Section IX dance culture in early medieval Europe the supporting foundation of dance culture in early medieval Europe is Christianity.
It was formed under the influence of Christianity, Germanic national culture, Greek and Roman culture, the most important of which was the cultural influence of Christianity.
The founder of Christianity is Jesus.
He was born in a small town in Judea, Palestine in the 4th century BC.
At that time, Judea was ruled by the Roman Empire, and Palestinian Jews were oppressed by the cruel rule of Rome.
Since Jesus was declared the Savior, he began to preach.
He denounced the debauchery and shameless life of Roman nobles, taught people, spoke of “benevolence” and treated people.
At the same time, he lived a life of humility and self-restraint.
His teachings attracted many Jews, and people came to listen to his teachings.
Because his words and actions against Roman rule touched the interests of the high priest and the Jewish priest, and aroused the hatred of priests and priests, the Roman military rulers soon arrested him and crucified him.
Later, the day to commemorate the death of Jesus became good Friday.
Legend has it that on that Sunday (Easter), the body of Jesus suddenly disappeared from the tomb and later reappeared in front of his followers, who believed that he was resurrected.
This legend fills Christianity with mystery.
Jesus became famous after he was given the divinity of resurrection after death.
This religion, which is popular with the poor, has developed greatly from its secret spread to its roots in the people in the 2nd century A.D. This religion began to be brutally persecuted by the Roman regime.
From the 3rd century A.D., the Roman regime changed the repressed Christianity into available Christianity.
The purpose of its means change is to maintain the Roman regime.
By the end of the 4th century, Christianity became the official religion of Rome.
In the murals of the 4th century, there is the image of Christ with haggard face, disheveled hair, deep concave eyes and beard.
Taking an ugly dead body as the object of worship is the only phenomenon of world religion.
Christianity is a classic religion with systematic doctrines.
It meets people’s spiritual needs with the slogan of emphasizing “all brothers in the world” and “everyone is equal before God”.
In addition, many portraits of characters have been arranged in Christian churches, so that illiterate believers can receive Christian Education from the atlas.
The Christian church plays an important role in people’s life.
There are seven sacraments in the church in a believer’s life.
People’s life, old age, death, marriage and funeral are inseparable from the church.
The church has become a social and commercial center, as well as the Great Hall of the people and a refuge.
In the candlelight of the church, people listen to the music of the organ and the singing of scriptures to receive the edification of Christianity. I. christian dance in the feudal society of early medieval Europe, dance developed with two different clues, one is religious dance and the other is folk dance.
Religious dance in early medieval Europe includes “Catholic” dance and “dance of death”.
Gregory chant is the most famous religious music.
It is named after Pope Gregory I.
It is said that the Pope spent more than ten years choosing “church tune” from many tunes.
In order to adapt to the singing of various religious instruments, he also specially edited the “chanting book”.
“Gregorian chants are monophonic.
They are formed by absorbing the tones of ancient East and ancient Greece and the characteristics of folk melodies at that time.
Their lyrics are all Latin and the content is selected from the Bible.
Due to the different characteristics of melody and singing, Gregorian chants are divided into two types: declarative and melodic.
Gregorian chants are carried out according to the natural scale and gradually formed later Become a different mode.
” Around the development of Christian church music, early christian dance was also used as a means to spread Christian teachings.
In the church tune, there are prayers of “Whoever doesn’t dance doesn’t understand the lyrics of life” and “the stars in the sky dance in heaven to save the universe”.
The Christian Lord believed that dance was beneficial to the mission, so he integrated dance into prayer and made dance an important part of the church prayer ceremony.
However, it was only decorative movements.
Early christian dance was closely connected with the traditional dance of the previous generation.
The dances of that era included farming dance, wedding dance, funeral dance, fire dance and masquerade dance.
In the Christian Church, there is a dance every time a ceremony or prayer is held.
Early Christians found the gods of God in the traditional religious dance.
