although Gaddafi claimed that the movement he launched was intended to “attribute all power to the people”, some people pointed out sharply that Gaddafi’s move was to resort to power to maintain control. He wanted to warn some specific figures in the power structure, so as to make him the only force on the earth.
Gaddafi (photographed in 1971)
at 6 a.m. on September 1, 1969, it was the time of morning prayer on radio Benghazi. As usual, many people turn on the radio and listen to the Koran chanted by the prayers inside. Suddenly, the broadcast was interrupted, Then a military music broke the dead silence:
“The great Libyan people, by the order of Allah, who saves the suffering and the great mercy, declare to you that in order to fulfill your free will, realize your valuable will, and truly respond to your repeated calls for change, purity, action and, revolution and attack, your armed forces have destroyed reactionary, backward and declining forces The defeated regime…
many people were shocked by the sound from the radio, including the old couple Abu Mayer Gaddafi and Aisha who were in a tent in the Sirte desert. They looked at each other and were stunned: Although the people who spoke on the radio did not announce their names and identities, But they still heard from intermittent but very familiar voices that it was their youngest son Muammar Gaddafi who announced the overthrow of King Idris on the radio.
in fact, it was not until a week later that the outside world knew that the coup was launched by the unknown signal Lieutenant Gaddafi, who was only 27 years old. In fact, Gaddafi came to the center of the political arena with great drama. It is said that the military coup planned for 10 years was chaotic and wrong from beginning to end. After the coup, in a television conversation, Gaddafi and his companions recalled many details of that day with elation, which sounded like a farce.
late at night on August 31, 1969, Gaddafi and young officers took action according to the plan. Gaddafi ordered his key aide Omar mihaish to fly to the capital Tripoli in the evening to organize the takeover of the military camp. When mikheish arrived at Benghazi airport, he found that the plane was full. Fortunately, an airport official was his friend and finally got on the plane through the back door. When he arrived at Tripoli airport, he stopped a taxi and drove to the military camp. When he got off the bus, he threw his weapons and bullets on the bus.
in Benghazi. According to the plan, Gaddafi and two captains will take over the Bekaa military camp and radio station at 1 a.m. When they were about to start, first came two gendarmes and asked them to help repair the motorcycle. Gaddafi asked them to go again tomorrow; The two gendarmes were finally sent away, but another accomplice ran in panic and said that they had been exposed. Gaddafi still decided that “we must bravely deal with this situation at all costs”. He filled the jeep with bullets and light machine guns and led the army to occupy radio Benghazi. When he looked back half way, he was surprised to find that he was the only bare commander on the way to Benghazi. It turned out that at the previous fork in the road, his convoy drove towards the Bekaa military camp. Gaddafi then drove alone on the road to Benghazi, “there is no light, nothing along the way”.
what’s more ridiculous is that the officer in charge of occupying Tripoli national radio station drove around the city for a week, but he didn’t find the radio station, so he had to return in a panic. Jalud and Honi, who were responsible for taking over the air defense forces outside Tripoli, commanded 600 soldiers. When they arrived at the operation, they found that only 1050 bullets were available. Fortunately, they did not encounter any resistance along the way.
is such a hasty and flawed military coup that was a success. At the time of the coup, Prince Hassan Rida, the crown prince and prime minister who stayed at home, was drunk in the palace. Hearing the gunshot, he immediately escaped from the palace and hid in the swimming pool. He was arrested the next day. This was almost a bloodless coup. The revolutionary army only had a small conflict when it raided the Royal Guard in Benghazi. One person was killed and 15 people were injured.
after Gaddafi took people into the Benghazi radio and television building, he directly went into the on duty announcer’s room and asked the announcer to broadcast military music. The announcer was frightened and played the song but not the March. When Gaddafi asked him to record the first statement of the revolution, the broadcaster’s tone was clearly panicked. In the end, Gaddafi had to read the first statement himself – in fact, it was prepared in a hurry by Gaddafi. He scribbled a few key points on a piece of paper, and the rest were added temporarily during the broadcast.
young officers Gaddafi
in 1942, Gaddafi was born in Abu Hadi, 50 miles south of Sirte in the central Libyan desert. His parents are illiterate Bedouins. Gaddafi’s family is a traditional tribal family. He has three sisters. The whole family lives on renting camels.
