Section I successful development of new weapons in the United States on April 12, 1945, when the U.S. government gathered a large number of troops to prepare for a large-scale attack on Japan, the president died suddenly due to cerebral hemorrhage.
After the news came out, the happiest thing was to push the Japanese military, because in their view, if the Americans lost such a spiritual leader, they would fall into chaos.
At that time, Japan could take the opportunity to launch a counter offensive to win a new victory.
However, US government agencies have not been paralyzed as Japan wishes.
In just two weeks, Truman, the new president, took over the presidential staff and continued to turn on the war machine to press directly against Japan.
Moreover, the first thing Truman had to do was to understand the power and performance of the atomic bomb so that he could be put into the Japanese battlefield as soon as possible.
In 1945, the European battlefield ushered in the real spring of mankind’s desire for freedom and peace amid earth shaking explosions.
On the early morning of April 16, with an order, the Soviet Union’s million red army launched a general attack on Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany, from the East and south, and the Allied forces of Britain and the United States from the West.
At one time, 10000 guns burst into flames, and this small place in Western Europe was bombed to pieces.
The German army was finally in despair.
When a batch of soldiers fell down one after another like cut reeds, marshal Kessel, the commander-in-chief of the German front line, helplessly raised the white flag, and all the remaining 70000 Berlin defenders became prisoners.
Under the eyes of the Soviet field marshal jiongjiong, Kessel signed the surrender in frustration, and the smoke of gunpowder on the European battlefield of World War II began to dissipate slowly.
Germany surrendered so quickly that thousands of scientists in the “Manhattan Project” were perplexed and disturbed.
Before that, the reason why they worked hard day and night was to build an atomic bomb before Germany surrendered and use it to deal a devastating blow to the regime.
But now the truth is: the German army has surrendered.
Why do you want an atomic bomb? The premature arrival of peace on the European battlefield has made many scientists involved in the development of atomic bombs regret it, because they are worried that they will become eternal sinners who will undermine world peace! These include the great scientists who directly urged the U.S. government to make this determination a few years ago and silad and others.
Some scientists in the United States are even more strongly opposed to the U.S. government’s development of an atomic bomb.
For example, prize winner Niels Bohr predicted that once the atomic bomb appeared, It is bound to “further trigger a worldwide arms race.
If this race develops to the extreme, it may become an important driving force for a new round of World War.
Once this war breaks out, the army and conventional weapons will be superfluous, and the whole mankind will be superfluous – because the earth is very likely to be destroyed in this nuclear war!” For Bohr’s strong protest, Roosevelt, then president of the United States, made such a compromise: first, because mankind’s mastery of atomic fission is enough to make it possible for all major countries to build atomic bombs one after another in the next few decades.
Therefore, since no one can guarantee that if the United States stops nuclear research, other countries will honestly follow in the footsteps of the United States, so Americans can only continue to work tirelessly until the moment of success.
Secondly, as a great president with strong humanitarian spirit and benevolence, Roosevelt always had reservations about whether to use the atomic bomb when dealing with Japan.
Roosevelt envisioned this at that time: instead of directly dropping atomic bombs on the enemy country, he arranged a nuclear explosion performance somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
If necessary, he could invite envoys of the enemy country to watch it to prove the strength and kindness of the Americans.
If the enemy turns a blind eye, it is not impossible to use the atomic bomb again at that time.
However, Roosevelt did not realize that he was terminally ill, and there were only three atomic bombs made by the Americans at that time.
If one was wasted for performance, how should he explain to the Americans if the other two failed? This is also an important reason why his successor, President Truman, resolutely stopped the nuclear performance and threw an atomic bomb directly at Japan.
What kind of weapon is an atomic bomb? Even Truman, who was a professional soldier, could not understand this scientific fact.
According to his understanding of the explosion equivalent of ordinary explosives, he tentatively asked general groves, who was in charge of the development of nuclear weapons: “how many conventional bombs are equivalent to the explosion of a nuclear bomb?” “Theoretically, it is estimated that the first nuclear bomb has the power of at least 1000 tons of high explosives, which is equivalent to sending 200 bombers to bomb an area more than five times at the same time.
” Hearing this figure, Truman was surprised, because an explosion of 1000 tons of high explosives, what kind of terrorist scene would it be? It can certainly sweep away all life around the explosion point! Truman could not help showing an excited expression.
But he did not expect that the data reported by general groves was far from the actual explosion power of nuclear weapons.