Therefore, the traditional religious dance became an expression means for early Christians to worship God and express their loyalty to God.
There are about four kinds of early Christian Dances: one is the festival sacrificial dance.
The second is the sacrificial dance of St. John. The third is the chant dance of praying God.
The fourth is the baptism dance.
Early Christianity did not reject dance.
Believers believed that only dance could be closer to God.
“Dance of death” is the most representative dance in medieval Europe.
It is based on the suffering of oppressed slaves and the uneasiness and disappointment of people in the middle and upper classes.
It is also a religious prayer dance for people to avoid disaster and disease.
During the dance, people lined up.
In front of them were several people carrying crosses.
Behind the crosses were the relics of martyrs.
Rhythmic dance steps slowly moved to different positions, and then danced holy dance.
Religious dance is a single, standardized dance that serves religious rituals, so it has a tendency of rigidity.
Folk dance is different.
It survives tenaciously in the dark medieval society with irresistible power.
Folk dance is a dance based on the broad masses.
In the middle ages, religious forces rejected folk dance and believed that folk dance was a magic trick to shake faith and the confusion of Satan.
Therefore, all mass song, dance and entertainment activities were strictly prohibited.
However, the vigorous folk art activities of the masses are unstoppable.
Folk custom festivals include meat Festival, Spring Festival and may Festival.
In these festivals, people still dance their favorite simple and cheerful dances with great enthusiasm and passion.
During the May Festival, people waved flowers on the green grass and danced around the small trees covered with ribbons and green leaves.
During the festival, people from different industries competed to perform their best performances, and there were performances of various dance skills, the display of new musical instruments, and some performances of ball dance and ring dance similar to acrobatics. II. Folk dance – among many folk dances, Brownie is the most famousThe dance is brownie.
Brownie is a French folk dance, which means moving, inching and swinging.
Brownie dance is usually performed during festival gatherings, autumn harvest and grape picking seasons.
People usually dance around a large circle hand in hand.
Sometimes it becomes a straight or zigzag team, and dancers sing and dance.
The melody and lyrics of the song determine the style of dance, and the accompaniment instrument is bagpipes.
Brownie’s dance has several forms, such as simple style, compound style, happy style and simulated style.
Among them, the most popular are simple style, compound style and happy style brownie.
Dance movements are a direct imitation of life movements.
For example, the brownie action of the laundry woman adopts the washing action of beating with her hands.
Some brownies imitate the actions of animals and birds.
Generally speaking, young people like to dance happy brownies, such as the brownie dance of “horse”.
The performers step on the ground hard while rotating in situ.
The rhythm of stepping on the ground is complex and changeable.
There are some dance patterns, and sometimes lift their legs in the air during the jump.
The brownie dance of young people is full of vitality, liveliness and agility.
The happy Brownie dance is also interspersed with some songs, jokes and unrestrained turns and leg stretches.
It is a humorous entertainment dance.
After the introduction of brownie dance into the court, great changes have taken place.
It has become a dance with many ceremonial movements, affectation, arrogance and posturing.
There are no happy jumping movements full of vitality in the dance, but mostly replaced by sliding footwork.
Coupled with the gorgeous and bulky clothes of the court style, there are only some rigid stylized movements.1. Simple Brownie simple Brownie is the basic form of brownie dance, and many dances have variants from it.
The dance is simple, with 40 stanzas, accompanied by singing, flute or tambourine.
When dancing, the dancers stand side by side, half a step apart, standing in a big figure eight.
At the beginning of the dance, the male dancers bow their heads slightly to the left to show their courtesy, and then the male and female dancers hold hands, the female dancer raises her skirt with her right hand, and the male dancer dances with her left hand on her hips.2. Compound Brownie compound Brownie is a combination of Brownie’s various dance movements.
Before the end of the dance, the power leg lifts up and jumps, then stretches the foot and falls, and the toes touch the ground.3. Happy Brownie happy Brownie is a jumping dance with high leg lift.
