous work is fairy.

Her Lyrical Dance, light dance steps, beautiful dance and delicate dance make the dance full of poetic and picturesque romance.

Fanny Elsley (1810-1884) was born in Austria and studied dance since childhood.

Her dance style is different from that of tarioni.

Tarioni belongs to the lyric school, while she belongs to the technical school.

The dance is full of enthusiasm, unrestrained and vigorous temperament.

With her exquisite, superb and passionate dance performance skills, she has created dance images in different ethnic regions, such as Hungary, Poland, Spain and so on.

August bunonville (1805-1879) was the representative of the Danish School in the middle of the 19th century.

He studied ballet with his father since childhood.

He joined the Royal Danish dance company at the age of 8.

He performed on the stage at the age of 15 and was a partner of Mary talioni.

He has a strong sense of music and a large number of different kinds of dance vocabulary.

Since 1848, he has been engaged in dance choreography and created more than 50 works in his life.

Among them are the adapted fairy, which created works such as fisherman and bride, flower festival and so on.

His dances are full of national characteristics, pay attention to men’s skills, and have a set of teaching materials, which are still in use today.4. Ballet art in the transitional period from romance to modernity.

Ballet in this period mainly refers to Russian ballet.

In the second half of the 19th century, Italy, France and Britain began not to be interested in ballet art.

The form of ballet performance gradually became rigid, and the content was repetitive, boring and lifeless.

Dance became a show of skill and beauty, which attracted less and less interest from the audience.

Ticket prices could not be sold, and many dance groups were unable to support themselves and went bankrupt, causing many ballet artists to go abroad.

Ballet, which originated in Italy and developed in France, is dying in these two regions, but it has got a unique and all-round development in Russia.

The development of Russian ballet art comes from two reasons.

First, it is the victory of its democratic revolution and realistic literature, as well as the ideological foundation of literary aesthetics laid by philosophers, thinkers and aestheticians for Russian literature and art.

For example, Bellinsky, the pioneer of Russian civilian intellectuals, his literary thought is based on the awakening of human dignity.

Belinsky opposes romantic art.

He believes that “romantic art is to move the earth to heaven.

Its pursuit is always in heaven, outside real life.

” “All works that are imprecise, unclear, chaotic, and have a rich appearance but a poor real meaning should be called romanticism.

” In Russia, the idea of taking the lead in opposing the trend of romantic literature and art like Belinsky also directly affected ballet works, If it is not rooted in the description of the times or the spiritual problem of life, if it is not rooted in the strong praise of the times, it is not the spiritual problem of life.

If it is not rooted in the description of the times, it is not a strong lament for the spirit of life His attack on literary works in the romantic period is more explicit.

To reflect the spirit of the times, works of art should be a living expression of emotion.

We should solve problems and learn to use the image of beauty to express contemporary social consciousness.

Otherwise, it will not be art.

He also advocated romanticism, but he believed that it should be a positive romanticism full of strong love and hate.

He opposed the negative romanticism that degenerated people’s ideology.

He said: “in real works of art, all images are fresh and original.

No image repeats another image, and each image lives by its unique life.

” Bellinsky’s aesthetic thought about art influenced the ballet art in Russia which lagged behind literature at that time.

Another Russian realist aesthetic master, Chernychevsky, said in the article “criticism of Contemporary Aesthetics”: “in the whole perceptual world, man is the highest existence.

therefore, man’sCharacter is the highest beauty we can feel in the world.

As for other beings at all levels in the world, only according to the degree they imply or remind people of people can they obtain the value of beauty more or less.

” This aesthetic thought of chernycheves is reflected in ballet works.

For example, the Swan Lake dance drama takes the white swan as a symbol of pure and beautiful young women, and the White Swan reflects human character.

This dance drama shows the highest beauty in the world – the beauty of human beings, praises human truth, goodness and beauty, and lashes the phenomena of falsehood, evil and ugliness.

Later, this work became an enduring classic.

The second reason why ballet is popular in Russia is the strong promotion of the Russian czar.

Ballet art was introduced into Russia in the second half of the 17th century after Russian envoys saw ballet art in Western Europe.

In 1742, empress Petrovna ordered the establishment of the ballet in Petersburg.

In 1773, the Moscow Dance Academy was established and later expanded to the Moscow dance school.

At that time, ballet was a comprehensive art of music, dance and pantomime, which was very popular and soon popularized.

