At the end of December 1942, vasilevsky mainly studied the problem of eliminating the German army in kojelnikovo, tormosin and morozovsk.

The Soviet supreme command appointed general Voronov as its representative of the front army stationed in the Don river.

He and the Military Commission of the Don front army jointly put forward a plan to finally eliminate the besieged German army group.

The code name of the plan is “the ring”.

The general staff and the supreme command of the Soviet Army reviewed the plan and considered that there were still some problems, and pointed out to general Voronov in the instruction that the main disadvantage of the “ring” plan you proposed was that the main assault and auxiliary assault were carried out in different directions and never connected, which made the victory of the campaign deeply suspicious.

The Supreme Command believes that in the first stage of the campaign, your main task should be to cut off and annihilate the western group of the besieged enemy in kravzov, babukin, marinovka and karpovka, so that our army can turn from the main assault launched by dmitrievka, the first state-owned farm and babukin to the South and directly point to karpovskaya station, The 57th group army shall carry out auxiliary raids opposite to the main raids in the areas of kravzov and sklyarov, and meet with the main raids in the area of karpovskaya station.

In addition, the 66th group army should be organized to carry out an assault on the “Red October” village through orlovka, and the 62nd group army should carry out an assault opposite to the assault, so that the two raids can be merged, thus cutting off the connection between the German army in the work area and the main German groups.

The supreme command ordered that the plan be revised according to the above contents.

The Supreme Command approves the campaign launch time you proposed in the first plan.

The first stage of the campaign should end five or six days after its launch.

The second phase of the campaign should be submitted through the general staff before January 9, and the results of the first phase should be taken into account in the plan.

Stalin Zhukov on December 28, 1942 and January 1943, the Soviet army in the Don river area pushed 200 to 250 kilometers westward through the efforts of the southwest front army and Stalingrad front army.

The situation of the German army compressed in the encirclement has deteriorated sharply, there is no hope of rescue, and its material reserves have been exhausted.

The troops received insufficient rations.

The number of patients in the hospital greatly exceeds the capacity.

The number of people who died of injuries and diseases increased sharply.

The fate of inevitable destruction is coming.

In order to stop the bloodshed, the Soviet supreme command ordered the leaders of the Don front army to issue an ultimatum to the German sixth group army to surrender according to the usual conditions.

On January 8, 1943, three young Soviet army officers with a white flag entered the German defense line in the north of Stalingrad and delivered an ultimatum from general rokosovsky, the front-line commander of the sutun river front army, to general Paulus.

The ultimatum reminded Paulus that his troops had been cut off, there was no hope of rescue, and air aid could not be maintained, Then he said, “your army is in a desperate situation.

You are hungry, cold and sick.

The cold winter in the Soviet Union has just begun, and severe frost, cold current and snowstorm are still behind.

Your soldiers lack winter clothes and sanitary conditions are extremely poor.

Your situation is bleak, and it is meaningless to continue to resist.

” “In view of this and in order to avoid unnecessary bloodshed, I suggest you accept the following conditions of surrender.

” These conditions are decent.

All prisoners were given “normal standard rations”.

The injured and frostbitten will be treated.

All captured persons may retain their military ranks, medals and personal belongings.

The ultimatum asked Paulus to reply within 24 hours.

Paulus immediately sent the full text of the ultimatum to Hitler in the form of a telegram and asked for the approval of the sixth group army to surrender to the Soviet army.

Hitler immediately rejected his request.

After the expiration of the Soviet Army’s request for surrender, 24 hours later, on the morning of January 10, the Soviet Army blasted the German army with 5000 guns.

After heavy artillery preparation, the troops of the Don front army turned to the attack aimed at dividing and annihilating the besieged German army, but failed to win the whole victory.

The battle was fierce and cruel.

On the rubble and frozen ruins of the city, both sides fought with incredible bravery and recklessness.

But the fighting did not last long.

In six days, the German bag position has been reduced by half, leaving only a place 15 kilometers long and 9 kilometers wide.

On January 22, after further preparation, the Soviet front army of Don River turned to attack again, and the German army could not withstand the assault and began to retreat.

In the battle, the 57th group army under the command of general tolbuhin and the 66th group army under the command of general Zadov achieved the best results.

On January 24, the already poor position of the German Paulus sixth group army was split into two by the Soviet army, and the last small temporary runway was lost.

In the past, German planes also brought supplies, especially medicine for the treatment of the sick and wounded, and carried away 2900 patients.

