overview:

Neolithic culture in the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China. It is named for its discovery in Dawenkou site, Tai’an, Shandong Province. It is mainly distributed in Shandong Province and Huaibei area of Jiangsu Province. Including Beixin culture and Longshan culture. The main distribution areas are the vast areas of Wenhe River, Sihe River, Yihe River, Zihe River and the lower reaches of Huaihe River in Shandong, Northern Jiangsu, Northern Anhui and Eastern Henan. It is a representative culture in the middle Neolithic Age in this area. The typical sites that have been excavated include Dawenkou in Tai’an, Gangshang in Tengxian County, Marquis of Qufu, YEDIAN in Zou County, Wang Yin in Yanzhou, Liu Lin in Pi county, dadunzi, Chengzi in Zhucheng County, donghaiyu in Rizhao county and Sanlihe in Jiao county.

Dawenkou Culture dates from about 4040 BC to 2240 BC and lasts about 2000 years. According to the stratigraphic superimposition relationship and relic characteristics, it can be divided into early, middle and late stages. There are argillaceous and sandy pottery, mainly red pottery in the early stage, and the proportion of gray and black rises in the late stage, with white pottery and eggshell pottery. It is mainly made by hand and developed into wheeled pottery in the late stage. The firing temperature is 900-1000 ℃. There are tripod, h, B, bean, Zun, single ear cup, Gu shaped cup, high collar pot, back kettle, etc. Many ceramic surfaces are light, decorative, with stripes, chords, baskets, circles, triangular marks, and hollows. There are few colored pottery, but they are full of characteristics. There are three kinds of colors: red, black and white. The patterns include circles, geometry, flowers and leaves, etc.

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Dawenkou Culture was first discovered and excavated in 1959. It is considered as a relic of the late Neolithic age. The archaeological community named Dawenkou site and its similar cultural relics Dawenkou Culture. Subsequently, many excavations were carried out in 1974, 1977 and 1978. The site has rich connotation, including tombs, house sites, pits and so on. The unearthed living utensils mainly include tripods, beans, pots, pots, bowls, plates, cups and other utensils, which are divided into colored pottery, red pottery, white pottery, grey pottery and black pottery, especially colored pottery utensils, with fine and symmetrical patterns and regular geometric patterns. The production tools include stone axes, stones, chisels and bone tools, and the fineness of bone needles is almost comparable to that of today’s needles. Tombs are mainly supine and straight, with the custom of burying Swertia teeth. Some are also buried with pig heads and bones to symbolize wealth. The discovery of Dawenkou Culture not only found the origin of Longshan Culture in Shandong, but also provided important clues for the study of the primitive culture in the Huang Huai River Basin and the coastal areas of Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

features:

