history, European history, military, Crusade (Latin: cruciata, 1096-1291) is a series of famous religious military operations carried out with the permission of the Roman Catholic Pope. The so-called “just” war was launched by the feudal lords and Knights of Western Europe against the countries on the east coast of the Mediterranean in the name of eliminating heresy. At that time, Jerusalem, which originally belonged to the holy land of Roman Catholicism, fell into the hands of Islam. In order to “recover the lost land”, Roman Catholicism carried out many Eastern expeditions. But in fact, the Crusade was not limited to Islam. For example, the Fourth Crusade was against the Byzantine Crusades who believed in the orthodox religion. The Crusades established dozens of Crusade countries in the areas they occupied, the largest of which was the kingdom of Jerusalem, in addition to the Principality of Antioch, Tripoli and so on.

the First Crusade war was the only victory over Muslims in the crusade eastern war in 200 years. It captured the holy city of Jerusalem and recaptured the holy Tomb of the Lord, which caused an unprecedented sensation in the Western Christian world at that time and was also a perfect victory unimagined by Urban II until his death. Naturally, it has been recited throughout the Christian world. Many military priests and later church chroniclers are trying to record this battle and praise the power of Christ, which is recited like a miracle. At the same time, the war and the subsequent establishment of the Latin East have also affected the whole eastern Mediterranean pattern, such as stirring up thousands of waves with one stone, which has been strongly concerned by all parties. Byzantium, Armenia, Turks, Arabs, historians of various religious backgrounds and origins of different status are all making statements and detailing the matter for reference and reflection. (Albert, history of Jerusalem) in modern times, Catholicism has recognized that the Crusades caused hatred and hostility between Christians and Muslims.

Name: Crusade time: 1096-1291 participants: European feudal lords and knights, Muslim results: European feudal lords and knights failed, participants: more than 2 million people (total) share the war background Latin: cruciata; The Islamic world is called the Frankish invasion; 1096-1291) was a series of religious wars waged by feudal lords and knights in Western Europe against countries they considered to be pagans (the east coast of the Mediterranean) for nearly 200 years with the permission of the Roman Catholic Pope. Orthodox Christians also participated in several Crusades. The soldiers who took part in the war wore a cross, so they were called crusaders. The Crusades were mainly Roman Catholic forces who occupied western Asia ruled by Muslims and established some Christian countries. Therefore, they were also vividly compared to “the cross against the bow moon”; But it also involves the conquest of “Christian heresy”, other heretics and “hostile forces” against other Catholic churches and feudal lords. For example, the Fourth Crusade pointed the spearhead at the Byzantine Empire of the Orthodox Church.

Catholics believe that the original purpose of the Crusades was to recover the holy land of Jerusalem ruled by Muslims. When Turkish Muslims in Seljuk achieved military victory over the Christian Byzantine Empire in Anatolia, the Crusade campaign was ignited in response to Byzantine help. Protracted battles were fought intermittently in the Levant region. During the war, the boundaries between the enemy and friends were not completely defined according to religion. For example, during the fifth eastern expedition, Christians allied with the Roma Sultanate. Although the Crusades took defending religion and liberating holy places as the slogan, they actually focused on political, social and economic purposes. With a certain degree of looting, all groups participating in the eastern expedition had their own purposes. Even in the Fourth Crusade in 1204, they looted Constantinople, the capital of the Catholic brother orthodox Byzantine church. Therefore, the American scholar Judith M. Bennett wrote in his book the history of the middle ages of Europe that “the Crusade brought together the three craze of the times: religion, war and greed”. By 1291, Akha, the last bridgehead of the Christian world on the Syrian coast, was captured, and the fate of the Crusader country came to an end. The Crusade had a far-reaching social, economic and political impact on the Western Christian world, some of which still exist today.