At that time, Peter the great of Russia also actively held various dances, advocated social activities, hired many foreign dance teachers, and dance education was quickly popularized, which played a prelude to the development of Russian ballet art.

The rise of modern Russian ballet art and the famous composer Tchaikovsky, choreographer Ivanov, dancers Pavlova, ulanova Fujin and others are inseparable.

They pushed ballet to the top.

The world-famous representative plays include Swan Lake, sleeping beauty, nutcracker and so on.

Russian ballet was first established in 1672, when dance was mainly interspersed in drama.

In 1673, the first Russian dance drama, entitled “Orpheus in eurydik”, was performed for czar Alexey mikhailovic.

The choreographer and director of the dance was Nicola Lima, a Scottish officer in exile in France.

In 1731, Russia opened an aristocratic school in Petersburg – the Army armed readiness school, which first trained talents to understand the culture, politics and military of Western Europe.

Soon, the school became the base of Russian ballet, which provided diplomatic and military talents with good dance quality.

In 1737, the French dancer Jean Baptiste Lande came to Russia.

He wrote to the czar to apply for the establishment of a dance class, which was approved by the czar to train and educate students.

In 1738, Russia established the first royal dance school, and then many schools were established successively.

From then on, Russia began to train its own dance talents.

In the 19th century, France, under its command, began to tense relations with Russia, and the Russian French war aroused the Russian people’s resistance.

At the same time, dance drama writers and directors reflecting the times have also emerged, such as Ivan Ivanovic valbeh (1766-1819).

He is the first national dance drama writer and director in Russia.

In his life, he has created 37 Works, which mainly express Russian National themes.

In his creation, he always implements Nowell’s theoretical thought of emphasizing “plot”, which reflects the spirit of patriotism.

Representative works include: Orpheus and eurydic, Bluebeard Raoul, sandlyon and other dances.

Adam Pavlovich grushkovsky (1793-1870), a disciple of valbeh, is also a choreographer and director who promotes the national spirit.

He created many dance programs with Russian folk materials and rehearsed 14 dance dramas by Diderot.

Grushkovsky’s main achievement was that he adapted famous Russian literary works into ballet.

This is the first of five large-scale Russian dramas, such as Mira and derus.

In addition, there are the dance drama “black scarf” adapted from Pushkin’s original work, and the dance drama adapted from the poem “three waist scarves” by the famous romantic poet Zhukovsky.

Through the dance drama performance, he makes the actors become a performing artist who not only pays attention to leg and foot Kung Fu, but also pays attention to performance and learns to perform the character and emotion of the characters.

In the early stage of the development of Russian ballet, in addition to the above National Ballet masters, there are many famous French dance choreographers and directors, who have contributed to the development of Russian ballet art.

Such as French director Charles Louis Diderot, Saint Leon, brazies, Perot, pidipa, etc.

Born in Stockholm, Sweden, Sal Louis Diderot (1767-1837) studied ballet since childhood.

His father was also a dancer at the Royal Theatre.

Participated in the dance performances of Norville and dobeval.

Diderot came to Russia in 1801.

During his ten-year stay in Russia, he brought French dance to the Russian audience.

In 1816, Diderot came to Russia again, and he stayed in Russia for a long time.

This decade is different from the previous decade.

He looked for dance themes from history, literature and comedy, deeply explored the talents of Russian actors, and created “pantomime with dance decoration”.

His works were highly praised by Pushkin, who believed that “Diderot’s dance drama is full of imaginative vitality and extraordinary beauty.

” Diderot likes Russia.

He not only lives in Russia for a long time, but also always looks for materials from Russian people’s living customs and famous Russian literary works when he is engaged in dance creation, such as his dance drama based on Pushkin’s long poem “captives of the Caucasus”.

He developed various movements and gestures of standing on his toes in dance dramas, and also used unique stage devices to attract the audience.

Saint Leon is another French dance master.

His advantages are rich imagination and solid and broad basic knowledge of dance.

However, he lacks political thought, only flatters the upper class minorities, and does not compile dance dramas according to the aesthetic thinking and traditional habits of the Russian nation, so he failed.

He adapted Pushkin’s “the story of the goldfish and the fisherman” into the dance drama “little goldfish”, which was criticized by the audience because it did not accurately show the national customs of Russia.

Carlo blazis came to Moscow in 1861 as a choreographer and teacher of the Grand Theatre.