However, it is not much larger, but much smaller.
The atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in the future, for example, has an explosive force equivalent to 20000 tons of high explosives, more than 20 times higher than he estimated.
Since the power of the atomic bomb reported by groves had completely conquered Truman, the latter immediately established a special advisory committee on the “Manhattan Project”, including three scientists, General Marshall, Secretary Stimson, Secretary Berners and bush.
Soon, the Committee submitted the first material of great historical significance to Truman, which directly revealed the essential significance of the atomic bomb.
It not only “can suppress opponents militarily, but also an important weight to obtain political priority”! That year, during Roosevelt’s administration, the US government did not take the role of the atomic bomb into account when estimating the world war situation.
Although after Germany’s surrender, the United States is fully capable of defeating Japan without relying on the strength of the Soviet Union, the price paid under the strong attack will be very heavy.
It will not only consume the financial resources of the United States 15, but also likely sacrifice the lives of millions of American officers and soldiers.
It was based on this assumption that Roosevelt asked the Soviet Union to send troops and privately promised to agree that the Soviet Union had many superior interests in Northeast China.
Indeed, for Americans, the 700000 Japanese Kwantung Army, which has long lived in Northeast China, is irresistibleIn addition, the more the Japanese army shrinks to the country, the more tenacious its resistance will become.
In the South and central part of Japan, its military strength is more than 2 million.
At the same time, in order to prepare for the final attack, all male citizens aged 14 to 55 will participate in the war, which can provide Japan with at least 3 million reserve troops.
Faced with such an aggressive momentum, Roosevelt, who was not fully sure of the power of the atomic bomb, naturally had to turn to his temporary friend the Soviet Union.
Originally, according to the agreements reached by the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and other countries in the past, on July 1, 1945, the heads of state and foreign ministers of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union will go to Berlin, Germany to hold the “Potsdam Conference” to discuss and determine various principles for dealing with the German issue after the Second World War and divide their respective spheres of influence.
However, just a week before the meeting, the US government suddenly sent a note to the ambassadors of Britain and the Soviet Union requesting that the original date of the meeting be postponed to July 17.
What new tricks does the US government intend to do? Although alert at that time, they still failed to detect the real intention of the Americans.
Because no one would have expected that the reason why the United States postponed the meeting was only for one purpose: Truman wanted to wait for the results of the atomic bomb test.
Indeed, the test explosion result of the first atomic bomb in human history is an important content to be considered by Truman before attending the Potsdam Conference.
If the test explosion fails, Americans will naturally soften their tone.
Once the test explosion is successful, with the trump card of the atomic bomb, the Americans naturally have to be tough and occupy more interests, while the Soviets certainly dare not argue.
So how likely is the test explosion to be successful? In order to verify this problem, Truman fidgeted and repeatedly urged scientists to come up with the most successful plan and take life as a guarantee.
Because once the test explosion fails, the cost of $2 billion will be lost.
Fortunately, the test explosion was successful! Truman breathed a sigh.
After sorting out the documents, he led several capable generals to the Potsdam venue in high spirits.
A new contest began.
The venue is an invisible battlefield without flesh and blood.
At the Potsdam meeting, substantive issues were openly put on the table one by one, and the United States and the Soviet Union began a seesaw bargaining.
At that time, Truman and his wishful thinking was to minimize the future status and influence of the Soviet Union in international affairs, especially on the issue of Japan, and to exclude the Soviet Union, which had not yet sent troops, from the circle of interests.
At the beginning of the exploratory conversation, Truman proudly revealed to Stalin that the Americans had a powerful “super bomb”.
But it is strange that Stalin’s tone was not surprised at all, but said blandly: “OK, then use it!” Stalin’s attitude greatly surprised Truman, and also dashed the latter’s idea that the atomic bomb was an important chip on the negotiating table.
In order to vent his evil spirit and give the Soviets a little power, Truman finally made up his mind after a hard sleepless night: use the atomic bomb in advance to give the Japanese a fatal blow and a heavy hammer to the proud Soviets at the same time.
However, in order to make a good fuss in the future, the Americans specially sent a special note to the Japanese government during the meeting, hoping that Japan would surrender as soon as possible in a rare polite and euphemistic tone.
This rare gentle tone makes the Japanese feel the “terrible knife” behind tenderness, but they can’t imagine what the real threat is.
However, the military forces in Japan do not care about this “insignificant” threat.
