Section I connotation and function of culture culture is an extremely rich and complex concept.
There are many different definitions, generally divided into broad sense and narrow sense.
Culture in a broad sense refers to the, and of all material and spiritual products created by human beings.
For example, the 5000 year history of human civilization is actually the world history in a broad sense, including both material civilization and spiritual civilization.
Culture in a narrow sense refers to the spiritual phenomena of human society, including language and all ideologies.
Its elements have three systems: cognitive system (cognitive and knowledge system, world outlook and ethics are its core, including religion, belief, morality, mode of thinking, etc.
), normative system (people’s code of conduct, customs, etc.
) and language system.
According to different standards, culture can be divided into many types.
In terms of form, it can be divided into different forms: the first form is the crystallization of human activities in the fields of science, education, literature and art, sports and so on.
This culture can be called scientific rational culture.
The second form is the sum of people’s world outlook, belief, morality, ideal, consciousness and people’s social relations.
This culture can be called moral value culture.
The third form is mainly the various living habits, social customs and ways of communication formed by human beings in social life.
This culture can be called National peripheral culture.
According to the particularity of social history, culture can be divided into regional culture or national culture, Oriental culture and Western culture.
For example, according to the characteristics of religion, culture can be divided into Confucian culture, Christian culture, Islamic culture, Hindu culture and so on.
Generally, western culture and Christian culture are connected or equivalent, while eastern culture is connected with Confucian culture, Islamic culture and Hindu culture.
East Asian culture is generally equivalent to (or Confucianism) culture.
To be exact, the core of East Asian traditional culture is Confucian culture, that is, the ethical and moral theory established by Chinese great thinkers more than 2000 years ago and continuously developed and improved on the basis of absorbing Buddhism and Taoism teaching.
The regional scope of Confucian culture in East Asia refers to the countries and regions where Chinese traditional culture has influence in East Asia, including China (including Hong Kong), North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Southeast Asian countries represented by Vietnam and Singapore.
These countries and regions have historically formed commonalities and correlations in terms of race, family structure, mode of production, way of life, economic ethics, enterprise spirit, political culture and many other aspects.
Compared with the Western Christian cultural circle or the Arab Islamic cultural circle, they have their distinctive individuality.
Of course, when Confucianism and culture were introduced into these countries and regions, they had been screened, criticized and transformed according to their national characteristics and needs, and had the characteristics of various national countries and regions.
Compared with commonness and individuality, commonness should be the main.
On the status and function of culture, according to historical materialism, there seems to be the following basic views: 1 Economic foundation is the root of superstructure, and the nature of economic foundation determines the nature of superstructure.
The superstructure, including culture, is the reflection of the economic foundation and is produced to meet the needs of the economic foundation.
The role of economic factors undoubtedly overwhelms the role of cultural and political factors, and has become the decisive force dominating social, political and cultural development.
In this regard, we cannot put the cart before the horse.
Therefore, various statements about “East Asian cultural determinism” are idealistic sermons.
Culture is only one of the participating factors, and “only when it forms the best combination with appropriate social structure, correct development strategies and policies and a certain level of science and technology can it become a positive force to promote industrialization and modernization”. Dr. Chen Guangyan, a Singaporean scholar, said vividly: “it seems that these deep-rooted social and cultural values can flourish and bear fruit only under appropriate organizational environment and favorable conditions.
This is like a seed.
It has the natural ability and potential to grow into a big tree, but it must have appropriate soil and climate to realize.”.2. The development of social history is by no means just “economic single cause theory”.
In addition to the decisive factor of economy, there are other factors involved in interaction, including culture.
Historical materialism fully affirms the reaction of superstructure, including culture, on the economic foundation.
The progress of history should be promoted by “an overall joint force” formed by the integration of “countless intertwined forces”.
Without one, it cannot be regarded as social history.
As early as 1890, Engels wrote: “According to historical materialism, the decisive factor in the process of history is the production and reproduction of real life in the final analysis.
Neither Marx nor I have ever affirmed anything more than this.
If someone distorts here and says that economic factor is the only decisive factor, then he is turning this proposition into meaningless, abstract and absurd nonsense.
” Economic situation is the foundation, but it has an impact on the process of historical struggle and in many cases mainly determines the form of this struggle.
There are also various factors of superstructure, and even those traditions that exist in people’s minds also play a certain role. “. In 1894, Engels once again clearly pointed out: “the development of politics, law, philosophy, religion, literature and art is based on economic development.
However, they all affect each other and affect the economic foundation.
It is not only the economic situation that is the reason and positive, but everything else is just a negative result.
” Max Weber, a famous German sociologist, also said that behind any great cause, there must be an invisible huge spiritual force.
Economic and institutional factors are inseparable from cultural factors, and cultural factors are by no means dispensable factors.
The proposal of a social economic and political system is influenced by the makers’ own cultural views and values.
This is why Weber traces the root of modernization to cultural factors.3. Cultural and spiritual factors should be combined with the historical conditions, political system and economic system at that time to play a role.
The role of cultural factors is often abstract and elusive.
It is difficult for people to clearly explain or accurately measure their impact on modern economic development.
In the interpretation of modernization, culture is often regarded as a “soft concept” or “residual variable”.
It can only be an “intermediary factor”, the same cultural value orientation in different systemsLaw, economic organization, monetary system, religion and thought, value system and other aspects are examined and discussed in depth, and the conclusion that “Confucian ethics hinders China’s development of capitalism” is reached.
Weber pointed out: “many factors that may or must hinder the emergence of capitalism in China also exist in the West.
Once modern capitalism was finally formed, such factors that are not conducive to the emergence of capitalism still exist.
” The final factor that makes the difference between China and the west is the difference between Weber’s Protestant Ethics and Confucianism and Taoism ethics.
Weber believes that Protestant Ethics led to the emergence and development of capitalist spirit.
Its performance is: the activity of pursuing wealth and money itself is self, not a means to achieve other purposes, nor a sin.