causes of war? Since the first century, Christianity, which was founded in the Jewish province (now Israel and Palestine) in the Roman Empire, has rapidly spread throughout the Roman Empire. Christianity in the 4th century was already the largest religion of the Roman Empire. It was legalized by the decree of Milan in 313 and became the state religion of the Roman Empire under Theodosius the great in 380. For centuries, the Christian Empire and the holy land of Jerusalem were overwhelmingly occupied by the Christians in Syria. In the 7th century, Islam rose in the Arabian Peninsula. Like Christianity, Islam explicitly prohibits Muslims from coercing non muslims into religion and launching unjust or non defensive war by force. Under this principle, Muslims in the four caliphs, the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, practiced limited force, And rapidly expanded to areas outside the Arabian Peninsula (there seems to be contradictions, but there are restrictions, which is equal to praising violence, and the conditions can be fabricated. Therefore, Islam has a strong force mobilization ability in the dark period). The historical pattern of the Middle East has changed greatly since then. At this time, the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanian empire of Persia were exhausted due to years of war with each other, and the people were tired of war. Emerging Muslims benefited from it and won the hearts of the people. Muslims defeated Byzantine troops in Jordan in 636 and occupied the holy land of Jerusalem in 638. Muslims call it gudus. For the rest of the seventh century, the Arabs drove unstoppably north and West. The Arab army crossed the Strait of Gibraltar in 711 and defeated the Visigoths; The following year, it expanded to the middle of the Iberian Peninsula (now Spain); By the 1930s, in the west of Europe, Muslim conquerors, mainly Berbers from North Africa, advanced into the heart of the Frankish Kingdom, but were defeated by Charlie Matt in the battle of tour in 732, and their expansion in Western Europe was stopped. In the East, from 717 to 718, Constantinople resisted the siege of the Umayyad Arabs. By the 9th century, Sicily and many other Mediterranean islands had been seized by the Arabs. After the storm of Conquest passedDuring the period, especially during the Abbasid Dynasty, Christians in Palestine were generally stable under the official pursuit of Islamic principles. Indeed, churches and big landlords lost their land, which was collected into the Treasury, temples and their senior officials of Islamic countries; However, the local people are rarely harassed. The Arab government imposes relatively less land tax and poll tax than the Byzantine Empire in the past. In Jerusalem, there is an annual market established by the Omiya Dynasty, which has attracted a large number of Western European businessmen and pilgrims. In the biography of St. adanan, he expressed surprise at the following situation: “countless businessmen from various countries often gather in Jerusalem to trade with each other.” In a letter from Theodosius, bishop of Jerusalem, to his colleagues in Constantinople in 869, he praised the leniency policy of the Saracens, because Christians can build churches and live according to their own laws. In the 10th century, Byzantium recovered some lost land around it, but did not occupy Jerusalem. In 909, Shia leaders of Islam claimed to be caliphs in Tunisia as descendants of Fatima and Ali. They were called Fatima Dynasty (known as “green food” in Chinese history books), and established the capital Mahdia (moved to Cairo in 969). In 1009, great changes took place in the Western attitude towards Muslims. In the future, the ruling power of the Holy Land repeatedly alternated between Shia (Cairo) and Sunni (Baghdad) regimes before the emergence of the Crusades. That year, Al hakimbi AMR Allah, the sixth Egyptian Fatimid Caliph tyrant, ordered the destruction of all Christian churches and synagogues in Jerusalem, including the Church of the holy sepulchre, deepening the persecution of non muslims. The road for Christians to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem was blocked. In the Near East, the news that pilgrims were insulted by Turkic slave soldiers and Muslims who newly entered West Asia spread to Western Europe, and the atmosphere of confrontation between Christianity and Islam became more serious. In 1039, in Egypt, Hakim’s successor accepted some property and allowed Byzantium to rebuild the Church of the holy sepulchre. The relationship between the two sides was peaceful again. Subsequently, pilgrims were allowed to travel to and from the holy land, and Turkic Muslim rulers recognized the importance of pilgrims in increasing financial resources. Therefore, the persecution of pagans was suspended. However, after all, the destruction had been caused, and the later Seljuks (another Turk who came to West Asia) exacerbated the worries of the Christian world.

in fact, many people who travel to and from the pilgrimage play the dual roles of pilgrims and businessmen. For example, in the late 10th century, some Italian businessmen used the protection given to them by Byzantium to establish commercial relations with Egypt and Syria. They showed enthusiasm for the Holy Land and built hostels for pilgrims in Antioch and Jerusalem. Later, Muslims lost the battle with Genoa and Pisa fleet, and the Normans conquered Sicily (1090). Islamic forces gradually lost their dominant position in the Mediterranean, which strongly stimulated the commercial ambitions of the republics along the coast of Italy.