In their view, as long as the United States and the Soviet Union do not jointly attack, Japan can completely eliminate the offensive journey of the United States.
As Prime Minister Suzuki said when answering a reporter’s question at that time, “Japan will become another pearl harbor of the U.S. Army.” The consequences of Japanese ignorance were so serious that after the Potsdam announcement was issued on July 27, the Japanese government still ignored it.
When this indifference reached Secretary Berners, he immediately said to Truman, who was still hesitating, “there is no point in waiting.
It’s time for us to do it.
” “Well, anyway, we have to solve the Japanese problem before the Soviet Union sends troops.
” Truman slapped on the desk and said angrily.
With the backing of the atomic bomb, Americans are increasingly worried that every move of the Soviet Union will undermine their plans, because by the end of July 1945, the number of Japanese Kwantung troops in the southeast of the Soviet Union ready to encircle and annihilate China had reached more than 1.
6 million, and they were far ahead of Japan in weapons and equipment.
All kinds of situations show that once the Soviets invade Japan, the Americans will have no chance to use the atomic bomb.
Therefore, the atomic bomb was dropped immediately.
In fact, in December 1944, the Joint Chiefs of staff of the US military drew up a plan for landing in Japan.
However, with the huge cost paid by the US military after landing on Okinawa, the need to use nuclear weapons as soon as possible also came before the president.
All kinds of signs are forcing Truman to do one thing: use the atomic bomb before Japan is attacked! Although the intention of bombing Japan with atomic bombs was really established at this time, in fact, the US Air Force has been conducting simulation exercises of dropping atomic bombs.
As early as the summer of 1944, a year before the participants in the Manhattan Project were convinced that the atomic bomb was feasible, general groves began to prepare for the use of this new weapon in war.
On the issue of how to use vehicles to carry atomic bombs, groves first considered the famous B-29 bomber at that time, and then considered using a British Heavy aircraft.
It was not until the autumn of 1944 that the United States finally decided to still use the B-29 bomber, but made a series of modifications to it to facilitate carrying and dropping bombs.
First, in order to minimize the weight of the aircraft, they removed the bulletproof deck and all offensive weapons on the aircraft, leaving only the self-defense large caliber double barrel machine gun at the tail.
In this way, even with an atomic bomb weighing several tons, this super “air fortress” can still reach a flight altitude of 12000 meters, which is beyond the reach of ordinary Japanese annihilators.
After careful consideration by the US military department, the autumn of 1944 was known as“Colonel Paul Tibbets, known as the “invincible hand in the air”, was appointed commander in chief of this special air force.
The air force pilot, who participated in the first bombing of Germany and showed amazing skills in the Chinese battlefield, was also the pilot of the general’s plane.
Later, he has been working as a pilot of the B-29 bomber.
He is experienced and experienced.
Colonel tibbetts is well aware of the arduous task.
Although he does not know what the specific content of the action is, he has deeply understood the importance of the task from the president’s personal letter and the unique eyes of his boss.
He personally selects the captain and is fully responsible for the formation of the crew.
When everything was ready, all the staff immediately put into intense training.
The main location of the training was set in the desert of Utah.
The central task is: the aircraft flies at an altitude of 10000 meters, aims at the target, drops the bomb, then turns and rises rapidly.
Within 40 seconds after the bomb is dropped, the aircraft must be more than 13 kilometers away from the explosion point.
This rigorous and monotonous training lasted until the moment before the atomic bomb was thrown, which shows that the Americans are fully prepared for this matter.
At the end of 1944, general groves was very satisfied after inspecting the simulation training of the flight brigade on the spot.
He announced that the first phase of the training of the air force wing had been successfully completed, and then he would quickly send to Cuba to complete the rest of the training plan: long-range flight training at sea.
On the day when Germany signed the unconditional surrender, the first detachment of the US special air force quietly moved from Wendover base to Tinian Air Force Base near Guam day and night, directly under the command of the commander of the 20th aviation.
For Americans, these Pacific islands are unsinkable aircraft carriers, because hundreds of heavy bombers set out from the base every day, regardless of thousands of miles to bomb Japan.
There is only one purpose: to make Japan’s industrial civilization disappear and retreat to the stone age tens of thousands of years ago.
The special Air Force detachment responsible for dropping atomic bombs began systematic and thorough combat flight training in June 1945.
These trainings were conducted in two to nine formations to improve the pilotage and bomb dropping technology of each crew.