(1) mainly engaged in agricultural production, concurrently engaged in animal husbandry, supplemented by hunting and fishing. Many village sites of different sizes have been found. The selected sites of village sites are either on the platform near the river bank or on the highland in the plain. Agriculture is dominated by the cultivation of millet. One cubic meter of carbonated millet was found in a cellar of Sanlihe site. It also unearthed a large number of bones of cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs and other livestock. (2) most houses belong to ground buildings, but there are also a few semi cave houses. In the Chengzi site, a nearly square house of Dawenkou Culture was excavated. The foundation is 4.65 meters long from east to west, 4.55 meters long from north to south, and the door faces south. The construction method is to excavate a 0.5m foundation trench on the floor and tamp the filling in the trench. There are dense column holes in the wall foundation, and there are four column holes in the room. In Dawenkou cultural tombs in dadunzi, pottery room models were also unearthed. One facade is rectangular, with short eaves and spires. The front door is opened and windows are set on three sides. The image of dog is engraved on the door and surrounding walls. One facade is triangular, the front door is opened, and the left, right and rear walls are also opened with windows. The other is round in cross-section, with a week of short eaves, a spire, five kidneys and no windows. These pottery house models provide us with a fairly vivid shape of Dawenkou cultural house. (3) the ash pits of Dawenkou Culture have round vertical holes and oval vertical holes, which may have been used for storing things. There are also irregular ash pits with openings larger than the bottom. (4) the production tools of Dawenkou Culture are still mainly stone tools, including some bone tools, horn tools and clam tools. Stone tools include shovels, axes, chisels, knives, daggers, spears, etc. some stone shovels and axes are drilled with round holes. There are also some stone shovels with handles and stones. Bone utensils include sickles, fish darts, arrowheads, daggers and spears. Horn tools include hoe, fish dart, arrowhead and dagger. Clams have sickles and arrowheads. There are also a small number of ceramic net pendants and ceramic spinning wheels. There are some changes in stone tools, bone vessels and horn vessels. According to their unearthed horizons, they can be divided into early, middle and late stages. (5) the pottery making technology of Dawenkou Culture has been greatly improved. There are four types of pottery: red pottery, grey pottery, black pottery and white pottery. Pottery decoration is characterized by engraving and weaving patterns. Common decorative patterns include cone thorn pattern, additional pile pattern, string pattern, stroke pattern and basket pattern. There are not many painted pottery. Painted pottery is painted in black and red with geometric patterns such as parallel lines, strings, leaves, petals and octagonal stars. Pottery is popular with tripod ware and hoop ware. The shapes include pot shaped tripod, bowl shaped tripod, pot shaped tripod, back pot, long neck pot, deep belly pot, high handle bean, etc. High handled cups and white pottery are the most characteristic pottery in Dawenkou Culture. The color of pottery changed slightly in the early and middle stages. The early pottery color was mainly red pottery, with some gray pottery and black gray pottery. In the middle stage, red pottery decreased and grey pottery increased, with some black pottery and white pottery. In the late stage, black pottery increased greatly, with a small amount of red pottery, gray pottery and white pottery. The pottery making method was mainly manual in the early stage, and gradually increased in the late stage. Pottery decoration, early cone thorn pattern, scratch pattern and a small amount of painted pottery. On the painted pottery, there are mostly black color line stripes and leaf vein patterns. The main shapes are cauldron shaped tripod, bowl shaped tripod, small mouth pot shaped tripod with handle, closed mouth flat bottom bowl, as well as pottery bowl decorated with color on the upper abdomen, high handle bean, high handle Gu, two ear pot, etc. In the middle period, there were additional heap patterns, basket patterns, embossing patterns and engraving patterns, as well as painted pottery painted in black ochre and red. The patterns of painted pottery include petal patterns and octagonal star patterns composed of straight lines, oblique lines and arcs. In the early stage, the shape of pot, tripod, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot, pot. In the late period, the pottery was decorated with string patterns, additional pile patterns, basket patterns and carving patterns, while the painted pottery was mainly wowen. Utensils include pot shaped tripodThin belly back pot (including white pottery), wide shoulder pot, high handle bean, bag foot H (with white pottery), three solid feet B, high handle bean, cup with handle, long neck pot, etc. (6) the sculpture crafts of Dawenkou Culture are not only numerous, but also of high artistic level. Most of them are buried objects in the tomb. Sculptures include ivory carving cylinder, ivory Cong, ivory comb, carved bone beads, bone carving cylinder, bone comb, ivory carving decoration, bone cylinder embedded with turquoise, carved bone dagger, perforated jade shovel, jade beads, and pottery animals. These sculptures are exquisite and beautiful. They are distinctive works of art in Dawenkou Culture. (7) the tombs of Dawenkou Culture are mostly buried in concentrated cemeteries. The tombs of each cemetery are arranged in order, and the heads of the dead are the same. Most of the tombs are rectangular vertical pits. Some have only coffins, but others have both coffins. The burial style is generally single, leaning back and straight limbs, and there are also two or more people buried together. Many people were buried together, ranging from three to 23. The tombs of the two people are of the same sex and of the opposite sex. And there is a joint burial tomb with one or two funerals. In addition, some headless burials, corpse free burials and “moving out burials” (that is, some bones in the tomb are moved elsewhere, while some bones of the dead are still retained in the original tomb). The burial methods include limb bending burial, body bending burial and overlapping burial. Most of the tombs have no funerary objects. Where there are tombs with funerary objects, the number of funerary objects varies greatly. There are 1 or 2 pieces less and more than 100 pieces more. For example, Dawenkou M10 is a tomb for 1 elderly women. The tomb pit is 4.2 meters long from east to west and 3.2 meters wide from north to south. There is a racking platform and painted coffin at the bottom of the tomb. There are three strings of 77 stone ornaments decorated on the head and neck, one jade arm ring and one jade finger ring, one jade shovel on the abdomen, two ivory carving cylinders, one bone carving cylinder and one Ivory comb. There are more than 90 pieces of pottery (including 38 white pottery, polished black pottery and painted pottery), as well as pig head, animal bone, crocodile scale plate, etc. The disparity of funerary objects reflects the growing disparity between the rich and the poor in society.