Crusader main entry before the eastern expedition: the movement to recover the lost land and the Normans actually started the “holy war” of Christians against pagans before the eastern expedition. For example, in 1090, the Normans who converted to Christianity in southern Italy recaptured Sicily from Muslims. The earliest Crusade took place on the edge of Western Europe – the Iberian Peninsula, where the contradiction between Christians and Muslims in Western Europe is the most intense. When the Arabs invaded and destroyed the Visigoth kingdom in the early years, the movement of recovering lost land began on the peninsula. In the 11th century, the number of foreign Knights (mainly from France) supporting the Iberian fight against pagans increased, and the Christian Kingdom of Castile and Leon in the north of the peninsula achieved unity. On the eve of the First Crusade, Pope Urban II encouraged Christians here to recover taragona as a response to the Crusade forces.

the first time (1096-1099) was the only successful eastern expedition. About 100000 people participated. In 1097, the Turks captured the small city of Yasser along the Mediterranean Sea, and then occupied it. In 1097, more than 7000 Turks captured the small city of Yasser. According to the model of Yasser, the Turks occupied it wildly. Because the massacre caused the mainstream left-wing historical view to characterize the crusade as unjust, but for the century old complex religious, military, political and cultural movement, it should not be rashly determined, because it is not an isolated event.

in 1095, ulban II called for the First Crusade at Clement Ferrand.

in 1096, the militia crusade was annihilated and retreated in Asia Minor.

in 1097, the Crusaders clashed with Alexis I and entered Asia Minor.

the Fatimids occupied Jerusalem in 1098. The Crusaders took Antioch and boshmud became Antioch’s monarch. Boduan became count of edza. Tripoli became a principality and the battle of Ashkelon took place.

crusaders occupied Jerusalem in July 1099. The kingdom of the Franks was established in Jerusalem. When de fruva became king, he only accepted the title of “protector of the holy tomb”.

Venice concluded a trade agreement with the Frankish kingdom in 1100.

1100-1118 king boduan I of Jerusalem.

failed to send reinforcements several times in 1101.

in 1102, boduan won in Ramler and occupied Cesare.

in 1103, the Crusaders captured Saint Jean Acker and biblo. The Turks won the battle in Haran. The Byzantines asked to return to Antioch.

in 1106, don craid captured apame. Kirigi alslan occupied melitaina.

in 1107, don cred occupied raodise.

1108 blogShimoud was captured by Alexis I.

1109 occupied Tripoli and Beirut. Establishment of the Principality of Tripoli.

1110 boduan I occupied Sidon. Attack Tripoli.

1112 Rocher succeeded don creed as king of Antioch.

1113 Turkish March. Bourduan I was defeated in the Tiberian war.

1115 Crusaders allied with Atabek in Damascus. The battle of tledanet took place. Boduan I captured Moab.

1116-1118 boduan I attacked Egypt.

1117-1118 Arabs reoccupy Zaragoza.

1118-1131 king boduan II of Jerusalem.

1119 defeat of traquibran. Rocher was assassinated.

1124 Crusaders occupied tyre.

1125 Islamists occupied ALEP and were later defeated by boduan II in Aziz.

1126 boduan arrives in Damascus.

1128 Zeng Ji controls ALEP.

1130 Zeng Ji occupied HAMA and attacked Antioch.

1131-1148 fulk I, king of Jerusalem.

1135 Zeng Ji entered the Principality of Tripoli.

1136 Raymond became king of Antioch.

1137 fulk surrendered at balan (montferrand).