Accordingly, the activity of endless pursuit of profit is gradually recognized.
Hard work is regarded as a virtue and a moral obligation.
Rational labor organization, emphasizing discipline and control.
The main reason why China failed to develop a rational bourgeoisie and capitalism like the west is the lack of a special religious ethics as an indispensable inspiration.
Professor Jacobs of the United States also made a similar conclusion with Weber when discussing the modernization of South Korea.
He summarized in detail the obstacles of Confucian ethics to the social development of East Asia.
These include: Confucianism is indifferent and even hostile to the productive commercial and industrial economy.
Advocate absolute loyalty to incompetent superiors.
Promote poverty alleviation through thrift rather than production.
It refuses to solve the problem actually, but solves it ideally.
It is a small spark of intelligence rather than a deep speculative system.
Its elite class consciousness.
Even at the critical moment of its survival, it is still anti utilitarian.
It studies moral philosophy rather than social science knowledge, and so on.
In short, Confucianism pursues personal morality rather than social utilitarian effect.
This kind of Confucianism has been challenged in the past two centuries.
Confucian culture hinders and constrains the social development of East Asia, of course, because it is conservative in its way of thinking, but more importantly, cowardice is highly combined with the political structure of East Asia, and ideology and political center are almost integrated.
The emperor is equivalent to the supreme priest in religion, and the imperial power also has the highest power of interpretation and judgment of ideology.
This is unthinkable in the Middle East, India and the West.
Due to the close combination of this exclusive ideology and centralized bureaucratic politics, a parasitic, conservative and impermissible national bureaucratic class has been produced or bred, which hinders the development of East Asian society.
This is the reason why “Confucianism or Confucian ethics failed in the start of modernization in the early East.
Weber’s research on Confucian ethics starts from the institutional level rather than the ideological level.
This is the weakness of Confucian research”.
Fukuzawa Yuki, a thinker of the Meiji reform enlightenment in Japan, also correctly pointed out in the outline of civilization that Confucianism “half belongs to the knowledge about politics” and “it is a factor causing social stagnation, which can be said to be the sin of Confucianism.
” However, after the 1970s, the economic miracle of the Confucian cultural circle countries in East Asia caused an upsurge of discussion on Weber’s theory and challenged Weber’s theory. K. Kahn took the lead in putting forward Confucian ethics.
In his book world economic development, he explained the reasons for the economic development of East Asia with Confucian ethics.
He believes that Confucian culture has many advantages and relatively few disadvantages.
Orientals “seem to be more adapted to industrialization than Westerners”.
The reason is that most people in such countries are influenced by Confucianism and culture and have common cultural characteristics: emphasizing self-control, education and learning skills, and facing work, family and obligations with a serious attitude.
Focus on groups, such as home mills, communities or companies.
Pay attention to the complementarity and harmony of interpersonal relationships.
Kang en’s view has attracted extensive attention and has been seriously discussed by the academic community.
After the 1980s, the view that Confucian ethics contributes to economic development has been regarded as a reasonable hypothesis.
A scholar once said: “strong motivation for wealth, honor and health, and the ability to express respect for families and ancestors are undoubtedly decisive cultural factors enough to initiate a new economic action.”. Later, R.
macfaquhar put forward the viewpoint of “post Confucian hypothesis”, which holds that the post Confucian culture emphasizes the collectivism of unity and harmony and sacrifice and dedication, and the western culture emphasizes the individualism of protecting rights and pursuing equality.
If Western individualism is conducive to the early pioneering stage of capitalist industrialization, then Confucian collectivism may be more suitable for the era of mass industrialization.
Therefore, the gradual rise of East Asian countries began to pose a substantive economic challenge to the west, which has dominated the whole world for 200 years after the industrial revolution.
The most representative is the theory of “two types of modernization” put forward by Peter Berger, a professor of religion and sociology at Boston University in 1082.
Peter Berger believes that there are two types of modernization in the world today.
One is the western modernization based on European development experience.
The other is the New Oriental modernization with special character, namely “Confucian Capitalism”, which has taken place in East Asia, including Singapore.
Peter Berger pointed out that the Secularity of Oriental forms – “vulgar con fucianism” should be the main source of East Asian modernization.
This “secular Confucianism” refers to the influence of Confucianism on the beliefs and values of ordinary people in society in their daily life.
Its main connotation includes a deepened sense of hierarchy, investment in family (for family, individuals must work hard and save), and a norm of discipline and thrift.
In economic activities, it is the work ethics of high productivity, the social and cultural conditions conducive to economic development, such as abiding by discipline, unity, agreeing with collective goals, and obeying authority.
Therefore, on the whole, Berger inherited the affirmation of the importance of “cultural” factors in economic development, thus providing a Weber style cultural explanation for the modernization of East Asian countries and regions.
Many eastern scholars also challenged Weber’s proposition of Confucian ethics. Dr. Huang Jinghan of Taiwan also believes that “from all aspectsThis is an important guarantee for the economic development of East Asia.
Because state intervention is the political basis of economic development.
A strong government has a strong sense of economic construction and a strong guiding role.
It includes a strong will, a clear medium and long-term development plan, a strict organizational system and strong military support.3. Confucian ethics has created a unique spirit or sense of belonging of loyalty to enterprises in East Asia.
In the management of modern Japanese enterprises, the interests of being loyal to enterprises are higher than their own interests.
Employees who are not loyal to their own enterprises are also difficult to be tolerated by other enterprises.
The awareness of being loyal to the enterprise, long-term stable and even lifelong employment in the enterprise and the orderly combination of high and low ages in the enterprise have formed the annual merit sequence wage system accepted by enterprise members.
The awareness of being loyal to the enterprise, putting the interests of the enterprise first, working with one heart and one mind and working together in the same boat make organizations such as trade unions not only take into account the interests of the enterprise, but also realize their personal interests.
This is beyond the reach of the West.