Moreover, according to the three aircraft formation in the future atomic bomb raid, the crew flew over Japan for many times, so that the crew could be familiar with the climate, terrain, ground objects and Japanese air defense firepower in Japan’s airspace and master the bomb dropping procedures.
Since July 20, the U.S. military has carried out a series of air strikes against Japan.
In four days, it has carried out about 12 bombings in a row.
Each attack dispatched two to six aircraft.
The target is not the target of the pre dropped atomic bomb, but near it, and try to make these experimental bombings similar to the real atomic bomb bombings in the future.
The pilot procedure, high-altitude single machine approach, visual bomb dropping and rapid separation after bomb dropping are implemented in strict accordance with the expected scheme.
These bombs are 4535 kg bombs, and their trajectory is similar to that of atomic bombs.
It is said that they have conducted four actual combat drills, throwing 38 simulated bombs, mainly using visual bombs, and only 8 radar bombs have been tried.
By the end of July, this special flight brigade had made all preparations for throwing bombs, and the disaster of the Japanese was coming.
The second section “little boy” first came to Hiroshima.
When groves sent the prepared throwing order to Potsdam, Truman finally signed and issued this important order on July 25, 1945: General Carl Spatz: the special flight brigade of the 25th army must be ready for throwing within the first week after August 3, 1945.
Once the climate is suitable for visual bomb dropping, please immediately choose one of the following targets to throw the first atomic bomb: Hiroshima, xiaocang, xinfu3.
Why is Hiroshima the preferred target? American policy makers analyze it like this: first, Hiroshima is located on the southeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan.
It is a big city in Japan.
Due to the previous war, 120000 people in the city have been evacuated to the countryside, and there are only 245000 people in the city.
It is not only the location of the general headquarters of the second army of the Japanese army, but also an important military transport port of the Japanese army and the assembly place of the Japanese Navy escort fleet, which is an important basis for Americans to choose.
In addition, the city also has 25000 troops, who were the main force invading China’s Shandong and Henan provinces.
Moreover, according to the investigation, there has been no precipitation for more than 20 days in this area, and the houses are dry.
With flat and open terrain and dense buildings in the city center, it is an ideal place for nuclear explosion test and field investigation of the killing and destruction effect of atomic bomb.
Moreover, the US military has found out that there are no prisoners of war here, so there is no need to worry about hurting third country personnel protected by the laws of war.
As for several other cities, xiaocang Arsenal and Kyoto have attracted more attention.
Among them, xiaocang arsenal is one of Japan’s large arms factories, where there are manufacturers of various types of weapons and other defense materials in Japan.
From the perspective of terrain, dropping bombs on the region is of great military significance, but it has little political impact.
As the former capital of Japan, Kyoto, with a population of more than 1 million, is also a famous industrial city.
Many residents and factories moved here because they were not bombed during the war.
Although it is a good target, defense minister Stimson believes that destroying Kyoto, as a famous historical city, will cause unnecessary hatred and leave unresolved disputes and responsibilities in the future.
As for Nagasaki, it was decided after the first atomic bomb was dropped.
Today, it seems that the reason why Americans want to directly throw atomic bombs at Japan is also closely related to Truman’s strategic decision: one is that the US government was most concerned about the development of post-war Eastern Europe.
The victory of the war was almost a foregone conclusion, and it didn’t matter whether to use the atomic bomb or not.
However, the fact that the United States is the only country in the world to have an atomic bomb and the infinite power that such a bomb can show are enough to create a huge deterrent to the whole world, including its allies.
On the one hand, it is beneficial to establish the post-war world power status of the United States.
On the other hand, it can enable the wartime allies and the inevitable opponent after the war – the Soviet Union to accept the post-war world plan formulated by the United States, especially on the controversial issues between the United States and its allies, and can impose the will of the United States on its allies, Force them to accept the recommendations of the United States on central and Eastern Europe.
It is based on this consideration that the atomic bomb plays an important role in President Truman’s political and diplomatic cards.
At the Potsdam Conference, Truman was forHe was able to bring the trump card of the atomic bomb to the venue, and delayed the opening date originally scheduled for July 1 for more than half a month.
Robert Oppenheimer once said: “we are under incredible pressure to test the filling of the atomic bomb before the Potsdam meeting of the heads of state of the three countries.
” Obviously, the first test of the atomic bomb was deliberately carried out before the meeting of the “big three” in order to form a deterrent to the Soviet Union.
The specific time schedule for throwing the atomic bomb was also carefully considered.