Now the plane can no longer land.

In this case, the Soviet army once again gave Paulus’s troops a chance to surrender.

On January 24, Soviet envoys came to the German positions with a new proposal.

Paulus once again felt in a dilemma and sent a telegram to Hitler for instructions: “the army has run out of ammunition and food and is unable to conduct effective command.

18000 wounded people have no clothes, food or medical bandages.

It is meaningless to continue to resist, and collapse is inevitable.

The army requests immediate surrender to save the lives of the remnant.

” However, Hitler’s reply continued: “no surrender.

The sixth group army must defend its position until the last soldier is shot and shot.

” In fact, continued resistance is not only meaningless and useless, but also impossible.

The sixth group army was forced to retreat along the whole line, and the retreat turned into escape.

The fleeing German army was in a mess.

The road was covered with corpses and soon covered with snow.

The whole army began to retreat without order and was unstoppable, because they were racing against death.

If they were a little slower, death would easily catch up with them and catch them.

Groups of people in the team died, The group army shrank into a smaller and smaller hell.

On January 28, 1943, the remaining soldiers of the once famous army of the German sixth group army were divided into three small bag positions.

General Paulus’s headquarters was in the south.

He sat on the marching bed in a dark corner and looked extremely depressed.

The “glory” and terrible suffering of the sixth group army are coming to an end.

On January 30, Paulus telegraphed Hitler: “the final collapse will take less than 24 hours.

” After Hitler got this information, he quickly promoted the officers facing death in Stalingrad, apparently hoping that this “grace” would strengthen their determination to the end.

Hitler said to Yodel, “in German history, no field marshal has ever been captured alive”, and then sent a telegram to Paulus, giving him the field marshal’s scepter.

117 officers were also promoted.

On the evening of January 31, Paulus sent the last telegram to the German command: “the sixth group army has hit the last soldier, one shot and one bullet.

” At 7:45 on the same day, the reporter of the sixth group army headquarters decided to send the last telegram: “the Soviets have arrived at the door of our basement.

We are destroying equipment.

” Finally, write “CL” – this is the international radio code, which means “this station stops sending messages”.

In fact, there was no last-minute battle at the headquarters of the sixth group army.

Paulus and his headquarters did not hold out until the last soldier.

The dark hole in the commander-in-chief’s basement was peeped by a group of soldiers led by a junior Soviet officer.

The Soviet soldiers asked the German officers in the black hole to surrender, and general Schmidt, the chief of staff of the sixth group army, accepted the request for surrender.

Paulus sat limply on the marching bed.

Schmidt asked Paulus, “do you have anything else to say, field marshal?” At this moment, Paulus, who was once arrogant, had no strength to say a word.

On January 31, the Soviet army finally smashed the German southern group.

The remnants of the German Southern Group, including Marshal Paulus, the commander of the sixth group army, surrendered without exception.

On February 2, the remnants of the northern group also surrendered.

So far, the Soviet army completely completed the largest battle on the Volga River, and the largest military group composed of the German army and its servants was completely destroyed.

91000 German soldiers, including 24 generals, are walking step by step to the cold and desolate Siberian prison camp on the way of ice and snow.

These prisoners of war were hungry, suffering from frostbite, most of them also suffered bullet wounds, and everyone was confused and depressed.

They clutched the bloody blanket wrapped around their heads to ward off the severe cold of minus 24 degrees.

Two months ago, the expeditionary force had a total of 285000 people.

Now, in addition to about 20000 Romanian troops and 2000 wounded, there are still so many survivors.

The rest of the men were all killed and fell victim to Hitler.

On February 1, Hitler and his generals held a meeting at the supreme command.

In the meeting, Hitler was like a crazy lion, Constantly scolding Paulus, who was captured in Stalingrad: “they have surrendered there, and they are formally and completely surrendering.

They should have united, fought tenaciously, and then killed themselves with the last bullet.

That person (Paulus) should raise his gun and commit suicide, just as the commander of the past pulled his sword and killed himself when he saw that the situation was gone.

” Hitler hated Paulus more and more.

Hitler also had a brief exchange of views with general Zeitler on how to announce the surrender to the German people.

On February 3, the third day after Paulus and others surrendered, the German supreme command issued a special communique: “the battle of Stalingrad has ended.

Under the excellent leadership of Marshal Paulus, the sixth group army faithfully fulfilled their oath to fight to the last breath, and was finally overwhelmed by the superior Soviet army and the conditions unfavorable to our army.