When talking about economic culture, South Korean scholar Kim Il Kun once said: it is entirely possible to force individuals to participate in the operation of economic organizations with external forces.
However, in doing so, it is impossible to achieve efficiency and rationality in the economy.
Therefore, if we want to improve the efficiency and rationality in the economy, we must have interest motivation and love motivation.
Interest motivation is the economic motivation to improve the economic level.
Love motivation refers to human primitive motivation, including loyalty and filial piety and other thoughts and ethical principles.
If people in Europe use the principles of individualism centered civil society or social contract to maintain social order, the order in Confucian culture is maintained by the collectivist principles of “loyalty” and “filial piety”.
(2) the concept of benevolence or harmony is the main content of Confucianism, which is a set of ethical system used to restrict the communication between people.
“Benevolence” occupies a very important position in Confucianism.
It is the core of morality and the foundation of ethics.
“Benevolence” is the way for people to get along with each other.
Interpersonal communication should be able to live in harmony, share common prosperity, mutual assistance and love.
Confucianism divides interpersonal relationships into five categories.
There are five Confucian Ethics: righteousness between kings and officials, affinity between father and son, difference between husband and wife, orderly growth and childhood, and faith among friends.
Among the five ethics, the relationship between father, wife and children belongs to the scope of family, friends belong to the scope of society, and monarchs and ministers belong to the scope of the state.
It is a collectivist spirit for society and others to put forward that “worry about the world first and enjoy the happiness of the world later”.
The moral concept of mutual assistance and collectivism in Confucianism coincide with the increasingly detailed division of labor in modern society and the increasingly integrated world economy and politics, which has become an important factor in promoting the economic development of East Asia.
The Confucian thought of “harmony is precious” has widely penetrated into East Asian enterprises and has become an important part of enterprise values.
Taking South Korea as an example, most of the business ideas of South Korean enterprises reflect this concept.
Weiyuan group’s “harmony, thrift and upward”.
“Harmony, enthusiasm and pride” of Sanmei group.
LG Group’s “harmony and unity, pioneering spirit, research and development”.
“Diligence, frugality and fraternity” of Hyundai Group.
Shuanglong group’s “trust, innovation and harmony”.
Xiaoxing group’s “honest service, hard creation, harmony and unity”.
Kia group’s “unity, honesty and creativity” are the embodiment of Confucian culture in the enterprise.
According to South Korean Entrepreneurs, Enterprise management should be “people-oriented and ability oriented”.
Therefore, they generally advocate the spirit of ownership.
POSCO iron and steel company put forward the slogan of “people of POSCO” and Daewoo Group put forward the slogan of “Daewoo family” The concept of “harmony” expresses the idea of harmony.
Korean enterprises strongly encourage every employee to become a member of the collective and emphasize pride and unity and cooperation.
The purpose is to encourage all employees to carry forward the spirit of unity and collectivism and contribute to the enterprise with one heart and one mind.
The operators of Korean enterprises believe that the enterprise is like a big family and should be like a family Harmony is the premise of business operation and development.
Enterprises and companies in East Asia are not only economic units, but also social entities.
They implement social values and ensure social unity.
In addition to using economic means such as wages and bonuses, it also meets the social needs of employees, such as promoting the unity of employees, promoting the cooperation between management departments and employees, and expanding the welfare of employees, such as subsidizing housing, financing recreational and sports activities, organizing tourism holidays, etc.
Therefore, the employees of enterprises in East Asia work harder and are willing to work overtime or overtime.
They often have a sense of belonging and responsibility to the company and are more motivated than the employees of western enterprises.
(III) the concept of diligence and thrift thrift, diligence, fearlessness and hard work are the traditional ethical values and code of conduct shared by East Asian countries.
This national character and spirit is undoubtedly conducive to the process of modernization.
East Asian nations have always been known for their diligence and thrift, hard work and savings.
People who believe in Confucian culture generally advocate frugality and saving money and oppose extravagance.
Such a value concept will obviously have a direct impact on people’s treatment of the relationship between accumulation and consumption, which is conducive to curb inflation and foreign debt pressure, and help to develop capital intensive industries in a timely manner.
Many researchers believe that an important factor for the rapid transformation of industrial structure and significantly higher economic growth rate in East Asian countries and regions than that in European and American developed countries is that the “four little dragons” in East Asia and Japan have the highest investment rate and savings rate in the world.
Taiwan’s national savings rate was 30% in the 1970s and increased to 39.
9% in 1987.
The savings rate in Hong Kong remained between 27% and 29% from the 1960s to 1980s.
South Korea’s savings rate was 27.
7% in 1988.
Singapore has the highest national savings rate, reaching 42% in 1985 and 41.
9% in 1988.
Accordingly, some people believe that East Asian countries and regions belong to an accumulation society.
In contrast, European and American countries belong to a consumer society.
In 1988, the savings rate in West Germany was 12.
6%, while that in the United States was only 6.6%. What coexists with frugality is the spirit of diligence, hard work and perseverance.
China’s Tibor Chetovskiy, an American scholar, also believes that “the great success of Korea and Taiwan” is “ancient Chinese literature search.
” it can be traced back to their common tradition.
This is a hard work and a willingness to endure hardships.
In his book economy and culture, Japanese scholar Mingxue and taro wrote: “there are not many countries that regard labor and busyness as virtues.
There are only some Confucian countries and Protestant countries such as China, Japan and North Korea.
Others, whether Catholic or IslamicMost teachers do not regard labor as glory.
” According to the 1988 survey on the labor situation of 52 countries and regions conducted by the United Bank of Switzerland, the average annual working hours of workers in the world are 1966 hours, while Hong Kong is the highest, with an average of 2627 hours and an average of 9.
16 hours per day, ranking first in the world.
Therefore, it is known as one of the most tense cities in the world.
An American expert once conducted a social survey and found that if the international standard for the concentration of physical strength paid by workers is set as 100, the physical strength paid by Japanese workers is 120, while that of American workers is only 70.