Philip Morrison, a participant in the Manhattan Project, said: “I can testify that August 10 has always been a mysterious deadline for us.
We must make bombs before this date at all costs and risks.
” A white paper on the consequences of atomic bombing published in Japan pointed out: “for scientists who do not know the inside information of the Yalta conference, August 10 is indeed an unexplained and mysterious deadline, but for American political leaders, they understand that this is the date on which the Soviet Union promised its allies to participate in the war.
” Although the western countries have repeatedly broken the promise of opening a second battlefield in Europe, they do not doubt that the Soviet Union will keep its promise and declare war on Japan on August 10.
To this end, the United States must take action before August 10! To create an effect: it seems that it is not the attack of the Soviet army that forced Japan to surrender, but the atomic bomb of the United States.
On the other hand, demonstrating the terrible power of new weapons at this moment can also make the post-war world obey the orders of the United States.
One is the US military’s operational plan for attacking Japan: occupying the southern part of Japan in September 1945 and Tokyo in March 1946.
But given Japan’s recalcitrant stance, the allies will have to conquer Japan at a high price, with an estimated loss of 1 million Americans and 500000 Britons.
If the atomic bomb were used first, the situation would be greatly improved.
The other is that the United States has spent more than $2 billion on the development of the atomic bomb.
Government officials believe that it is very necessary to conduct a test anyway.
Since the test is to be carried out, it is better to throw it on the enemy’s head than on the unknown desert, which is the shame of snow Pearl Harbor.
From the above points of view, the use of atomic bomb can not only enable the United States to achieve long-term political objectives, but also obtain direct military advantages.
At the same time, it also obtains the effect of actual combat use of atomic bomb, which can kill many birds with one stone.
It was precisely because of the needs of the situation that Truman finally settled the matter that Roosevelt had been.
However, Truman also specifically instructed the United States to send planes to distribute the Potsdam announcement and other leaflets over major cities in Japan every day from July 27 to August 1, 1945.
The leaflet warned that if Japan did not accept all the contents of the Potsdam announcement, they would be subjected to more violent aerial bombardment.
Moreover, one hour after each leaflet was distributed, it was followed by a violent bombing of ordinary bombs.
The stubborn Japanese government is not worried at all about this method of pacifying before killing.
Finally, on August 2, the special group of aircraft carrying out the bombing mission conducted the final exercise.
On August 2, the brigade received an order to send seven B-29 aircraft to bomb Hiroshima.
One of the planes carried an atomic bomb, which was personally piloted by the brigade commander Tibets.
The other two planes were used for observation and three planes were used for meteorological reconnaissance.
In addition, there is another aircraft as a reserve, which remains at Iwo Jima airport and is ready to replace the failed aircraft at any time.
After the bombing, two planes were also designated for effectiveness inspection.
The 20th air force is responsible for the rescue mission.
At 1400 hours on August 5, the B-29 aircraft named after tibbetts’s mother and code named “Enola guy” was loaded with an atomic bomb, which was full of letters written in pencil to the emperor of Japan.
That night, the pilots were surprised to learn from Tibbets that their specific task was to throw a special bomb with a destructive power equivalent to 20000 tons of explosives.
On the evening of the 5th, the final inspection work had been completed, the atomic bomb was safe and sound, and the plane could take off at any time.
Before taking off, the crew received a pair of goggles for welders to protect their eyes when the bomb exploded and produced a strong flash.
Then the prayer ceremony was held, and the crew lowered their heads, The 27 year old pastor William Downey prayed: “God, we pray to you that the war will end and peace will return to the world as soon as possible.
God bless the pilot flying tonight to return safely.
” this is the last item of all preparations.
On August 6, at 1:17 time on Tinian Island, the departure base, three meteorological aircraft took off first.
At 2:45, a total of 12 members of the aircraft crew carrying the atomic bomb also got on the plane.
After the “take-off” order was issued, the plane loaded with atomic bombs rushed to the runway and accelerated.
However, because the plane is too heavy, it contains 2650 litres of gasoline in addition to the 5-ton atomic bomb.
The plane taxied at full speed at 80 meters per second, but it still couldn’t take off.
Already seeing the end of the runway, Tibbets was extremely anxious and sweating.
At this time, he pulled the stick with all his strength, and the nose finally lifted up, followed by other planes taking off in turn.
After taking off, the plane carrying the atomic bomb and the observation plane gathered over Iwo Jima, and then climbed to the navigation altitude.