when Libya gained independence in 1951, Gaddafi was still studying in a primary school in Sirte. He was the first person in his family who could read, write and receive formal education. Gaddafi studied very hard. He had classes in school during the day and slept on the floor of the mosque at night. He went home once a week and walked back and forth. At that time, he was serious, silent and devout. Because he is the biggest student in the class and a Bedouin, he is often ridiculed by his classmates.
at the age of 14, Gaddafi went to middle school in Sebha, a small town in South Central Libya. Sebha can be said to be the starting point of Gaddafi’s revolutionary career. He regularly contacted Arab newspapers and radio broadcasts there, especially listening to the “voice of Arabia” from CairoHis portrait was even hung on the crucifixion in Tripoli, but the cathedral has been transformed into a Jamal Abdul Nasser mosque.
Gaddafi in his youth is said to work 20 hours a day. When he delivered a speech to the public, he sometimes talked for four or five hours at a time, and was so anxious that he screamed: “don’t think I don’t tell you anything; I’ll tell you everything; we should all trust each other!” He was even anxious to cry. The crowd replied, “we will fight with you with our spirit, our blood and our religion. Oh, Gaddafi!”
like the chivalrous men in the middle ages, he attacked his dissatisfied system and behavior with violent personal actions. In 1971, he made a surprise visit to government agencies and found many agency staff drinking coffee and chatting in the office, which aroused his great dissatisfaction. The next day, he sent military trucks into all government office buildings. The army even broke into the office of the cabinet minister and took away most of the furniture in the office. Later, the staff there could only lean against the walls of empty rooms and corridors to read newspapers or make coffee on the concrete floor.
another widely spread story of Gaddafi is that once, disguised as a civilian, with his face half covered with a cloth, he came to a crowded Central Hospital in Tripoli, told the doctor that his father was seriously ill and asked the doctor to see him at his home. The busy doctor finally gave him two aspirin. Gaddafi immediately pulled down the cloth and angrily announced to the doctor that he must leave the country now. That night, the unlucky doctor was expelled from Libya.
like making news and being noticed, which is Gaddafi’s character recognized by the outside world. In life, he also likes to be the focus of attention. In contrast to only wearing single traditional national robes in the later period, Gaddafi’s clothes in the 1980s were gorgeous. “Sometimes I have to change my clothes three times a day.” The biography of Gaddafi published in Britain describes everything from naval uniforms decorated with medals to Arab heads of state clothes to parachute jumpsuits with complex zippers and buttons. “During the crisis, a visitor to azizia found that Gaddafi was dressed in a red silk shirt, a golden cloak and lizard skin slippers, much like a fashionable young man going to a disco.” It is said that Gaddafi is also a “leader” in Libyan fashion. “Whatever I wear will be popular.” He was proud to tell others. He also said that he had received many letters from American women praising him as a handsome man and liked his hair.
Gaddafi clearly believes that he is a superstar in the world. But what is the gap between the external world he feels and the real world? An American journalist who interviewed Gaddafi in the early stage found that Gaddafi used a small Sony radio to listen to the BBC’s Arab program, “which is one of the few channels he can get unbiased information”. The reporter observed that Libyan radio, television, newspapers and official news agencies have done their best to flatter the leader. They selectively reported and infinitely exaggerated the news of external support for Libya. Gaddafi’s foreign affairs institutions were also controlled by the fanatics of the Revolutionary Committee. The telegrams of the foreign ministry kept on reporting the praises from third world leaders and organizations. Gaddafi was involuntarily immersed in an illusion woven for him. “I have established an ideal country in Libya.” He said, “it is not the illusory Utopia described in books, but the real utopia.”
in this “Republic”, all government units do not have the post of minister, and the person in charge is collectively referred to as “secretary”, the cabinet prime minister is the “General Secretary of the National People’s Committee”, and the foreign minister is the “Secretary of the National People’s Committee for foreign liaison and international cooperation”. The units stationed abroad are not called embassies, but “people’s bureaus”. Accordingly, The ambassador is not an ambassador, but a “secretary”. In March 1979, Gaddafi resigned from all administrative positions and retained only the title of “revolutionary mentor and brother leader”, hereinafter referred to as “revolutionary leader”. This revolutionary leader, of course, is above all else.