If the wage income is reduced in proportion to the physical strength paid, the proportion of countries and regions such as South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong is the highest, followed by Singapore and Japan, and again in Europe and the United States.
In addition, according to the statistics of “Korean social indicators” published in 1986, the average working hours of workers in various industries in South Korea are 50 hours per week.
Senior employees of enterprises work longer hours, generally 53 hours a week, while managers work 54 hours a week.
These data show that, East Asia, especially Bruce Lee “To a large extent, the success of Japan’s economy is the result of people’s hard-working hands and sweat.
When summing up the reasons for the development of Japan’s economy, Japanese scholar Kiyoshi Takahashi said: there are many reasons for Japan’s economy to embark on this development path, and the fundamental reason lies in Japan’s national character.
The ethical concept of Protestants has brought capitalist system and industrial society to Western Europe, while Japanese farmers and craftsmen Starting from cultural traditions and needs, it has the quality of being good at combining with this ethical concept, which is the character of diligence and the spirit of controlling consumption for savings and investment.
Former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore made two speeches at the 1990 global strategy seminar and the National Day mass conference, which made a very profound summary of the role of Confucian culture.
He pointed out that the success of East Asia has many factors, most of which are “invisible factors” such as social value systems and the systems used by society to maintain and implement these value systems.
They all attach great importance to the interests of Japan, the society and the society of Singapore, and respect the virtues of diligence and frugality, as well as the social and personal interests of Hong Kong.
Singapore’s success is inseparable from its cultural background.
Cultural values are our basic strength.
Without this factor, nothing can be achieved.
If there were no traditional values such as hard work and social cohesion, there would be no Singapore today.
(IV) shame view when western scholars compare Eastern and Western cultures, they often call western culture “guilt culture” and eastern culture “shame culture”.
The difference between them is that guilt is people’s motivation to do good, the driving force of people’s moral system comes from the inside, and the internal conscience causes chagrin and tension.
On the contrary, in the shame culture, morality comes from the external force, and the fear of shame is people’s strong driving force.
This sense of shame does not necessarily have to have external direct critics, but often only imaginary judges.
People are always filled with an internal tension because of fear of being insulted by others.
The sense of shame and honor often complement each other.
They are proud of their strength or surpassing others in some aspects, so they have a special sense of superiority and glory.
But once you lose this superiority or lack it at all, you will feel inferior and remorseful.
For a nation-state, there are two main factors for the emergence of this sense of shame: first, the living environment, such as poor geographical conditions, large number of small people and lack of resources, is easy to produce the awareness of shame that everything is inferior to other countries.
Second, it has been invaded by foreigners for a long time and become a colony and semi colony.
Politically, it has lost power and humiliated the country, and economically, it is unbearably poor.
Therefore, it feels that it is one-third lower than others in the world.
The result of this sense of shame must produce a “special driving force for turning over politically and economically”, which is the so-called “awareness of advantages and disadvantages”.
This sense of shame of the Japanese and Korean nationalities can be the most representative.
Although the situation of the two countries is quite different, they both have a similar sense of shame.
Both countries are small countries.
When they see a nation and country many times larger than themselves standing in front of them, they always feel a sense of shame and depression, which often reflects a rare abnormal national psychology in the world.
Originally a small country, but we must call ourselves “great Japanese Empire”, “Korea”, “Daiwa nation” and “Korean nation”.
In addition, Japan suffered unprecedented humiliation due to its defeat, while South Korea suffered great humiliation due to long-term aggression by neighboring powers, especially Japan.
These factors lead to more humiliation in Japan and South Korea than in other western countries.
Benedict commented: “the Japanese Value shame far more than guilt.
” It is this shame that has become the driving force for them to catch up with and surpass other major powers.
“In the honor conscious Japanese society, knowing shame has become the main force.”. They always hope to be respected in the world.
Various Japanese newspapers almost repeated the same statement after the war: “Japan must be respected in the forest of the world” and “the responsibility of Japanese citizens is to win this respect on a new basis”.
In order to win this respect, Japan has been fighting tenaciously to become a world-class economic and political power.
(V) the concept of education attaches importance to education, which is another feature of Confucian culture.
Confucian culture attaches great importance to knowledge and has a good discussion on the source, function and relationship between knowledge and practice of knowledge.
Confucius advocated that “excellence in learning is a scholar” and “education without discrimination”.
Attaching importance to education and the development of knowledge and intelligence is a key factor in promoting the modernization of East Asia.
All countries and regions in East Asia attach importance to education.
They all regard education as the “foundation of the country” and the “way of prosperity” to revitalize the economic development of all ethnic groups in East Asia, and regard education as a fundamental strategic decision for the rise of East Asian countries and regions. II. Singapore’s efforts and experience in carrying forward traditional culture in the period of rapid development of modernization, the fierce impact of western strong culture has greatly promoted the development of Singapore’s cultural undertakings, but at the same time, there was the so-called “cultural crisis” in the late 1970s.
One is the so-called “language crisis”, that is, the impact of English on the mother tongue, resulting in the loss of cultural roots.
Singapore has three mother tongues, namely Chinese, English and Malay.
In order to meet the needs of opening up to the west, Singapore has implemented the bilingual education policy of English plus mother tongue.
However, in the late 1960s, English gradually replaced its mother tongue (Chinese, Malay and Tamil) as the first language, which was widely acceptedEnglish educators have absolute advantages in all aspects, while native speakers are limited in employment, promotion and income, resulting in the decline of mother tongue.
Although the popularity of English has played a great role in Singapore’s economic take-off, on the other hand, the supremacy of English has led to the loss of traditional culture.
The new generation of Chinese can only speak English, not Chinese.
Chinese learners of English have many difficulties to master the essence of western culture.
In this way, these Chinese have not only lost their original Oriental cultural characteristics, but also difficult to form western values.
The second is the so-called “moral crisis”.
Western utilitarianism and individualism are rampant, leading to a decline in the level of society and morality.