According to the original regulations, if the three cities of Hiroshima, xiaocang and Nagasaki are covered by clouds and inconvenient to see, the atomic bomb can be brought back.
According to the report of the meteorological agency, there were very few clouds over Hiroshima at that time, which could be bombed visually.
Therefore, it was decided to bomb Hiroshima.
The engineers on board carried out the final assembly and inspection of the components of the atomic bomb.
The observation aircraft drops the measuring instrument with a parachute for the final measurement.
Three U.S. B-29 air fortress giant bombers took off slowly from Tinian island in the Pacific against the summer sea breeze and flew towards the target of 3200 kilometers away from Japan.
Among them, the “Enola guy” bomber is “sleeping” with a world-famous atomic bomb “little boy”.
A few hours later, this unheard of bomb will announce to people the arrival of a new era – the atomic age with its landing.
“Little boy” atomic bomb, dressed in black, looks like a whale in the sea.
The atomic bomb is exquisitely manufactured with exquisite workmanship.
“I groped out of the room in the smoke and got into the air raid shelter.
Looking out from the cave, the sky, which used to be blue and white, suddenly turns light yellow.
Calm down and look around.
Many people in the air raid shelter were injured.
I found that my skin was also bleeding.
I went out of the bomb shelter and went back to my residence to apply medicine.
Along the way, houses collapsed, walls collapsed, fires broke out in many places, groups of people were injured, and many people fell on the streets.
They were miserable.
Their clothes were charred, their hair burned out, their skin burned black, and countless people groaned in the rubble.
The atmosphere over Hiroshima was stirred by powerful shock waves.
The rapidly rising atomic cloud column with water vapor condensed into raindrops at high altitude, mixed with radioactive contaminated dust.
There was a light rain in the sky, and raindrops fell on the burned skin.
Once a bustling and life filled city of hundreds of thousands of people, Now it is a piece of ruins.
More than 70000 people were killed, more than 60000 injured, 60000 houses were damaged, 12 square kilometers of land was affected, and all people were homeless.
There was thick smoke everywhere, bodies everywhere, buildings were burning, water pipes were emitting water at will, no one was fighting the fire, no one was repairing, and even the ambulance could not go out.
Hiroshima turned into a scorching sea of fire, and Hiroshima was destroyed! At the same time, three US planes carrying out bombing missions returned to Tinian island and were greeted by a large group of senior officials.
Among them was general Spitz, commander of the air force’s 20th air force, who arrived specially from Guam.
As the pilot Tibbets stepped off the plane, the commander put on him a Distinguished Flying Cross.
Later, other personnel participating in this special mission were awarded medals by the air force.
After the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima, in order to avoid panic, the Japanese government did not let its citizens know the truth of Hiroshima being bombed by atomic bomb.
At first, even Prime Minister Suzuki did not believe that a bomb mentioned in the report had led to such great destruction.
As the government blocked the news, there was not much shock across Japan except for some information from neighboring areas.
On August 7, President Truman issued such a solemn statement: the ultimatum issued by Potsdam on July 26 was aimed at saving the Japanese people from total destruction, but their leaders quickly rejected the ultimatum.
If they don’t accept our terms now, their destruction will fall from the sky.
There has never been a similar destruction on earth.
But even this news was blocked by the Japanese government.
Foreign Minister Dongxiang, a moderator in Tokyo, suggested accepting the above conditions put forward by the Americans, but others objected, because in their view, the explosion over Hiroshima was not a powerful atomic bomb at all, but the result of hundreds of planes dropping bombs at the same time.
These main war factions agreed that Japan has not yet reached the final moment to lay down its arms, and they are determined to fight another big decisive battle in Japan.
In the third section, “fat man” had no choice but to drive to Nagasaki.
After learning the above attitude of the Japanese, Truman did not hesitate to issue a final order to the US Air Force minister on Guam: “unless otherwise instructed, we will still act according to the original plan.
” The implication is that the US military will also throw the last developed atomic bomb to Japan in the shortest time – that is, the day before the Soviet Union sends troops.
Why did the second atomic bomb fall on Nagasaki, which was not favored by the US general command in advance? There are many unknown secrets: the second atomic bomb is an implosive titanium bomb, nicknamed “fat man”.
The atomic bomb was originally scheduled to be dropped on August 20, 1945, and later changed to August 11.
On August 7, the day after the successful bombing of Hiroshima, another day was subtracted from the scheduled schedule.