During his three years working in Moscow, he rehearsed several dance dramas, such as Faust and bigmeilyon.

His creation has stale and conservative ideas, so it is not popular with the Russian audience.

His outstanding achievements are mainly reflected in teaching.

He asked students not to dance blindly, to jump out of the cultural connotation of dance, and to study the essence of national and folk dance.

The short three-year teaching has promoted the formation of Russian dance school.

Of all the foreign dancers who came to Russia, the most famous was Marius Ivanovic pidipa (1819)- born in Marseille in 1910), he learned dance from his father since childhood.

He went to Brussels, New York and France with his father, and then worked in Madrid.

He has a wide range of knowledge, which makes him have a wide range of basic knowledge of dance in different countries, especially Spanish dance.

In 1847, he came to Russia with his father.

His father was a dance teacher at the Imperial Theater.

He was an actor and a talented dancer.

As an actor, he actively studied history, literature, art, folk customs and other knowledge and laid a deep knowledge foundation.

He served as the chief choreographer and director of Maria theater from 1869 to 1903, which lasted 34 years.

In 1862, the first large-scale dance drama “the daughter of the Pharaoh” was produced.

This work has been criticized by dance critics for its lack of theme content and making historical and folk mistakes.

Failure is the mother of success.

Dance dramas began to be popular from pidipa’s King condapur.

Don Quixote is a dance drama with strong Spanish style.

“Dream” is a dance drama with the nature of symphonic ballet.

The dance drama adopts Spanish folk music and European waltz, polka, Gallup and other music components, making the dance drama popular with exotic flavor.

“Dancer” is a dance drama with Indian flavor.

In the dance drama, pidipa showed his talent in arranging duet and group dance.

He followed the principle of dance serving the plot, made an in-depth exploration of symphonic ballet, inherited and carried forward some excellent performing traditions of enlightenment ballet and Romantic Ballet, and promoted the development of Russian ballet art.

Sleeping beauty is the pinnacle of pidipa’s work.

He cooperated with Tchaikovsky and took a major step in exploring symphonic ballet.

Bidipa lived in Russia for most of his life.

He combined the delicate and elegant French ballet style with the Russian national and folk aesthetic taste, making the Russian ballet full of drama.

In his life, he created more than 60 works, including Don Quixote, the dancer, the sleeping beauty and Swan Lake.

Many dance clips in dance dramas are still the must dance in today’s international dance competitions.

The most famous choreographer and director in the history of Russian ballet is Lev Ivanov.

He is petzipa’s right-hand man, and he is better than the blue.

His rehearsal of the nutcracker and Swan Lake has become an amazing work of art, especially the group of swans in the second act and the fourth act of Swan Lake, which has become a masterpiece of ballet.

Ivanov (1834-1901) studied in Moscow and Petersburg dance schools.

After graduation, he worked in the Maria Theater Dance Troupe.

In 1885, he began to be an editor and director and became an assistant of pettipa.

In his dance creation, he arranges the dance according to the principle of symphony, among which “little snowflake” is his masterpiece.

Although Ivanov is a student and assistant of pidipa, their choreography style is completely different.

When choreographing, pidipa used his own thinking to inspire or persuade the limited composer.

He dominated the ownership, while Ivanov gave the composer a world of free imagination.

Then, he looked for the inspiration of dance creation from music.

He accepted the influence of modernist Impressionism and closely followed the trend of world art, making his dance works a bridge from the end of the 19th century to the 20th century.

With the joint efforts of famous French ballet masters and ballet masters growing up in Russia, countless ballet works have emerged.

Among them, the most representative classical works of Russian ballet art are Swan Lake, sleeping beauty and nutcracker.

These three classic ballet works are composed by Tchaikovsky.

The music of Swan Lake was originally a one act ballet music composed by Tchaikovsky based on the fairy tale Swan Lake by German writer moszeus.

Swan Lake describes the story of young Knights defeating demons, rescuing the princess who became a swan and finally marrying the princess.

This one act ballet music is a birthday gift from Tchaikovsky to his nephew.

In 1894, pidipa and his assistant Ivanov were responsible for arranging the dance drama.

Pettipa is in charge of acts one and three, and Ivanov is in charge of acts two and four.

It was officially performed on January 15, 1895, and the performance was a success, marking a new milestone in the history of ballet.

“Sleeping Beauty”, choreographed by pidipa, premiered at the Maria theatre in Petersburg in 1890.