Under the impact of western strong culture, Singaporeans have learned western science and technology, management and many excellent achievements, but the negative factors and bad cypresses in western culture have also poured into Singapore.
Pornography, drug abuse, crime, love of leisure and hate of work, spiritual emptiness, moral decay, the rapid spread of advocating luxury, reluctance to support parents and other adverse phenomena emerge one after another, and the divorce rate is rising rapidly.
In order to solve the “cultural crisis”, Singapore vigorously promoted the spiritual and cultural construction centered on restoring the traditional virtues of Confucianism in the East and eliminating the bad atmosphere brought by western culture in the late 1970s.
These include: (1) vigorously promote the Chinese campaign.
In August 1979, Singapore began a three-month Chinese language promotion campaign.
After that, October is the Chinese language campaign month every year, and the Chinese language campaign has achieved great results.
In 1980, the number of people with Chinese as the main language accounted for 26% of the national population, which rose rapidly to 59% in 1988.
(2) Civilized manners movement.
In 1979, Singapore began a two-month politeness campaign, and later stipulated that June is the month of civility and politeness every year.
It is mainly to educate people, especially teenagers, to stress public morality, hygiene, observe public order, take good care of public property, dress politely and neatly, behave in accordance with etiquette, do not worship foreign countries and maintain national dignity.
(3) Advocating Confucian morality and ethics.
Since 1982, Singapore has been implementing a moral education program with Confucianism as the core in the whole society.
Singapore combines the loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, courtesy, righteousness and shame advocated by Confucianism with Singapore’s national conditions, giving it new content and meaning.
(4) Eliminate the negative factors in western culture, vigorously advocate the concept of “Asian values” and make it a national consciousness.
In 1988, Singapore formally put forward the concept of “Asian value” as the basis for the implementation of the strategy of “eliminating the negative influence of the west”.
In the white paper on common values in January 1991, the Singapore government defined the core concept of “Asian values” as: “the state is supreme and society is the first.
the family is the root and society is the foundation.
care and support, help each other in the same boat.
seek common ground while reserving differences, negotiate consensus.
racial harmony and religious tolerance.
” Singapore Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong has repeatedly said that these five values should be promoted into Singapore’s national consciousness.
Singapore advocates “Asian values”.
On the one hand, we should make Singapore values different from China’s values to avoid the so-called “Sinicization”, but “more importantly, we should eliminate the negative impact of Western individualism and utilitarianism”.
The proposal of Asian values and the introduction of a series of other measures have re occupied the dominant position of Confucian culture in Singapore’s overall culture.
When analyzing the impact of these two different values on Singaporeans in early 1995, former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore pointed out: I estimate that the impact of the west is 60%, compared with 40% of the impact of Asian core values.
In 20 years, the influence of the West on our lifestyle, fashion, politics and media will drop to 40%, while the influence of Asia will increase to 60%.
Singapore’s leaders have made a lot of incisive discussions on the significance and basic principles of advocating Confucian culture.
As early as 1972, Lee Kuan Yew believed that “Confucianism is not a religion, but a set of practical and rational principles aimed at maintaining the order and progress of secular life.
” He said that if a country only has a rich material life and superb technology, but lacks a spiritual force that can unite the whole country, it is very dangerous.
The country “will be difficult to resist all kinds of natural and man-made disasters, and will eventually collapse”.
In his speech at the inaugural ceremony of the Beijing International Federation of Confucianism on October 5, 1994, Lee Kuan Yew pointed out: “From the experience of governing Singapore, especially the hard days from 1959 to 1969, I deeply believe that if most of the people of Singapore had not been influenced by Confucian values, we would not be able to overcome those difficulties and setbacks.
The people of Singapore have group cohesion and can look at governing the country and solving social problems with a pragmatic attitude.
40 years of The experience of governing the country makes me believe that moral values and ethical norms are very important for building a sound and stable society.
Confucianism, which originated 2500 years ago, is the product of China’s agricultural society and serves China’s agricultural society.
It is absolutely impossible to move this idea intact to today’s information developed industrial society.
For example, we no longer value men over women.
Our children have equal educational opportunities and equal employment opportunities.
Therefore, if couples have other ideas, they must change.
Today’s government is no longer in the charge of feudal princes, and the scope of authority of the government has been expanded.
Therefore, the relationship between the government and the people must be repositioned.
I believe that if a society can retain its core values, especially the values specifically summarized in the five Lun, it will promote good and orderly relations between families, between families, and between families and the government.
The basic meaning and importance of these relations have not changed with the times.
Industrialization and scientific and technological development have not disconnected them from the times.
” From this passage, we can see that Lee Kuan Yew attaches great importance to the valuable value of Confucianism.
He advocated that we should inherit the Confucian culture, sublate it, develop it more, make the past serve the present and take the essence of Confucianism to cultivate Singapore’s values, so as to enhance cohesion and create a harmonious and orderly civilized society.
Section IV openness of East Asia to western culture I.
similarities and differences between eastern and Western cultures generally speaking, people tend to go to two extremes, either completely oppose the eastern and Western cultures, or confuse the two without distinction.
Correctly distinguishing the similarities and differences between the two is a major theoretical and practical problem that must be solved in the opening-up of East Asian countries and regions.
The difference between eastern and Western culturesThe same point lies in: 1 The West values individuals and competition, while the East values society and harmony.
Western individualism and values are the core of western national culture.
Its essence lies in individualism and utilitarianism.
Western values believe that individuals are the foundation and starting point of human society, and people must strive for their own interests.
To maintain social justice for yourself, to love yourself, to love others and society, to fight for yourself is also to fight for others and society.
Individuals are higher than the whole society, and there is a talent and the whole society.
Everyone should show his personality.
The more a person shows his personality, the more he can reflect the value of life.
This value comes from the mercantile society in the West.
“In a society where mercantilism prevails in Europe, industry and commerce are people’s businesses, and merchants in cities and towns are bound to betray their faith in order to make huge profits.