However, according to the weather forecast, August 9 is a good day, and there will be five consecutive days of bad weather after August 9.
This raises a very simple and serious problem for decision-makers, either one day earlier or five days later.
They chose the former.
This is a difficult choice, but also a risky choice.
Engineers and technicians believe that this is very unreliable.
They warned that shortening the whole two days would hinder a series of important inspection procedures.
But “an order is an order”, and they decided to carry it out.
The assembly work is going well.
On the night of August 7, the visceral part of “fat man” has been assembled and compactly installed into the steel shell, so he can get on the plane.
At 2200 hours on August 8, “fat man” slept in the bomb compartment of the heavy bomber B-29 like his brother “little boy”.
At 3:47 a.m. on August 9, “fat man” took off with the light of the dark night cut by lightning in the tropical rainstorm.
The pilot carrying the atomic bomb was major Charlie Sweeney.
Two observation planes took off at the same time as this plane.
The bombing targets were mainly designated two, mainly xiaocang, followed by Nagasaki.
In order to bomb the first target as much as possible, it is stipulated that regardless of the weather forecast, the bomber must fly close to the first target as much as possible, and only fly to the second target after confirming that there is no possibility of visual bombing of the first target.
In order to avoid the aircraft for photography arriving at the scene in advance, they are required to check the situation with Iwo Jima and Tinian before flying over Iwo Jima.
If there is suspicion due to insufficient information, the camera plane must shoot both targets.
However, for some unknown reason, the B-29 bomber, who took the photo mission, failed to arrive at the rendezvous site on time.
The pilots of the first two planes hovered anxiously in the air for 45 minutes, but still failed to see their partners.
Finally, with the consent of the commander, they flew to their first target, xiaocang in Kyushu.
When the plane arrived over xiaocang, due to the dense smoke in the city, the plane circled there for a long time and did not find the intended target.
However, the third city on the bombing list was new, and it was too far to fly.
Due to the lack of flight fuel, it was decided to fly to Nagasaki, an alternate target with a concentrated machinery manufacturing industry, for a test run.
At this time, the fuel on the aircraft was running out, and there was no more choice but to take the last action.
If it was delayed again, it might not be able to fly back.
Nagasaki is a city of 200000 people, built on some steep hills.
Its harbor faces the East China Sea.
Nagasaki is a fable.
The scenery is particularly beautifulPort of.
The urban area faces the harbor, and the Pushang river flows into the Bay from the north.
Nagasaki has long been Japan’s main foreign trade port.
It also has its own industrial zone.
At more than 10 o’clock, the plane flew over Nagasaki and found that the weather here was not good, the clouds were very thick, and the visual conditions were not much better than those of xiaocang.
So it was decided to use radar bombing.
At 10:58, at the moment of preparing to use radar to command the bombing, it was suddenly found that a small gap appeared in the cloud, and then it was changed to visual bombing.
The bomber aimed at a runway in the valley and dropped the atomic bomb.
However, the atomic bomb did not reach the original target point, but fell 2500 meters north of the target, that is, the Pushang River Basin, between the two military factories, blowing up the two factories producing military materials.
The atomic bomb that bombed Nagasaki was dropped from an altitude of 8800 meters.
At 11:02, there was an unusually bright blue flash in Nagasaki, first a dull rumble, and then a gust of wind.
The shock wave and vibration lasted for 5 minutes.
At that time, a Japanese seaplane penetrated the clouds at an altitude of 7000 meters and flew to Nagasaki.
When the Japanese plane came out of the clouds, the pilot saw a huge black pillar of smoke, which was “like a monster’s head”, constantly turning upward, showing all kinds of strange colors from time to time.
The hot smoke also made the plane and its crew sick and vomit, and some black dust poured into the open hatch cover.
The explosion in Nagasaki killed 78000 people and seriously injured more than 70000.
What is more surprising is that there are many foreigners and even many Chinese among the victims.
Shortly after the atomic bomb exploded in Nagasaki, the Japanese military held a special meeting.
They still insisted on the original proposition: fight to the end and never surrender.
However, Japanese Emperor Hirohito was unconventional.
After knowing the number of casualties, he immediately wrote a letter to Prime Minister Suzuki, expressing his views: obey all the contents of the Potsdam announcement and surrender unconditionally! On August 15, Emperor Hirohito resisted all kinds of interference from the opposition and personally broadcast the edict of surrender throughout the country, expressing unconditional acceptance of the Potsdam Proclamation.