may think that he should have his own set of thoughts and theories like other leaders. Gaddafi put forward the “third theory” in the early 1970s. He believes that he has found a completely original way between communism and capitalism; Soon, Gaddafi, who was dissatisfied with the revolutionary situation, also launched a utopian mass movement in China – on the evening of June 2, 1973, he ordered Libyans to seize power from Tripoli radio station. At this time, the outside world smelled the smell of “Cultural Revolution”. The parade quickly surrounded the radio station, then rushed in to seize power and renamed it “people’s revolutionary radio station”, including universities, middle schools Government departments have followed suit.
although Gaddafi claimed that the movement he launched was intended to “return all power to the people”, some people pointed out sharply that Gaddafi’s move was to turn to power to maintain control. He wanted to warn some specific figures in the power structure that “he wants to destroy them and make him the only force on the earth”. In the last paragraph of the first volume of the green paper, Gaddafi wrote this paragraph: “in fact, the strong are always the rulers, that is, the strongest party in society.” Obviously, Gaddafi believes that he is the strongest above all power, and no one can challenge his authority.
Gaddafi also had a title – Honorary Chairman of the Libyan writers’ Association. In 2001, Changjiang literature and Art Publishing House, which published Saddam Hussein’s novels, published selected Gaddafi novels. Although it is crowned with “novel”, the articles in it are closer to essays. Publisher Zhou Baiyi admitted that the book of the revolutionary leader did not sell well, “because Gaddafi’s novels are not like novels, without the basic factors of stories, plots and characters, which can not attract readers’ interest”.
“kd”The dream of Arab leaders
the early Gaddafi was a fanatical admirer of Nasser, and Gaddafi himself made no secret of this. Both his goal in the” September Revolution “and his speech in the” September Revolution “clearly imitated Nasser’s revolution in Egypt 20 years ago. He repeatedly read Nasser’s There is a passage in revolutionary philosophy: “The chapter of history is full of heroes, who created the situation for themselves to play the role of glorious soldiers at the critical moment. At the same time, the chapter of history is also full of heroic and glorious roles, and heroes have never been found to play them. For some reason, it seems to me that there is a role in the Arab world looking for a hero aimlessly.” Fascinated by this sentence, Gaddafi clearly sees himself as the hero the Arab world is struggling to find. Compared with Nasser’s gradual revolution, Gaddafi took a more intense and brutal approach.
came to power at the beginning, Gaddafi said to Nasser that Israel would be solved by war. Nasser explained that the international situation does not allow this, and neither the Soviet Union nor the United States will allow situations that may lead to nuclear war. Gaddafi immediately asked, “does Israel have a nuclear bomb?” Nasser replied that there was a great possibility. He asked, “do we have a nuclear bomb?” Nasser said, “no, we don’t.”
on September 28, 1970, Nasser died of a heart attack. This is the only area where al Nasser, the leader of the Arabs, is able to guide and restrain him in the face of danger. After Nasser’s death, Gaddafi regarded himself as the representative of the “new Arab generation”. He wanted to fill the gap of Nasser, expand the alliance of the Arab family and finally defeat Israel.
he once declared in the Congress: “the Prussians unified Germany and piedmont unified Italy. I think our small republic will also play such a role to unify the whole Arab nation.” In April 1971, with the efforts of Gaddafi, he announced the establishment of the “Arab Federal Republic” in Tripoli with Egyptian President Sadat and Syrian President Assad. But before the ink was dry, there were serious differences within the big family. The three parties holding their own calculations have no material and ideological basis of the “Federation”. Nasser’s successor Sadat was not so friendly to Gaddafi. His relationship with Gaddafi soon changed from indifference to disgust and finally to hostility. Sadat suspected that Gaddafi had serious problems and was different from others. In order to force this “marriage”, in September 1973, Gaddafi organized 20000 Libyans to trek 1500 miles to Cairo. The seven kilometer long team looked very funny. They waved flags and shouted slogans, urging Libya to merge with Egypt.
Gaddafi believed that after arriving in Egypt, there must be a large number of people demanding reunification. But things were not as he had expected. Sadat warned Libyans to stop at matru, 250 miles west of Cairo. Not only that, the Egyptian government blocked the main passage with train carriages, and 20000 Libyans could only stay at the border. Despite the temptation of oil resources, Gaddafi’s idea of marriage with Egypt proved to be wishful thinking.