1138 King Ramon of Antioch recognized John conninus as supreme sovereignty.

1139 fulk allied with Damascus to deal with Zeng Ji.

1140 Zeng Ji withdrew troops from Damascus.

1142 Crusaders were defeated by zenggi on the oronte river.

1143-45 there was another dispute between the Byzantines and antiochs, and Raymond succumbed.

1143-51 Toros II expelled the Byzantines from Silesia. The second

(1147-1149) was carried out under the leadership of King Louis VII of France, emperor of the “Holy Roman Empire” and King Conrad III of Germany. The occupation of edsha by Seljuk Turks in 1144 was the cause of the expedition. The earlier German Crusaders were defeated by the Turks in Asia Minor. The French Crusaders’ attempt to capture Damascus also failed, so the expedition did not achieve any purpose.

1144 Zengji occupied the Principality of Edessa.

1146 nurdin succeeded Zengji to the throne. Saint Bernard issued a call in weizlai, and the Crusades led by French King Louis VII and Germanic emperor Conrad III launched the second eastern expedition.

1148 failed to encircle Damascus. Conrad and Louis returned to Europe.

1149 nurdin captured apame and killed Raymond.

1153 boduan III occupied Ashkelon.

1154 nurdin occupied Damascus` 1155-1156 Renault ransacked Cyprus.

1158 boduan III reoccupied harim. Nurdin was defeated in butaha.

1159 Antioch recognized Manuel as a monarch. The Franks and Byzantines jointly besieged ALEP. Byzantium and nurdin made peace.

1160 Renault was captured by nurdin.

1162 Amori I, successor of boduan III.

1164 nurdin occupied harim.

1167 hilkuh is in Egypt. Amori I conquered Cairo.

1168 Amori was frustrated in Egypt.

1169 Saladin was the Prime Minister of Egypt. The Franks allied themselves with Byzantium. Surround Damietta.

1170 Amori attacked nurdin in the dead sea and Saladin in Gaza.

1171 Saladin overthrew the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo.

1174 nurdin and Amori I died. Boduan IV ascended the throne. Saladin captured Aleppo and seized the Syrian regime.

1177 Saladin was defeated by mongisar and was defeated by boduan IV.

1179 Saladin invaders.

1180 Saladin and boduan IV truce.

1182 Saladin attacked Nazaret, tabaret and Beirut.

1183-1184 Saladin occupied ALEP and looted Samaria and Galilee.

1185 boduan V, who was soon succeeded to the throne by de lucignon.

1187 Saladin defeated the Crusaders in HARTING and conquered Jerusalem. The third

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(1189-1192) was carried out under the leadership of Frederick I, the emperor of the “Holy Roman Empire”, Augustus Philip II of France and Richard I of England. Frederick led his troops across Byzantium along the land route of the last expedition. The French and British marched by sea to Palestine and occupied Sicily on the way. Due to the internal contradictions of the Crusaders, the expedition did not achieve its purpose. The German Crusaders (initially about 100000 people) were injured along the wayHe died miserably and rushed across Asia Minor, but red beard drowned when crossing the salev River, and his army collapsed, leaving only some disabled and defeated soldiers to continue the eastern expedition. After occupying the port of Accra, Philip led some Crusaders back to France in 1191, leaving some soldiers Richard achieved certain results in Syria, captured Cyprus, established the kingdom of Cyprus and sold it to the former king of Jerusalem. Later, he signed a peace treaty with Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt, in 1192. According to the peace treaty, the coastal strip from tyre (now sur) to jaffah was owned by the kingdom of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem remained in the hands of Muslims.

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the first three Crusades disrupted the ruling order of Byzantium and made Byzantium in a difficult situation. The First Crusade led to the vilification of the image of Byzantium by the Latin people. The Byzantine emperors had to cater to the West. Although they achieved some success, they paid a heavy price. Byzantium failed and was unable to cater to the west at the end of the 12th century, which became an excuse for western invasion. The first three Crusades led to the deterioration of the relationship between Byzantines and Latin people. The hatred of Byzantines towards Westerners made the West more want to conquer Byzantine.