” The battle of Stalingrad was extremely fierce, and only the battle of Moscow could be compared with it.

During the counterattack of Stalingrad battle, the Soviet Army annihilated the sixth group army, the fourth armored group army, the third and fourth groups army of Romania and the eighth group army of Italy.

The German army lost 32 divisions and 3 brigades, and another 16 divisions suffered 50% to 75% casualties, lost more than 800000 personnel, nearly 2000 tanks and heavy artillery, more than 10000 artillery and mortars, more than 3000 combat and transportation aircraft and more than 70000 cars.

The Soviet army drove the German army back hundreds of kilometers from the Volga and don rivers.

The battle of Stalingrad was the biggest defeat ever suffered by the German army.

The German army lost a total of about 1.

5 million people in the areas of Don river, Volga River and Stalingrad, accounting for 14 of its total combat strength in the Soviet German battlefield at that time.

There were also 3500 tanks and assault artillery, 12000 artillery and mortars, about 3000 aircraft and a large number of other technical weapons.

These weapons had a great negative impact on the whole fascist war machine.

In the battle of Stalingrad, the Soviet army and people fully demonstrated their fearless heroism, carried out arduous and tenacious operations, lost 1.

13 million people, and finally won a brilliant victory.

After the battle of Stalingrad, counterattack operations in all directions of the Soviet army from south to North were also frequently successful.

The German troops in Leningrad, the Don River Basin and the north Caucasus successively retreated.

The victory of the Soviet Union’s military and civilian defense of Stalingrad is of great and far-reaching political and military significance.

First of all, the battle of Stalingrad dealt a heavy blow to the German army, seriously damaged its vitality, smashed Hitler’s arrogant attempt to destroy the Soviet Union and then dominate the world, changed the strategic situation of the Soviet German battlefield, and was not only a major turning point in the Soviet Patriotic War, but also an important turning point in the European war and even the whole Second World War.

From then on, the Soviet Army firmly grasped the strategic initiative, and the process of the Soviet German war began to take a fundamental turn.

Secondly, the victory of the Soviet military and civilian defense of Stalingrad triggered a profound political and military crisis within the fascist group.

As for the unprecedented failure of the German army in the Soviet German battlefield since the outbreak of the Second World War, the morale of the German army has plummeted, and the confidence in winning the war has been seriously shaken within the German army and even among some Hitler generals.

In Hitler’s base camp, there were complaints everywhere, and some Nazi generals secretly planned a coup to overthrow Hitler.

Germany’s relations with its partners and servants have deteriorated significantly.

The centrifugal tendency of these countries is becoming more and more obvious, and they are no longer willing to obey Germany.

After the Stalingrad war, although Hitler repeatedly insisted on increasing the strength of the Soviet German battlefield, the servant countries were unwilling to make more commitmentsPromise.

After the Stalingrad conference, Japan also told Germany that it could not participate in the war against the Soviet Union.

The collapse of the Italian, Hungarian and Romanian armies in Stalingrad seriously shook the confidence of the rulers of these countries in Hitler, and they began to seek ways and ways to withdraw from the war.

On March 26, Mussolini proposed to make peace with the Soviet Union alone in his letter to Hitler.

Some neutral countries are also increasingly cautious about Germany.

In 1943, the number of countries maintaining diplomatic relations with Germany decreased from more than 40 on the eve of the Soviet German war to 22.

In addition, many countries are brewing to sever relations with Germany.

Thirdly, the victory of the military and civilian battle of Stalingrad of the Soviet Union greatly improved the international status of the Soviet Union, expanded the influence of the socialist system, consolidated and expanded the international anti fascist united front, further strengthened the confidence of the people of the world to jointly defeat the fascist group, and promoted a new climax of the world anti fascist struggle.

From 1942 to 1943, the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations with Australia, Cuba, Egypt, Colombia, Ethiopia and many other countries, and successively restored diplomatic relations with Luxembourg, Mexico and Uruguay.

Politicians in the United States and Britain, seeing the great power shown by the Soviet Union and the obvious improvement of its strategy and tactics, began to seriously consider and study the issue of opening up a second battlefield in Europe.

The victory of the defense war of the Soviet Union’s military and civilian Stalingrad promoted the convening of the first meeting of the heads of state of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain – the Tehran meeting, which is of great significance on the road of unity and cooperation among the anti fascist allies.