Gaddafi’s whimsical revolutionary enthusiasm often makes his Arab brothers unbearable. On December 22, 1972, Gaddafi delivered a speech at a mass meeting in Tunisia, calling for reunification with Libya. Tunisian President burjiba, who was listening to the live broadcast of Gaddafi’s speech at home, was surprised. He hurried to the scene, grabbed the microphone and said that Gaddafi’s view on unification was divorced from reality. He also said frankly without face: the Arabs have never been united as a whole, and do not want to listen to the preaching of a leader of a backward country who can not even do well in their internal unity on this issue.
in order to make himself more in line with the role of “Arab hero”, Gaddafi did not hesitate to do anything. He has provided $125 million a year to Egypt, $45 million to Syria and $25 million to the Palestinian guerrilla movement. He also gave money to African countries such as Mali, Chad, Uganda and Niger to sever relations with Israel. Gaddafi’s favorite career is the confrontation between Arabs and Israel – for Gaddafi’s fanatical attitude, the western media bitterly ridiculed that Libya is “far from the front line, but the main war is the most intense”.
Arab nationalism gave Gaddafi an illusory idea that he had the right to intervene anywhere in the Arab world. Therefore, when internal problems occur in Morocco or Jordan, Gaddafi can’t wait to make a statement. This has also made him an unpopular figure in the Arab world. Arafat, who has always disliked Gaddafi, called him a “Knight of revolutionary words”. Alan Hart, Arafat’s biographer, said one of Arafat’s few pastimes was telling jokes that mocked Gaddafi.
for Gaddafi’s role in the Arab world, A former head of Israel’s military intelligence service commented most interestingly: “Among all his crazy attempts to unify the Arab world, who has caused such a serious division in the Arab world like Gaddafi? He is a strategic threat, but tactically, he may be a treasure and an agent for us to create division in the Arab world.” This comment is too ironic for Gaddafi, who is bent on destroying Israel.
mysterious and absurd
Gaddafi spent most of his time in the heavily guarded aziziya barracks, which has also become a symbol of Gaddafi’s power. Liu Shun, a reporter of Xinhua news agency, visited Libya several times to interview Gaddafi and was able to get close to the mysterious aziziya barracks, so he was very familiar with its defense system.
this barracks covers an area of about 4 hectares, surrounded by high walls of 4 meters high and half meters thick, all built of reinforced concrete blocks. Therefore, from a distance, you can only see the tall concrete walls of the barracks. ” Liu Shun told reporters. On the high ground outside the barracks, some French made “rattlesnake” air defense missiles were mounted to prevent air strikes; A concrete parapet wall stands at the main entrance to prevent suicide cars from rushing in; Behind each parapet, a huge Soviet tank was deployed to prevent attacks from the ground. The fence is equipped with sensors, alarms and remote-control infrared camera equipment to monitor each channel. The inner side of the wall is equipped with thick barbed wire, surrounded by watchtowers, and Libyan soldiers with miniature submachine guns are guarding each entrance and around the wall.
entering the barracks is like entering a maze, “the road is winding, and there are many obstacles. At least three doors have to be passed, and each door is guarded by commandos wearing black berets and plain clothes, which are repeatedly checked and questioned”. At the last door, all visitors have to get off and walk, and mobile phones are not allowed in, because it is said that mobile phones may play a positioning role, and photographic equipment and people are checked separately. The barracks have multiple entrances and exits, and visitors are required to go through different gates. Therefore, it is difficult for people who have been to the barracks several times to find out which door they are going in and out.
on August 23, 2011, opposition forces occupied the azizia barracks, a symbol of Gaddafi’s regime. The fortress, which is said to be indestructible by atomic bombs, collapsed after witnessing Gaddafi’s 42 year rule. The outside world was able to get a glimpse of the true face of azizia barracks: a complex underground passage network was paved under Gaddafi’s office building and copper sculpture, stretching for more than 30 kilometers. The opposition found three exits: one in Tripoli airport, one in the green square in the city center, and one in the zoo, close to Rixos hotel. Once there is a war in Tripoli, Gaddafi’s army can reach the war zone in the shortest time, and Gaddafi’s family and important materials can also be transferred unconsciously.