In order to expand private property, they often refuse to recognize their relatives.
In order to do business and move around, the concept of family is relatively weak, and the size of family is bound to shrink.
In a society with weak group concept, individualism is bound to expand.
In this kind of society, it is based on personal life Take action as the center and highlight personal value.
In collective activities, we should also fully show the relative independence of individuals.
” In the mercantilist society, free trade and free competition are required.
Therefore, individualism is often closely associated with this kind of business liberalism.
In order to obtain more freedom, individuals are required to be free from collective restrictions and constraints as far as possible.
In order to achieve business success and overcome risks, we must seize all short opportunities to defeat competitors.
Contrary to the Western values of personal supremacy, Confucian ethical values take the benevolence, righteousness and reason of Confucius and Mencius as the core.
It emphasizes that society first and individual second.
Personal interests should be subordinate to the interests of the whole society.
Confucian ethics believes that only when the whole society develops and remains stable can individuals get the maximum benefits.
When the two conflict, social interests should be put first.
At the same time, Confucian ethics stresses the interpersonal relationship and moral standards in family and society, emphasizes that relatives and friends should be one, the world is one, and stresses group consciousness.
This group consciousness is directly related to the agricultural culture of ancient East Asia.
The latter is the root of the formation of the traditional collective concept in East Asia.
Because in the society engaged in agriculture, people are in a relatively stable state in their long-term common regional life.
They interact and help each other, and it is easier to form a strong group concept.
“The ethical and moral concept of Confucianism is the basis of state centralization.
It requires the subordinates to obey the superiors absolutely without any objection.
Similarly, this concept is also the basis of regional and family collectivism.
Under the restriction of this ethical concept, the country or nation, village or family can easily form a community of destiny.
In this community, all members are related to prestige, honor and disgrace Share with others.
Within the community, one person succeeds and the collective feels honored.
When one person fails, the collective is disappointed.
Within this group, we should share weal and woe, share weal and woe. “.2. The West values profit and law, while the East values righteousness and emotion.
There are human rights declarations in the west, which make it clear that the government has the responsibility to protect individual rights and vigorously promote the theory of natural human rights.
In the western society that emphasizes individual rights as the benchmark, personal self-interest is bound to become the only goal pursued by the world.
The friendship and morality between people are not only ignored by people, but also ignored.
At the same time, the law is valued.
Because in a western society where everyone pursues personal rights and private interests, only by relying on the law can we solve the contradictions between people.
The law can both protect the rights of individuals and sanction violations of human rights.
Therefore, the development of law in western countries is closely related to people’s rights and values.
First of all, the West should strive for the individual’s right to exist, at least paying equal attention to rights and obligations.
In contrast with the west, the East values justice over profit and love over law.
The so-called righteousness refers to morality, benevolence, righteousness and morality.
The so-called benefit refers to material interests and utility.
Confucius said in the Analects of Confucius: “a gentleman is compared to righteousness and a villain to benefit.
In the relationship between righteousness and benefit, righteousness is the highest value.
Emphasizing righteousness and reason, righteousness affirms people’s desire for wealth, but righteousness comes first.
Confucius said: giving aid to a son is righteousness.
A gentleman with courage but no righteousness is chaos, a villain with courage but no righteousness is stealing benevolence” and “righteousness” are the foundation of Confucian ethics and morality, which is the goal that should be pursued in life, Stressing morality, not seeking personal interests, not forgetting righteousness for profit, not chasing righteousness and profit is the highest criterion of life.
Because of this, the East has not paid much attention to law since ancient times, but took the moral principle as the criterion of people’s code of conduct.
The relationship between people is mainly maintained by morality, not by legal constraints.
Confucianism believes that people must be bound by social morality and cannot ignore social morality for personal interests.
Only those who meet the social moral standards can do it.
On the contrary, they would rather give up their personal interests until they sacrifice their lives.
If everyone pursues self-interest, he is equal to animals.
People must restrain their seven emotions and six desires, especially their desires, and strive to pursue moral perfection and nobility.
This is undoubtedly related to the ancient Chinese economy.
If the western legal concept is mainly a reflection of urban social economy, the Confucian ethical concept in East Asia is mainly a reflection of rural natural economy.3. The West values business over agriculture and the East values agriculture over commerce.
From the emphasis on commerce and agriculture, western culture can be summarized as “mercantilism”.
This mercantilism originated from the development of ancient western commercial economy.
Max Weber believes that Europe was a nomadic nation in ancient times, and agriculture developed with animal husbandry.
Europe belongs to marine culture, with a large range of activities and more developed commerce than the East.
The industry and Commerce of ancient western cities developed earlier.
After the 16th century, capitalism began to be established due to the industrial revolution in Europe.
Mercantilism appeared in the theories and policies of Western European countries in exploring rich countries.
In modern times, Western mercantilism developed even more.
Compared with Western mercantilism, East Asia is “heavy agriculture”, which regards agriculture as the foundation of the country.
It is a prominent feature of China’s traditional ideology and culture to attach importance to agriculture and despise commerce and the end.
Confucius said, “enough food, enough soldiers and people’s trust”.
It means that the way for emperors to govern the country and stabilize the country is to do a good job in agriculture and get enough food and clothing.
Mencius also said.
“If you don’t choose farming time, you can’t win food in the valley”.
“Bai Shang”Don’t seize the time.
A family of several people can live without hunger. “. Public opinion in East Asia has always believed that every business must be raped.
Businessmen get rich mostly by taking things by surprise, which is generally despised by the society, thus forming the theory of “scholar, agriculture, industry and commerce”, in which business ranks last among the four elements.
The origin of its formation is just opposite to that of the West.
In ancient times, East Asia was based on extensive farming, belonging to river irrigation culture, and was in the state of rural natural economy for a long time.
Therefore, it is inevitable to implement heavy agriculture.
To sum up, there are great differences between Confucianism in East Asia and Western culture, but this does not mean that Confucianism is completely opposite to western culture.