types:

there are different views on the types of Dawenkou Culture. It was suggested that it can be divided into three types: “qingliangang”, “Liulin” and “Huating”. Others believe that it can be divided into three types: “Dawenkou”, “dadunzi” and “Sanlihe”. The three types of the latter are briefly introduced in the following: (1) Dawenkou type: including Dawenkou cultural sites in Tai’an, Jining and other areas in central and southern Shandong. The excavated sites include Gangshang in Tengxian County, Xiahou in the west of Qufu, YEDIAN in Zou County and Wangyin in Yanzhou. The characteristics of this type are reflected in the shape of pottery, which is more representative, such as cauldron shaped tripod, large hole woven high handle beans, back pot, cylindrical cup, B-shaped ware, hoop foot bottle, bag foot h, ear cup, etc. The tombs are mainly single, head to East, supine and straight limb tombs, with a small number of supine and bent limb tombs and bent body tombs. Most of the dead held Swertia teeth in their hands. There are also a certain number of same-sex tombs in Wang Yin’s early tombs. (2) dadunzi type: it is named after dadunzi originally found in Pixian County in Northern Jiangsu. It is mainly distributed in Northern Jiangsu to the north of Huaihe River. The excavated sites include Liu Lin in Pixian County, Xinyi flower hall, Erjian village in Lianyungang and other sites. Pottery is represented by tripod, h, bean, back pot, three legged pot with handle, bow shaped ware, bowl, Gu shaped cup, high ring foot cup and pot. The burial style is also dominated by the burial of a single person with his head to the east or northeast, leaning back and straight limbs, and the dead also hold swerting teeth in their hands. In some tombs, stone rings were placed in the eyes of the dead. (3) type of Sanlihe River: it is named after the representative Sanlihe site in Jiaoxian County, Shandong Province. It is mainly distributed in Weifang, Shandong and Rizhao counties. The excavated sites include Rizhao donghaiyu, Anqiu Jingzhi Town, Zhucheng Chengzi and other sites. Pottery is represented by cauldron, pot shaped tripod, h, single ear long neck pot, double ear long neck pot, slender bottle, large mouth folding shoulder statue, single ear cup, high handle cup, folding belly bowl, etc., while there are few back pots, beans and cylindrical cups. The burial style is mainly a single person with his head to the West and northwest, leaning back and straight limbs. There are many co burial tombs in Chengzi site, with overlapping burials, and most of the dead hold swerting teeth or mussels in their hands. Some of the dead put stone x, clam, black pottery cup and conch on their arms. Some of the dead also contained jade h in their mouths. It is common to bury with pig mandible.

development:

Dawenkou Culture is a primitive culture distributed in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Jianghuai region in China. In 1959, hundreds of tombs were excavated at Dawenkou and Baotou sites at the junction of Tai’an and Ningyang counties in Shandong Province, and a large number of unique cultural relics were unearthed. Later, sites and tombs of the same type of culture were also found in the vast areas of Shandong and Northern Jiangsu, which is Dawenkou Culture. Dawenkou Culture has experienced a long-term development process. From the excavated materials, it can be preliminarily divided into three stages: early, middle and late.

during the Dawenkou Culture period, great changes have taken place in the gender of social production workers. This can be well explained by the changes of stone shovel, stone axe, stone hat and spinning wheel buried with men and women. After the middle period of Dawenkou Culture, men were mainly buried with stone shovels, stone axes, stone crowns and other production tools, while women were mainly buried with spinning wheels. This shows that men have become the main players in social production, especially agricultural production, while women are engaged in domestic labor such as textile. Society has developed from the stage of matriarchal clan commune to the stage of paternal clan commune.

in the late Dawenkou Culture, with the development of production, private ownership has appeared. Domestic pig is an important movable property of Dawenkou clan. There are some Dawenkou tombs with many pig heads and pig jaw bones. These buried pig heads and jaw bones should be the private property of the tomb owner. In addition, the private property of the funeral also includes pottery, production tools and various decorations. The emergence and development of

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private ownership will inevitably lead to the polarization between the rich and the poor, and the rich and the poor will appear within the clan. The tombs in the middle and late Dawenkou Culture clearly reflect this evolution. From the perspective of the scale of tombs, there are differences between large tombs and small tombs. From the perspective of funerary objects, the difference is even wider. There are two groups of tombs to compare: a group of seven tombs, with rich funerary objects, up to 77 and at least19 pieces, including pottery, jade, pig head, etc; In the other group of four tombs, the funerary objects are very poor, with only 17 pieces in total, including pottery, spinning wheel, Swertia, etc. It can be seen that the polarization between the rich and the poor has been very significant.