Liu Shun still remembers that tents are everywhere in the barracks. Large tents are connected with small tents, all painted green. Gaddafi likes to receive VIP guests in tents. This is probably the impression left by Gaddafi’s early desert nomadic life. However, the tents at this time are different from the traditional ones. They are equipped with the most advanced communication equipment, such as telephone, fax machine and so on. Gaddafi’s tent is often tied with two camels so that he can hear the voice of his favorite camels.
in Gaddafi’s defense measures, the most special is his female bodyguard. Gaddafi Ka, who likes to show off, likes to take these female bodyguards wherever he goes, and they have almost become a sign of Gaddafi. The team of female bodyguards around Gaddafi is the unique female guard of heads of state in the world. They were all selected from the Tripoli women’s military academy, which was approved by Gaddafi in 1979. They will carry out three years of strict military training here, from queue practice, assassination, fighting, live firing, to operating radar and launching highly lethal missiles. They were wearing camouflage suits and submachine guns on their shoulders. No jewelry, just a Gaddafi badge on your chest. Whenever Gaddafi travels, these women soldiers will be escorted by military vehicles. Once Gaddafi takes his seat, four women soldiers will stand on both sides of him and patrol everyone present with vigilance.
these female bodyguards inherited Gaddafi’s unruly style. In 1989, Gaddafi led a delegation to Yugoslavia to attend the summit of non aligned countries. When two close female bodyguards followed Gaddafi into the venue, they were stopped by the security personnel of the host country. At this time, a female bodyguard immediately bit the hand of the security personnel. Before the latter reacted, the two female bodyguards entered the venue and caught up with Gaddafi. The latest news is that the opposition has invaded the women’s military camp, and these women soldiers who vowed to be loyal to Gaddafi may become the “booty” of the opposition. Female bodyguards have begun to accuse Gaddafi’s father and son of sexual assault and abuse against them. The true story behind the female bodyguards may take some time to solve.
Libya has extremely strict control over the news. Liu Shun said that although the Libyan government will also organize a press group to interview, there are special personnel to accompany them everywhere – called escort, which is actually surveillance; If reporters want to interview ordinary people directly, they will be obstructed by plain clothes immediately. But Gaddafi still tried to impress reporters. Liu Shun recalled that when he first went to Libya for an interview in 1994, immediately after leaving, the accompanying officials told them that they had gifts and needed to pick them up at Cairo airport. Liu Shun later found that Gaddafi gave each reporter a Libyan assembled TV.
in addition to mystery, Gaddafi’s other most “famous” feature is eccentric and absurd. He often makes sudden and unexpected moves. On one occasion, Gaddafi suddenly remembered something to see Nasser. At that time, the guard in charge of his security was training in the southern desert. So Gaddafi went to Cairo alone by helicopter without notifying Egypt. Nasser didn’t know Gaddafi was coming until the helicopter circled over Cairo. For Gaddafi’s unreasonable behavior, Nasser couldn’t help but say angrily: “can’t he — even once — inform me half an hour before he comes?” In 1988, he personally drove a bulldozer to tear down the wall of Tripoli prison and release 400 political prisoners; This year, at the Arab League summit held in Algeria, Gaddafi wore a white glove on his right hand, saying that it was to avoid soiling his hand when shaking hands with the “American running dog”.
Wang Houli, former Chinese ambassador to Libya, also mentioned two short stories related to Gaddafi in the article. On one occasion, Gaddafi suddenly came to Cairo and said that he had something urgent to meet with President Mubarak immediately. At that time, the leader of China’s State Council was visiting Egypt. Mubarak had to explain that he really didn’t take this brotherI have no choice but to see him immediately. Please forgive me. A few years ago, China State Construction Engineering Corporation contracted to build a new residential building near Benghazi, but as soon as the building was built, it was occupied by many nearby residents. The local authorities had no choice but to report to the top. Gaddafi met with the resident representatives and said to them, “you are the master of the country. The house is built for you. Live!” So they shouted, “long live Gaddafi!”
in March 2006, on the eve of the Khartoum summit, it was speculated that nine out of ten Gaddafi would not attend, but he arrived in Khartoum two days before the opening of the summit and became the first Arab head of state to arrive, which took the host Sudan by surprise. Less than an hour before Gaddafi’s plane landed, the host knew he was coming. He quickly paved the red carpet. Fortunately, he was ready to stop before the plane landed. After hearing the news, the Secretary General of the Arab League Moussa, who was attending the Arab foreign ministers’ meeting, quickly left the venue and went straight to the airport… Who knows, Gaddafi returned home early in the middle of the meeting.
the CIA has a lot of intelligence, all pointing to Gaddafi’s grotesque. One report said that during his trip to Mallorca in 1985, he put on makeup and took a teddy bear and refused to sleep on the sheets prepared for him in the hotel for safety. According to a 1982 report, “he was judged to have suffered from a serious personality disorder… Under heavy pressure, when he misjudged, he often behaved absurdly and strangely.”. Others reported that he had taken too many sleeping pills in the past few years and took other drugs in the morning to wake himself up; According to another report, his depression was so severe that he wandered in the corridor of azizia barracks, “muttering incoherently” and “muttering vaguely to himself”.