At the same time, the land minister Anan and former Prime Minister Jin Weiwen O who received the order of surrender committed suicide by caesarean section one after another in despair.
As for Hideki Tojo, the number one war criminal, he was found by his men immediately before committing suicide and escaped death by seizing the pistol in his hand.
However, he was later sentenced to hanging in the International Court of justice.
So what will happen if the Americans don’t throw the atomic bomb? To be sure, Japan’s defeat was a foregone conclusion long before the atomic bomb explosion, but the two powerful explosions advanced the time for the Japanese to sign the surrender.
Section IV tragic memory of atomic weapons in the long hellish disaster of a few minutes, more than 100000 square kilometers of Hiroshima was completely destroyed, and more than 130000 of 343000 citizens died violently.
At that time, the number of victims reached 177000.
The total number of buildings in Hiroshima was 76000, and 70000 were destroyed on the spot.
Another 23 American prisoners of war also became martyrs.
Among the 23 prisoners of war, 22 died on the spot, and the remaining one was dragged out of the rubble by Japanese survivors and killed by stoning. Mrs. Makiko of Wendao miraculously survived in the city and was buried in the ruins of her hotel.
After a long struggle, she finally climbed out.
She was stunned, as if she were in hell.
The streets and houses were gone.
The ground was full of scorched rubble, piles of strange and charred things – it was a corpse.
Most of the living people were naked or still hung with a smoking cloth strip.
They were beyond recognition.
Their hair and eyebrows were burned off and they were all dark.
What’s more terrible is that the whole skin of some people’s faces and bodies has fallen off and hung on their bodies like a soft face.
Some people have no nose and ears.
They all wander around silently and expressionless, like sleepwalking.
The naked upper bodies of several young women were as black and white as zebras.
It turned out that they were wearing blue and white sea souls.
The skin of the blue path was burned by light radiation, but the white place was strangely resistant to light radiation. Mrs. Kangzi also joined the ghost like parade as if she had been hypnotized.
She thought that this might be what Buddhism calls a nose hell.
At the Sixth Street in the south of the city, 15-year-old meihezi Yamaoka was walking out of her house at 8:15 to go to the telephone office.
She remembered that there was a dazzling “magnesium light” flashing on her head, and then she didn’t know anything.
When she woke up, she seemed to be in another world.
Her mother, siblings and home were gone.
She crawled over countless charred corpses and finally met a living man covered with blood – and an acquaintance.
She shouted happily at the man.
The man was staring at meihezi in a daze.
He didn’t seem to know meihezi.
Meihezi couldn’t help touching her face – ah, there were no eyebrows and nose.
There were 350 girls in the same area of the commercial school.
They all wear blue school clothes.
When the mushroom cloud rose in the air, the girls who curiously turned to see the flash – about 300 people died immediately.
The 12-year-old Miyoko matsuhara didn’t look back.
She instinctively covered her face and fell to the ground.
When she regained consciousness, it was as if she were separated from the world.
There was an unimaginable desolation around her.
There were no people, no buildings, only endless rubble.
She looked down and was surprised.
Her clothes had disappeared.
There was only a white cloth belt left at her waist, and there was smoke.
She patted with her right hand, but found her skin slipping down and dangling.
Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital’s director of internal medicine, Dr.
Fumio chongteng, was waiting at the tram stop for work.
The people waiting for the bus lined up in a long line.
He was the last one.
He was leaning against the thick wall of Hiroshima railway station and reading the newspaper.
For a moment, dozens of suns appeared in the sky at the same time.
He looked up and saw that a large group of girls preparing for school on the sidewalk in front turned white, almost transparent, and then disappeared.
He fell to the ground and a large stone slab fell down on him – the back wall and stone slab saved his life.
When he woke up, he found that it was dark, but it was more than 8 a.m. Wait for the clouds to open the fogWhy did the United States bomb Japan and how did Japan launch the war.
Japanese scholar Timo Kamada pointed out that the experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki can only be recognized in the whole history.
The Nazi massacres in Guernica and Auschwitz led to retaliatory bombing of Dresden, Berlin and other German cities.
Similarly, the Nanjing Massacre and the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor attracted the Tokyo air raid and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Militarism and fascism are bred and developed on the soil of racial discrimination, suppression of human rights and xenophobia, foreign aggression and so on.
The words of Dingfu Kamata, who is also a Japanese, are worth savoring by every peace loving person.