During the dance, partners hold hands, turn right and left, or turn around and jump in place, or rotate forward and backward.4. Mouse Brownie mouse Brownie dance is accompanied by Chorus and violin.
It is a kind of game dance.
The dance is divided into two groups, each consisting of two pairs, standing in a square, and the dance begins with the chorus.
The dancer wears wooden shoes and steps in place.
Before the beat, the left foot jumps in place and the right leg bends its knees off the ground.
Then, step aside with your right foot to the second place, fall on the ground with your whole foot, and keep your left foot close to your right foot.
Then, step aside with your left foot, fall to the ground with your whole foot, move your left foot closer to your right foot, and make a small jump with your right foot in place immediately.
This action is repeated.5. MORWAN Brownlie is a dance named after the MORWAN region, which is very popular in the MORWAN region.
The dance is accompanied by playing stringed instruments with fingers.
The dance moves include forward and backward steps, as well as in-situ turning.
At the beginning of the dance, male and female dancers stand face to face and dance hand in hand.
No matter how the formation and foot movements are changed in the dance, the hand posture remains unchanged.6. “Bell” Brown dance is the oldest Brown dance in France.
There is no limit to the number of dancers.
The participants stand in a big circle holding hands.
The dance claps their hands and stomps their feet with the rhythm of the bell, plus some small jumps.
After the dance, the men and women change their partners and dance the next round.7. “Marlette dance” marlette dance is also a kind of brown dance.
It is popular in the wangdai plain of France.
Sometimes the dance can be performed by a pair of partners, and sometimes by several pairs.
Sometimes the dance formation is in a row, sometimes in two rows.
The women stand on the right and the men stand on the left.
When the dance is moving forward, the male and female dance partners sometimes approach, sometimes pull apart, and sometimes stand in a big circle to dance.8. “Phalanx” Brownie “phalanx” Brownie is danced in groups of four.
The dancing partners stand face to face three meters apart.
During the dance, the male dancers put their hands on their hips and the female dancers lift their skirts with their hands.
The dance action is a small jump of the main legs and a leg lift of the power legs, and then change their feet.
At the beginning of the dance, the male partner first circles around the female partner twice, and the female partner does the right leg step in place.
Then, the male partner returns to his partner with an “8” pattern.
Then the two pairs of partners exchange positions.
Then, the woman turns around the male partner to exchange positions in the “8” pattern.
Each female partner turns around the male partner opposite her, and the male partner steps on the rhythm in situ.
Finally, the female partner makes an “8” dance step and returns to the original position.
Before the end of each dance, the dancer will step on the ground with his heels.9. “Female Baker” Brownlie is a dance popular in rural areas and ordinary families.
It is also a circle dance with singing and dancing.
When dancing, the dancer first stands in a circle, one man and one woman stand apart, and then dances to the left along the circle, making ordinary steps with jumping movements until a whole circle is completed.
Then, change the action.
The male and female dance partners hold hands to make a small jump, the female partner stays in the center of the circle, the male partner makes a small dance step, walks next to the second pair of female dance partners, and pulls her left hand with her left hand to make a circle in place.
Then, the male partners return to their original female partners, hold hands with each other and turn around in place.
After each male partner dances with all the female partners present, they return to their original position and stand with their female partners.
The dance will not end until all the partners present have finished dancing in turn.
This dance is performed while singing and dancing.
The song is humorous and interesting.
It is a very typical folk song and dance art.10. This is a dance that preserves the unique movements and gestures of French folk dance.
There are some lifts in the dance.
The dance consists of eight pairs of dancers, standing in a circle and turning left at the beginning.
The female partner lifts the right skirt with her left hand, bends her elbow slightly downward with her right hand above her head, focuses on her left leg, stands four in front of her right foot, and turns her head to the male partner.
Behind the back of the male partner’s hand, make three with his left hand, the back of his hand to the left, the center of gravity of his body is on his right leg, and his left foot stands one foot away from his right foot. III. other folk dances European folk dance in addition to various variants of brown dance, there are many other folk dances, such as “francola” dance and “big dance”.