1187 Archbishop til called for the Third Crusade, led by Frederick I, the Holy Roman emperor “red beard”, Philip II of France and Richard I, the British king “lion heart”.

1188 Saladin occupied all the territory of the Franks except Tripoli, tyre and Antioch.

1189 de lucignon encircles San Jean aq.

1190 Frederick I entered Asia Minor, occupied cornea and drowned.

1191 Philip II and Richard the lion heart led the crusade. Richard conquered Cyprus and occupied St. John dak. Saladin was defeated in alsuf.

1192 de lucignon took Cyprus. Born in champagne, Henry II became king of Jerusalem. The Lord of tyre, de montferrat, was assassinated by the assassins. Richard returned to the west before Jaafar defeated Saladin in Jerusalem. He was later captured in Austria.

1193 Saladin died.

1194 Amory succeeded de lucignon to the throne of Cyprus.

1197 Henry II died. Reoccupy Beirut. John I of Ibelin became Lord.

the fourth time? The crusade into Constantinople (1202-1204) was launched by Pope Innocent III. The purpose was to capture Egypt controlled by Muslims and make it a base for future operations. The Crusade was mainly composed of French and Italian nobles. When there was not enough money to pay the Venetians to cross the sea to Egypt, the Crusade turned to attack Zara city (now Zadar in Croatia) at the suggestion of the Venetian noble general. Taking advantage of the disputes in Byzantium, he attacked Constantinople and slaughtered the city for three days after robbery and destruction. After the war, Venice occupied three eighths of the Byzantine Empire (including the Aegean Sea, many ports along the Adriatic Sea and Crete). The Crusaders took Constantinople as the center and established the Latin Empire and two Latin Empire countries attached to Constantinople, namely the Principality of Athens and the Principality of Achaia. The Fourth Crusade of

provided conditions for the reorganization and structure of political forces in the eastern Mediterranean region. It made the seemingly brilliant Byzantine Empire collapse in an instant and facilitated the forces of the Italian maritime Republic to go deep into and control the region, It also objectively provided conditions for the rise of Ottoman Turkey, which later affected western Asia and Europe.

1199-1220 the reign of Muhammad. Fulk announced the Crusade led by Boniface II of montferrat and boduan IX of Flanders.

1204 Crusaders occupied Constantinople. Establish the eastern Latin Empire (1204 ~ 1261).

for the fifth time (1217-1221). On April 19, 1213, Pope Innocent III asked believers to form a new crusade. However, the decree was not supported by European monarchs. Therefore, the Pope asked the priests to preach and publicize, and join believers, nobles with low social status and broken knights in the crusade. In November 1215, the Pope presided over a religious conference in the Lateran hall and announced the formation of a crusade aimed at attacking Egypt to recapture Jerusalem by defeating Egypt’s Muslim Dynasty. In 1217, the Crusaders first went to the Crusader city of AK on the east coast of the Mediterranean. On the way, the elderly emperor John of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, Yuge I of Cyprus and boshmund IV of the Principality of Antioch also joined in support. In the meantime, the crusaders carried off captivity along the way as usual. In June 1218, the siege of damieta began. But in months of war, disease plagued the Crusaders. At this time, the Muslim Sultan adir died. In November 1219, Damietta lost. The Crusaders finally opened the door to victory. In 1221, the Crusaders attempted to attack Cairo. During the battle, the Muslim army used the Nile River to cut off the road of the Crusader and surround the Crusader. In September, Muslims recovered damieta. The fifth Crusade war ended in failure.

was led by de briena, king of Jerusalem, and Andre II, king of Hungary. 1217 lost to Mount Tabor.

1218-1219 Crusaders occupied Damietta. St. Francois is in Egypt.

1221 Crusader expedition to Cairo, burning, killing and looting along the way. The sixth defeat of Damietta (1228-1229) was led by the Emperor Frederick II of the “Holy Roman Empire”. This expedition temporarily returned Jerusalem to Christians in 1229, but was recaptured by Muslims in 1244.