The two have great differences, but they also have something in common.
We can find a certain convergence point between the two.
In this regard, it is what the current academic circles ignore.1. All advocate giving priority to education.
From the spirit of capitalism in modern Western Europe to the Confucianism in ancient East Asia, we can see the important role of education in the social development of the East and the West.
The modernization of western countries was based on the European Renaissance, including the establishment of new schools.
With the development of urban industry and commerce, citizens’ demand for knowledge has increased significantly.
From the 11th to 13th century, urban schools were set up everywhere in Europe, and the blockade of the church was broken from then on.
Famous universities such as Paris, Oxford, Cambridge and Heidelberg have emerged in Europe.
Due to the development of education, the natural and Human Sciences in Europe have developed rapidly.
“These have become important prerequisites for the Renaissance.
The subsequent British capitalist industrial revolution, of course, appeared under the premise of the high development of education and Science in Europe at that time.
Education gives people intelligence.
Education not only trains scientists, but also politicians, entrepreneurs and officials.
” Similarly, Confucianism also advocates educational priority.
Confucius has always advocated that “excellence in learning is a scholar”, put forward the educational thought of “education without discrimination”, and advocated improving people’s intelligence through learning and universal education.
Since Confucius put forward this educational thought, China and other East Asian countries have taken it as the guiding ideology throughout all ages.
In particular, “under the influence of this thought, not only the level of digital education in the Warring States period has been greatly improved, but also due to the continuous improvement of the cultural quality of the Chinese nation, China is still the most powerful country in the world until the middle of the 18th century.”.2. They all advocate a positive and enterprising spirit.
One of the important contents of Western Christian Calvinism is the enterprising spirit, which requires people to be self-control, introspection, loyalty and diligence.
This is consistent with Confucianism.
Max Weber’s statement that Confucian ethics and Protestant ethics are incompatible is not accurate.
Confucius’s well-known sayings on “never tire of learning, never tire of insulting people”, “forget food with anger, forget worries with joy, and don’t know that old age is coming” are showing the spirit of Oriental people’s hard work and hard struggle.
Confucius also opposed doing nothing and doing nothing.
He said, “it’s hard to eat all day and have no intention.”. Confucius’ positive enterprising spirit and conscientious attitude have much in common with the enterprising spirit of Western Protestant ethics.3. Both advocate humanitarian thought.
Whether the anti theocracy of the European Renaissance, the humanistic trend of thought requiring “respect for people”, or the political slogans of “freedom”, “equality” and “fraternity” during the French bourgeois revolution in the 18th century are anti feudal humanitarian thoughts, which have many similarities with Confucius’s thoughts of “benevolence” and “love” before 2000.
Confucius’s “benevolence” is “love”, “Pan love the public, and pro benevolence” is a high generalization of Confucian humanitarian thought.
Confucius day: “a man of benevolence is a man who wants to stand, and a man who wants to reach”, which means that everyone should treat himself as an adult and others as adults.
They should see that others are human and themselves are human.
They should learn to love the masses, implement benevolence, and make everyone a real person in society.
There is no fundamental difference between these wise sayings and western humanitarianism.
Due to different times, the background and object of advocating humanitarianism are different.
In the Warring States period more than 2000 years ago, the humanitarian thought of Confucianism was only an academic thought at that time, which had not been widely accepted by the society.
Humanitarianism in the Renaissance has become a combat weapon for the emerging bourgeoisie against the old feudal forces.
But “both are progressive thoughts emerging in the period of social and historical changes in which the social form has undergone fundamental changes.
” Second, the necessity of absorbing western culture from a cultural perspective, the development of any society is nothing more than two driving forces: one is its own traditional culture, the other is to absorb foreign beneficial culture.
Both are indispensable, and the latter is often the catalyst for the accelerated development of our national culture.
At the beginning of human history, the spiritual civilization of all ethnic groups grew up alone in a relatively closed range.
However, with the improvement of human productivity and the development of communication tools, the vision continues to expand, and the cultural exchanges between various nationalities and countries are becoming more and more common.
The more a nation or country absorbs the outstanding civilization achievements of other nations, the faster its development will be.
This is the inevitable trend of the development of human society, especially in modern world history.
One of the important reasons for the rapid development of western culture in modern times is that it has fully absorbed the cultural heritage and essence of all ethnic groups including oriental culture, including ancient Greek culture, ancient Rome culture, Jewish culture, Arabia culture, ancient China culture and ancient India culture.
As Christopher Dawson, a famous western scholar, said, in every place, we can see the same rapid and spontaneous transmission movement from one end of Western Europe to the other.
In every place, we can see the combination of people and movements originated from different nationalities, which are aimed at creating a common in the Western Christian world, But there are highly different cultural patterns.
This process did not stop with the end of the middle ages, because the Renaissance itself is a typical example of this free communication and creation process.
For a common cultural goal and peaceful coexistence between different ideas, it spread from one country to another and united people of different races and languages.
In the process of absorbing Eastern national culture, Western European nations can not only maintain their national characteristics, but also absorb each other’s strengths, so as to create a high degree of civilization in Western Europe.
In modern times, it is more and more important to absorb foreign culture.
that is becauseFirst, the current information age has brought human culture into a new realm.
“With the high development of high technology and modern transportation, coupled with the unprecedented flow of people and materials in the world, revolutionary changes have taken place in the form, speed, quality and quantity of the production, dissemination, exchange and influence of the spiritual wealth of all nations in the world.”. According to statistics, the amount of scientific information in human society will double every five years.
The knowledge of physics accumulated in the past few thousand years is only 10%, while the knowledge of physics mastered by contemporary human society accounts for 90%.
In the field of chemistry, only 1400 compounds were known until the 1980s, while there were 1 million compounds after World War II.
In the 1990s, more than 4 million compounds were known to mankind.
“In terms of the mutual exchange and influence of spiritual products, the culture of agricultural society can only be spread by the flow of people.