Israelis want to interpret Gaddafi’s thoughts and actions that are different from ordinary people’s understanding from a physiological point of view. They said Gaddafi suffered from hemorrhoids and epilepsy. Former Egyptian President Sadat was also very concerned about Gaddafi’s psychological state. During Gaddafi’s official visit to Cairo and complaining about eye pain, Sadat advised Gaddafi to have a brain fluoroscopy, but Gaddafi refused.
the last stage
Gaddafi, who seized power at the age of 27, was plain dressed, said he only liked living in tents and treated gold, silver and jewelry like dirt. However, with the deepening of his rule, Gaddafi gradually came to his opposite side. Before, many media said that Gaddafi lived a simple life, did not smoke, did not drink, and was not close to women. His diet was very simple. He had several pieces of bread and a cup of camel milk for breakfast, and often had roast mutton or lamb chops for lunch and dinner. However, the cost behind this “simplicity” seems to be relatively high – because he likes to drink camel milk. Even if he visits abroad, there are camels on Gaddafi’s special plane to ensure that he can drink the freshest camel milk. On September 1, 2009, the German Bild also reported that Gaddafi spent a lot of money on buying Italian sports cars. The article said that in order to make the most perfect car, tescots employees strictly transformed the “vision of the revolutionary leader” into the design and manufacture of cars. Gaddafi named his “future car” as “rocket”, while the prototype of “rocket” cost 2 million euros.
not long ago, Libyan opposition soldiers broke into a seaside resort city of Gaddafi family 12 kilometers west of the capital Tripoli. They found that Gaddafi’s “simplicity” over the years was just a cover: the resort city has a diving center, tennis court, swimming pool, football field, restaurant and hospital. Gaddafi’s bedroom is very spacious and all kinds of furniture are exquisite. The carpet comes from Pierre Cardin company of France, the sofa is made by Burberry company of Britain, and the bed is a famous product in Italy. Gaddafi’s children each have an independent villa. Some villas also have special fitness halls and swimming pools, and a row of motorboats are tied to the beach.
Liu Shun last saw Gaddafi in January 2006, when Li Zhaoxing visited Libya. The meeting was arranged in Sirte, Gaddafi’s hometown. Libyan protocol officials said that Gaddafi worked in aziziya barracks half the year and Sirte the other half. “This time I saw Gaddafi, I found that he was obviously much older than before, his face was full of vicissitudes, and he also looked much dull. He didn’t dance as soon as he spoke as he used to.” Liu Shun recalled.
at this time, Gaddafi was more and more in a dilemma of internal and external difficulties. “Gaddafi has always wanted to be the leader of the Arab world, but the Arab political power is Egypt and the economic power is Saudi Arabia, which is unshakable. After Gaddafi’s idea went bankrupt, he was gradually disappointed in the Arab world and turned his attention to Africa.” Liu Shun said. Gaddafi put forward the idea of “the United States of Africa”. He hopes to organize Africa into a federation composed of various states in the United States, so as to make the whole Africa a continent without borders.
“Gaddafi is very generous to Africa. He will not let poor African countries come to Libya return empty handed.” A Congolese newspaper once ridiculed Gaddafi who attended the African Union summit: “Santa Claus in Libya is throwing money again.”
the 2000 summit of the organization of African unity was held in LOM é, the capital of Togo. In order to build momentum for the “United States of Africa”, he also wanted to prove to people with facts that his idea of building a highway across the Sahara desert is feasible. Gaddafi led a huge government delegation composed of more than 200 domestic cars, with a head and tail of several kilometers. He drove during the day, slept in temporary tents at night, and swaggered across the Sahara desert, Go to LOM é, the capital of Togo. However, the huge convoy worried the conference organizers in Togo.
in 2002, the African Union modeled on the European Union replaced the organization of African unity, which has been established for 35 years.
Gaddafi’s African policy seems to be working. Even said publicly: “Muammar Gaddafi is the leader of our time