Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) is a literary giant in Europe during the transition from the Middle Ages to modern capitalism and a pioneer of the Italian Renaissance.
Divine Comedy is his masterpiece and one of the most important literary works in the history of world literature.
Engels commented on him like this: “the end of the feudal middle ages and the beginning of the era of modern capitalism are marked by a great man.
This figure is Dante, an Italian.
He is the last poet in the middle ages and the first poet in the new era.
” In June 1265, Dante was born in a small declining noble family in Florence.
At that time, Florence was the most prosperous handicraft center and cultural center in Italy.
Dante was studious and good at thinking in his youth, and studied various academic fields at that time, which made him a versatile and knowledgeable man in his youth.
When Dante was a teenager, he saw a beautiful and moving girl, beiadelizi, at a banquet.
Dante liked her very much and often looked for opportunities to visit her after the party.
As he grew older, Dante regarded beiadelizi as his spiritual object of admiration.
This kind of love gives Dante magical power.
He wrote a series of lyric poems for her.
Unfortunately, she married a banker and soon died.
Dante was so sad that he wrote a series of mourning poems.
Dante collected the poems written for Beatrice and connected them in prose to illustrate the writing motivation of each poem, which was named “rebirth”.
In the poem, Dante pursues pure love and regards baderice as an angel sent by God to save his soul, a deified woman.
Since then, Badri has become a symbolic ideal character in Dante’s works.
In the 13th century, Italy was politically divided.
At the age of 24, Dante began to participate in the political struggle at that time.
Later, the party he supported was defeated.
Dante was sentenced to confiscation of all his family property and exile for life because he refused to plead guilty.
In the following nearly 20 years, Dante tried many times to return to his hometown, but failed, and finally died in a foreign land.
In the process of exile, Dante traveled around many cities, widely exposed to the reality of unrest in Italy and the poor life of the civilian class, deepened his understanding of Italy and strengthened his political ideal.
Almost all of his important works were written in exile, of which divine comedy is the most famous.
Divine Comedy is a special epic, because it describes the poet’s own imaginary experience.
The whole poem is divided into three parts: Hell, Purgatory and heaven.
Each part is composed of 33 “Songs”.
With the prelude of the whole book, there are a total of 100 songs, totaling more than 14000 lines.
In order to show their respect for the poet, later generations call this work divine comedy.
This long poem adopts the unique form of dream literature in medieval times.
Through Dante’s self narration, it describes that he lost his way in a dark forest in the early morning of Friday before Easter in 1300.
At dawn, he came to the foot of a Sunny Hill.
He was about to climb the mountain, but he was stopped by three wild animals (leopard, lion and wolf, symbolizing lust, rape and greed).
The situation was very critical.
At this time, Virgil, the great poet of ancient Rome, appeared.
He was entrusted by the object of Dante’s love in his youth, beiadelizzie, to rescue Dante, and then took him to hell and purgatory as his guide.
Hell is divided into three parts: the first part is divided into five layers in the city of DIS, which respectively houses some pagan souls, lecherous people, gluttonous criminals, greedy spenders and angry souls.
These people have suffered all kinds of suffering here.
The second part is divided into three layers in the city of DIS, which houses sinful souls.
The third part is a huge deep well divided into four layers.
At the bottom is an ice lake.
All souls who killed relatives or committed various treachery crimes were frozen in the lake.
Those who can enter purgatory are those souls whose sins can be forgiven by punishment.
The punishment here is not as cruel as that in hell, and has the nature of atonement, so the souls are more willing to accept it.
Purgatory mountain is divided into seven levels, which wash away the seven major human sins of arrogance, jealousy, anger, neglect, greed for money, greed for food and lust.
While washing away a sin, the soul rises one level, so that it can gradually rise to the top of the mountain.
On the top of the mountain is a paradise on the ground.
Virgil took Dante here and left, and then Dante was guided by beiadrice.
After passing through the nine heavens that make up heaven, they finally reached God.
At this time, Dante realized that his thought was in harmony with the idea of God.
The whole epic came to an abrupt end.
The Divine Comedy profoundly reflects the historical changes in the era of transition from the feudal Middle Ages to modern capitalism, reveals the dawn of humanistic thought in the new era, and widely describes the situation in various fields of social, political and cultural life at that time.
Therefore, it is also an encyclopedia masterpiece.
Dante condemned the evil of the church interfering in secular politics and undermining the unity of Italy, and criticized the greed, arrogance and corruption of the monk class.
He abandoned the idea that everything belongs to God in the middle ages and stressed that people are full of reason and free will and should work hard to create their own destiny.
The Divine Comedy criticizes medieval obscurantism, advocates learning culture, pursues virtue and knowledge, and praises human talent and wisdom.
The poet also put forward severe criticism on the feudal lords of the fish people, the corrupt officials who run amuck, the usurers who exploit profits, and the citizen class who chase money.
Moreover, he also criticized the selfishness of the emerging civil class and the disadvantages of the emerging capitalist relationship.
The poem also reflects that Dante did not completely get rid of the shackles of medieval thought and theology.
“Divine Comedy” not only describes the dark reality of the world, but also the beautiful vision of the afterlife.
This is neither pure realism nor pure romanticism, which is a major feature of this work.
Dante’s observation is meticulous, his imagination is rich, his description is accurate and vivid, and his metaphor is appropriate and vivid.
Therefore, although there are many characters and changeable scenes in the Divine Comedy, the poets often depict the characters and explain the scenes clearly with only a few strokes, while the afterlife scenes depicted are not easy to readIt also has a sense of reality.
Dante relies on so many vivid details to organize his patriotic enthusiasm, religious feelings and inner experience into a harmonious whole with all kinds of things from ancient to modern times.
“Divine Comedy” was not written in Latin, French or Provencal language commonly used by writers at that time, but in Italian proverbs commonly used by Italian writers.
This played an important role in the formation and development of Italian literary language and national language, and made Dante surpass all Italian writers before him and become the first Italian poet.