1229 and Egypt SudanCamille signed the Jaffa agreement, and Jerusalem returned to Frederick II for ten years. Frederick II was crowned in Jerusalem and established an elegant and intellectual court.

1232 Saint Jean AK autonomous region was established.

1239 Crusaders were defeated in Gaza. The seventh Crusade began.

1244 Christians failed in Gaza. The Islamists (Turks of karzmian) finally occupied Jerusalem.

1247 the Turks occupied Tiberian and ashkelen.

the seventh time (1248-1254), launched by King Louis IX of France. The Crusaders soon captured Damietta, but were plagued by the plague. After surviving the plague, the Crusaders attacked Cairo. The Crusaders were defeated by the slave cavalry (Mamluk) led by general baibar. As a result, Louis IX’s younger brother, count Artois, was killed and Louis IX was captured. In 1250, the Sultan was overthrown by his Mamluk officer, so France redeemed Louis IX with a large ransom. But it was not until 1254 that Louis IX and his soldiers were released and returned home.

1248 French King Louis IX (St. Louis) landed in Cyprus.

1249 Louis IX occupied Damietta. “Battle of Louis”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds” for surrender. The Mamluk cavalry usurped the power of Egypt.

1250-1254 Louis IX reorganized Palestine and Syria. Leave the East after.

1260-1277 Sultan baibar of Mamluk cavalry 1265 baibar occupied sesare and arsuf.

1268 bahibar occupied Yafa and Antioch.

for the eighth time (1270), led by King Louis IX of France, entered Tunisia. Shortly after the Crusaders landed in Tunisia, an infectious disease occurred on the road, and Louis IX fell ill and died. Philip III, the son and heir of Louis IX, immediately ordered the retreat. The Crusade ended in retreat.

in 1271, Prince Edward of England rushed to North Africa to rescue Louis IX, but he was unable to recover. He signed an armistice in Arca and returned to England in 1272 to succeed to the throne.

so far, the Crusade era is basically over.

1270 Louis IX died in Tunisia.

1274-1275 Mamluk cavalry plundered Silesia.

1277 Charlie of Anju coveted the throne of Jerusalem and took Saint Jean aq.

1282 Henry II of Cyprus became king of Jerusalem.

1287 Egyptian Sultan karawin occupied Tripoli.

1291 Kalil, successor of karawin, captured st Jean AK. The Crusader kingdom of Syria perished.

anecdotes of the war – in 1212, under the coaxing of the Pope and the feudal lord, 30000 children formed a Crusade (children’s Crusade, also known as the boy scout), which was called the children’s Crusade in history. The children’s Crusader set out to cross the sea in Marseille, France, to complete the unfinished business of adults. In the end, these children were either buried in the sea in the storm or sold to Egypt by the ship owner. In Germany, children are also deceived into joining the army. Most of the children died on the way due to hunger and disease, while others wandered and begged. The most unfortunate thousands of children were abducted and trafficked.

refers to a series of historical events or fictional legends that took place in 1212 after the Fourth Crusade. It usually consists of the following elements: a French (German) teenager saw a vision; To convert Muslims in the Holy Land (referring to Jerusalem) to Christianity peacefully; The children then went to Italy; Being trafficked as slaves; Later, the owner of the ship who sold the children was sentenced to death, and many children were not rescued by the Holy Roman emperor and returned to their motherland until 17 years later.

since Peter raedt’s research work was published in 1977, at this stage, the academic community generally believes that the participants are not “children”, but a team composed of German and French tramps. Some of them try to go to the holy land, while others never think so. The early accounts of this event are unreliable and have been inconsistent for a long time.

historical influence? The Crusade Crusade on the whole was a failure, mainly due to the diverse social components of the participants and the extremely inconsistent weapons and equipment. The armored knight is equipped with a medium-length sword and a heavy javelin for assassination. Some riders on horseback or on foot are equipped with hammers, spears or axes in addition to swords. Most farmers and citizens are equipped with knives, axes and spears. The Crusader adopts the tactics of Knight army. The battle is initiated by Knight cavalry. Once in contact, it is a single to single duel, and the cooperative action is limited.

the main arms of Turks and Arabs fighting the Crusades are light cavalry. During the battle, they first defeated the Crusader troops with arrows, then surrounded them, carried out courageous attacks, and divided them into several isolated parts for annihilation.