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black pottery and white pottery are two new varieties in the pottery industry in the middle and late Dawenkou Culture, reflecting the remarkable progress of pottery technology at that time. At this time, the pottery has been made with a fast turning pottery cart. The pottery cart is composed of a wheel disc and an axle. When in use, one person rotates the wheel to make it rotate rapidly, and the other person shapes the clay into a needed vessel with the help of the centrifugal force formed by the rotation of the ceramic wheel and the dexterous action of both hands. The fast turning pottery cart is used to make billets with large quantity and good quality. The firing technology has also been improved. The kiln chamber is expanded, the fire mouth is reduced, and the number of fire channel branches and kiln grate holes is increased, so that the thermal power distribution is more uniform. At this time, the technology of sealing the kiln tightly at high temperature was adopted to restore the iron element in the clay, and some were mixed with carbon in the clay, so most of the fired pottery was black. White pottery is made of kaolin. When making it, we try to keep the purity of clay, so it is burned white. The emergence of white pottery is of great significance. It lays a technical foundation for the production of porcelain in the future. Some white pottery also has patterns.

according to the excavation of Dawenkou cultural site, especially the excavation of tombs, there are three different views on the social development stage of Dawenkou Culture: one believes that private ownership has been established, monogamy has been consolidated, and should be in the late stage of patriarchal clan society. The other believes that there are great differences in the funerary objects in the tomb, and words have appeared, which should be the primary stage of slave society. The other is that according to the burial materials of Dawenkou, it should be in the transition stage from matriarchal clan society to paternal clan society.

Society:

economy: the agricultural production of Dawenkou Culture is mainly the cultivation of millet. Residents raise pigs, dogs and other livestock, and are also engaged in fishing, hunting and gathering. Production tools include stone axes, shovels, knives and arrowheads, and bone angle hoes, fish darts, fish hooks and arrowheads. The pottery industry was more developed and began to produce small pottery wheels. Pottery is mainly tripod ware, hoop foot ware and flat bottom ware, as well as round bottom ware, mainly tripod, bean, Gu shaped cup, pot, high handle cup and h, etc. Stone tools, jade wares, bone horn and tooth wares and inlaid handicrafts are also very prosperous. The unearthed jade Tomahawk, petal pattern Ivory cylinder and openwork Ivory comb are exquisitely made and have a high level of technology.

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residents’ Customs: at that time, artificial deformation of occipital bone and removal of a pair of lateral upper incisors during puberty were popular among residents, and some had small stone balls or ceramic balls in their mouth for a long time, resulting in jaw retraction and deformation. It is also popular to put perforated tortoise shells on the waist of the dead, and the dead hold Swertia teeth or Swertia hook. These customs are rare in other prehistoric cultures in China.

tombs: there were no burial tools in the early tombs of Dawenkou Culture, and wooden coffins appeared in the middle and late stages; In the early stage, there were same-sex joint burial tombs reflecting the strong blood relationship among clan members, and in the middle and late stage, there were husband and wife joint burial tombs belonging to the burial custom after the establishment of patriarchy. In Dawenkou cemetery, 133 tombs were excavated in 1959, which is equivalent to the middle and late Dawenkou Culture. There are great differences among large, medium and small tombs here. Large tombs are not only large-scale, but also often have wooden coffins and burial utensils. The burial objects are rich and exquisite, such as clean white pottery, dark and slightly shiny black pottery and elegant painted pottery, as well as jade, stone tools, ivory and bone utensils. Small tombs and pits are narrow. Some are buried with only one pottery tripod or one Swertia tooth. The sharp contrast between large and small tombs shows that private ownership has emerged and there has been a polarization between the rich and the poor. Pottery inscriptions engraved on pottery statues were also found at the sites of Lingyang River, Dazhu village, hangtou and Zhucheng qianzhai in Ju county, which attracted the attention of archaeologists and paleographers. Dawenkou Culture originated from Beixin culture (see qingliangang Culture), followed by Shandong Longshan culture. The race of the inhabitants of this culture is generally considered to be the Dongyi nationality in ancient China.

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Dawenkou Culture is one of the important relics of the late Neolithic age. It is named because it was first found at Dawenkou site in Tai’an County, Shandong Province. Its distribution range is close to the Bohai Sea in the north, Jiangsu and Anhui in the South and Henan in the West. It began in 4300 BC and developed into Shandong Longshan culture around 2500 BC. The pottery features of Dawenkou Culture are obvious. The custom of tooth extraction in adolescence is popular among residents, which is the birthplace of the ancient tooth extraction custom of ancestors along the southeast coast of China. The social economy of Dawenkou Culture has developed to a high level. Many glyphs that have been found are considered ancient hieroglyphs. At that time, there was a serious polarization between the rich and the poor, private ownership was gradually formed, and the whole society was close to the threshold of class society. The picture of

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shows red pottery, 22.5cm high. It was unearthed in YEDIAN village, Yishan town in 1971. It is made of sand mixed red pottery by hand. Oval mouth, slightly extravagant, beak like flow, slender neck, round drum belly, wide-band handle, three conical feet.