“Ligotun” and “bastance” and other dances.1. “French Dora” dance is from lower Provence, France.
Some people think it comes from Greece, because the dance is like the aisle of minoto maze in ancient Greece.
Others think that French Dora dance is a Karoli dance.
The so-called Karori is the open circle.
The dancers sing and dance hand in hand.
Standing in front of the dance formation is the lead singer and the lead dancer.
He sings one sentence and everyone agrees.
The dance rhythm is sometimes slow and sometimes fast, and the dance moves change with the rhythm.
The basic dance steps are ordinary steps and running.
The dance formation is a chain shape.
Male and female dancers dance with hands or handkerchiefs.
The dance formation has the forms of snake, spiral, arch, snail, bridge, maze and so on.
Dance movements are basically improvisational, but some patterns are also interspersed.
The pattern movements are determined by the leader.
This is the finale of the holiday wedding.
“Big dance” is also called circle dance.
The dancers stand in a big circle, face the center, move the dance steps to the left hand in hand, and dance while singing.
During the dance, the lead singer takes the lead, and everyone agrees.
The dance action is that the dancer stretches his left foot forward, points his toes on the ground, and holds his hand behind him.
When his left foot steps forward and lands on the ground, put his hand in front of him.
Then, the dancer’s foot draws a half circle on the ground, and then takes a step to the left.
Turn his right shoulder to the left, put his hand behind his body, close his left foot to his right foot, stand with his feet opposite to each other, and put his hand in front of his body.
Then, take a step backward with your back foot, put your hand behind your body, move your right foot closer to your left foot, stand with your feet opposite each other, and restore your body.
Then repeat the above actions.
Under the command of the dance leader, everyone changes the formation while singing.
The female partner is in the inner circle and the male partner is in the outer circle.
Both men and women hold hands and sing and dance face to face.
Only the lead singer doesn’t change positions.2. The “shazakat” dance is performed by two pairs of men and women.
The instruments that accompany the dance are violin, shepherd’s Flute and bagpipe.
When dancing, first stand in a row, male left and female right.
When dancing, the male partner’s arms are vertical to both sides of the body, and the female partner’s hands are inserted into the apron pocket to dance.
The dance moves include small jumps, opening the right leg in the air and other jumping moves.
“Tournijer” dance is also a circle dance performed by men and women holding hands.
The accompaniment instrument is bagpipes.
The dance action is to take one step forward with the left foot and one step forward with the right foot.
The landing is half toe, and the left foot stands up half toe, then the right leg bends its knees and raises the front leg 45 degrees, and the legs do a half squat posture at the same time.
In the dance, men and women constantly change positions.3. “Bree” is a dance based on the traditional Brownie dance.
It comes from the province of Auvergne, France.
The performance of “Bree” dance has two forms: pair dance and circle dance.
The dance is accompanied by singing, bagpipes, the sound of stepping on the heels of shoes and shouting.
During the dance, the men and women stand face to face in two rows.
The leading pair of dancers begin to do their movements, and the other pairs of dancers follow and repeat their movements.
When dancing, female dancers can sometimes lift skirts or relax their hands.
This dance sometimes changes in different forms.
The dancers wear wooden shoes and do small jumps or kicks.4. “Ligodun” is a folk dance in southeastern France.
It belongs to country dance.
The dance is lively and cheerful.
There are violins and songs to accompany the dance.
Sometimes the dance also uses wooden shoes to beat the rhythm.
Dance is the movement of male and female dance partners holding hands and jumping from one foot to the other.
Dances are usually performed during harvest celebrations.5. “Bastance” is the general name of court dance in early medieval Europe.
It is also often called “walking” dance because it is like parade and religious March.
The dance is solemn and gentle.
There are no jumping steps.
It just slides on the ground.
When dancing, the female dancer lifts the long skirt, and the male partner wears a short shawl and a sword.