Engels wrote U “… During the Crusade, when the Western ‘heavy’ Knights moved the battlefield to the territory of the enemy in the East, they began to lose the war and were destroyed on most occasions.” The crusade of

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lasted for nearly 200 years. The Holy See’s attempt to establish a world church not only completely failed, but also greatly reduced the prestige of the church due to its aggression and atrocities and original evil face. Later historians commented that u “in a sense, it is worse than others, the Turks were only subjected to a low degree of aggression. Frank’s heavy knights and infantry had no experience in fighting with Arab light cavalry and archers, but their endurance and physical fitness made them win a series of completely victorious battles. Antioch was occupied in 1098 because of internal defection, and Jerusalem fell in 1099 because the garrison was weak enough to resist the attack. Christians often massacre residents after victory, regardless of age, religion or gender, and have a bad reputation. Although many Crusaders returned home after the war, a number of powerful battle groups remained to establish a feudal kingdom similar to Europe.

the Crusader rulers in Palestine were far behind the Muslim population they were trying to control, so they controlled Muslims by building castles and hiring mercenaries. However, the culture and religion of Frankish won the favor of the residents of the region. From their safe Castle base, the Crusaders attacked and intercepted the resistant Arabs. For more than a hundred years, both the enemy and ourselves have fought against each other with typical guerrilla warfare. Although the Knights of the Franks were powerful, they moved slowly, and although the Arabs could not resist the impact of these heavy cavalry, they could surround them with light cavalry, making their troops unable to fight, so as to set up ambushes in the desert to catch them. Although the Kingdom established by the Crusaders controlled the coastal areas and did not lack supplies and reinforcements, the regular invasion and the discontent of the people showed their economic failure.

a combat regiment composed of Christian monks with combat capability, which aims to fight for the holy land. The Knights of the Templars and the wounded are mainly Franks, and the Teutonic Knights are Germanic. Although these Crusaders were fierce and decisive, their numbers were never enough to maintain regional stability.

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part of the Crusader kingdom once existed for some time because they learned to negotiate, compromise and provoke different Arab ethnic groups to kill each other. However, the emergence of a great Arab leader, who became the Saladin of Egypt and Syrian Sudan in 1174, unified all Muslim communities. In 1187, he defeated the Crusaders in the desert and occupied Jerusalem again.

in another century, due to only one rare short-term success, the number of Europeans vowed to regain control of the Holy Land and Jerusalem. As many as eight or more Crusades, before being defeated by the counterattack, most of them can only make some progress in the coastal areas and inland. The Fourth Crusade did not even reach Palestine. On the contrary, under the leadership of governor vinis, it washed Constantinople and brought a relentless blow to Byzantium. The worst crusade was the children’s Crusade launched in 1212. Thousands of European children crossed to the port of Egypt, where they were sold for slavery. The

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crusaders left behind, in addition to the new hostility between Christians and Muslims and the deterioration of the feudal system, but also exposed a new culture. In addition, as many lords went bankrupt one after another and left land to the king after death, resulting in the decline of the feudal system, many serfs did not come back after becoming crusaders. New words were added to European languages after the eastern expedition, such as cotton, muslin, divan and bazaar. Europeans also brought back many novel textiles, food and spices. The demand for these fresh goods has accelerated trade activities, and Italy’s commercial city-state countries (especially Genoa and Venice) have developed accordingly. This demand has also promoted the era of great discovery since the 14th century. The gold and silver treasures brought back by the Crusaders also increased the local money supply and vigorously promoted economic growth.

Crusades indirectly promoted the emergence of the European Renaissance. After the Europeans invaded the East, they found the remnants of the ancient Greek culture that had disappeared in Europe but still existed there. After the Europeans brought them back, they finally led to the emergence of the Renaissance.

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