The story is based on the famous fairy tale work “beauty sleeping in the forest” written by the French writer Sal Perot (1628-1703).

This is a description of the revenge taken by the demon calabaus for not inviting him to participate in the baptism day of Princess aphrola, which makes the princess sleep in the castle.

But 100 years later, under the guidance of the Lilac Fairy, a prince broke the magic with sincere love and finally married the princess.

The dance drama is interspersed with style dance clips, including the ballet of the merry go round, the Borneo, the four fairies, the red mother in boots, Cinderella and Prince, the dwarf, Little Red Riding Hood and wolf, as well as the classical duet of the princess and the prince.

The duet in the third act has become a must-have program in today’s international ballet competition.

It is a model of ballet duet in the 19th century – lyrical adagio duet, which fully demonstrates the skills of male and female protagonists.

The ballet inherited the tradition of Romantic Ballet and made exploration in symphonic dance, which laid the foundation for the development of dance in the 20th century.

The Nutcracker is arranged by Ivanov.

The dance drama is based on the fairy tale nutcracker and the mouse king by German romantic writer Hoffman.

In November 1892, it was first performed at the Maria theatre in Petersburg.

The dance drama consists of two parts, one is the scene of celebrating Christmas in the official residence, and the other is the “candy kingdom”.

Dance drama is highly ornamental and has a fairy tale style.

The art of sleeping beauty and the Swan did not stand out.

The content of dance drama is mainly reflected in the idea that good will eventually defeat evil.

The dance composition is reasonable, regular, harmonious and complete.

Among them, snowflake dance has various formation changes, such as snake curve, small five pointed star, small circle, and various parallel or mutually tangent straight lines.

The dance action is mainly broken steps on the toes.5. Modern ballet after Russian classical ballet, world ballet has entered the historical stage of modern ballet.

In Russia, Fujin is the representative.

Mikhail Mikhail lovich fokin (1880-1942) was born in a merchant family.

His personal quality is comprehensive.

In addition to dancing, he is also proficient in painting, music and literature.

It’s for himDance creation has laid a solid foundation.

After graduating from Petersburg dance school in 1898, he became an actor.

He has been engaged in teaching since 1904.

In 1905, the revolution swept through Russia and the actors in the theater were impacted.

Later, Fagin accepted the influence of Isadora Duncan’s free dance and boldly created the dance art influenced by the trend of modern art.

Eugenica and Chopin suite created in 1907 have aroused people’s keen attention.

Fujin is represented by “night of ancient Egypt”, “fairies” and “Firebird”.

These works make the Imperial Theater look at Fujin’s talent with new eyes.

“Night of ancient Egypt” is adapted into a dance drama based on Gautier’s novel “night of Cleopatra”.

The story describes that the queen of ancient Egypt was pursued by Roman commander Antony and young Amun.

Young Amun pursued the queen regardless of advice and was poisoned by the queen.

His girlfriend mourned his death, but the queen came together with Antony.

The outstanding feature of this ballet is that contrary to the aesthetic standards of traditional ballet, it breaks the mode of open legs and fixed hand position.

The dance is full of Oriental flavor.

It is a physical action re imagined and created by Fujin according to the reliefs and pictures of ancient Egypt.

It expands the theme of ballet art and enriches the dance vocabulary of ballet.

Firebird is another revolutionary ballet work by fukukin.

In this ballet, the actress takes off her toe shoes and performs barefoot on the stage.

The dance moves do not follow the rules and procedures of classical ballet.

It uses dance to promote the plot.

It is a ballet with modernist style.

Modern ballet has also made great progress in the United States.

The style of modern ballet in the United States is different from that created by Russian choreographer fokin.

The early American modern ballet art was mainly influenced by Russian choreographers Fujin and balanchin.

American Ballet began to perform in the early 18th century.

It accepted the influence of Russian ballet and was established with the help of Russian ballet master balanchin.

Balanchin (1904-1983), whose ancestral home is Georgia, studied in the petersgrad School of drama and the Conservatory of music.

After graduation, he became an actor of the dance troupe.

He performed in Germany in 1924 and then left Russia.

From 1925 to 1929, he was the choreographer and director of jiajilev’s dance troupe.

He settled in the United States in 1933 and established the American ballet with the support of American colstein, which was later renamed “New York City Ballet”.

The troupe is a professional group with high technical level.

Balanchin trained and brought up a group of excellent dancers there.