The scope of influence is extremely limited, and it often takes a long time.
Some information can only be spread in human society for decades, hundreds of years or even thousands of years.
In the era of industrial revolution, newspapers, magazines, films and broadcasting have made the opening of culture possible New ways have been found, but it will take days or months for post offices and radio stations to become the main tools for human beings to exchange spiritual products.
At present, telephone, television, computer network and satellite communication can quickly spread some information all over the world in a very short time.
It is this revolutionary change that makes cultural openness a general trend that is not transferred by people’s will.
” Second, the status of culture, especially knowledge and information, has undergone essential changes.
In history, knowledge and information are subordinate to politics, military and economy in social development, and only play an auxiliary role.
Nowadays, in the information age, the nature of knowledge and information has undergone fundamental changes.
Toffler, a famous American futurist, pointed out that “violence and wealth themselves begin to rely on knowledge”, and knowledge has become “the most important part of violence and wealth.
In other words, knowledge has changed from the appendage of money power and muscle power to their essence”.
“In a larger sense, the change of knowledge is causing or contributing to the huge power transfer”.
That is to say, information and knowledge are no longer just a part of the superstructure based on economy, but become the most important resource, the object of people’s labor, the product of labor and the direct consumption object of people.
Therefore, absorbing advanced culture “is no longer a matter of whether there is or not, but a major issue that determines the survival and development of a nation and a country.
” The rapid pace of modernization in the late Meiji Restoration of Japan benefited from the timely absorption of western culture.
The rise of other East Asian countries and regions also benefits from western culture to a great extent.
Without the impact of western culture and a lot of absorption, East Asian traditional culture cannot be reborn.
Similarly, other countries and regions in East Asia will also realize modernization in absorbing western culture in the 21st century.
According to the analysis of the above cultural concepts, the first two of the three cultural levels are of great significance for East Asia to absorb or open to the outside world.
The first level is the so-called “peripheral culture”, that is, the culture with unique national characteristics.
Its characteristics have distinct national and regional characteristics, surpass the era and historical development stage, and have no class limitations.
It is the national habits, customs and social customs formed by all ethnic groups in the process of their historical development, such as diet, clothing, decoration, architecture, music, dance and so on.
In these aspects, all ethnic groups have their own good points and strengths.
There is no distinction between high and low, right and wrong.
Therefore, the exchange, exchange, learning and introduction of western national characteristic culture will benefit East Asia’s national cultural life infinitely.
There are almost no disadvantages.
At least the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
There is no doubt that we should be bold and open.
The second level is “scientific rational culture”, which includes all natural sciences and most humanities and Social Sciences (except philosophy, history, politics and economy).
It is the system of human understanding of the general laws of nature and human society, and the crystallization of intelligence accumulated by human beings in the practice of transforming nature and Society for thousands of years.
It has no nationality, no class and no national boundaries.
It is a treasure house of knowledge for all mankind.
However, there are advanced and backward here, and its level is high or low.
For backward countries, there is no doubt that they should learn, absorb and accept all the excellent achievements of the advanced and developed scientific and rational culture.
This absorption is of great significance to the modernization of backward countries: (1) introducing and learning from the scientific, educational, health, sports and cultural systems of advanced countries can promote the progress and development of backward countries in these fields.
(2) Introducing and learning foreign advanced natural sciences can greatly shorten the time and gap to catch up with and surpass the world scientific level.
(3) Introducing and learning these advanced social sciences can prosper their academic theories, improve the level of academic theoretical research, expand people’s vision, break the ideological closure and promote people’s ideological liberation.
“It is of great significance to the social and economic development of backward countries and the improvement of national quality.
” On the third level, the absorption and opening of “Ideological and moral culture” should be cautious on the one hand, but the essence of it should also be boldly absorbed.
“Ideological and moral culture” includes world outlook, moral norms, social values, ideology, social ideals, etc.
At this level, culture is the crystallization of a nation’s long-term history and the spiritual core and soul of a nation.
It is relatively closed and stubborn, and is not vulnerable to the influence of foreign culture.
This kind of culture “has a strong attraction to the weak and small national culture, and a strong resistance and rejection to the relatively strong national culture”.
It “has both strong national color and distinct class nature.
it has both advanced positive factors and conservative and backward negative factors.
Western values encourage everyone to work hard, have pioneering spirit, pay attention to reality, advocate personal initiative and creativity, and contain positive enterprising spirit.
However, Western life values also contain many negative things.
For example, valuing individuals leads to selfishness, valuing material enjoyment leads to extravagance and lust, valuing career success leads to unscrupulous means, and personal struggle degenerates into extreme individualism.
The correct attitude should be to learn from strengths to make up for weaknesses, eliminate disadvantages and promote benefits.
In the tide of commodity economy and market economy in East Asia, great changes have taken place in Oriental life values, one of the western life valuesSome positive factors have been absorbed.
For example, the concept of valuing profits over righteousness is favored.
People begin to pay more attention to the law of commodity value, pay more attention to the consciousness of competition, development and innovation than in the past, respect the concepts of property rights, legal system, time and efficiency, and pay attention to the role of individuals.
These foreign ideas are undoubtedly an important condition for promoting the modernization of East Asia.
They promote the renewal of people’s ideas, liberate people’s thoughts and broaden people’s horizons.
Of course, the negative factors in Western life values and the garbage in some Western cultures have also produced a series of negative effects.
Phenomena such as extreme democracy, extreme individualism, profiteering, extravagant consumption, selflessness, and money orientation have expanded unprecedentedly, and social ills such as pornography, drug abuse, alcoholism and advocating violence have also become rampant.
Therefore, we should strengthen the country’s macro strategy for entering western culture, resist the entry of Western negative culture led by the United States, weaken the influence of Western decadent culture, curb the vicious expansion of individualism and maintain our own national cultural characteristics.
We must resolutely resist its cultural dross and try to shut it out, but we can’t deny the positive role of the former because of the latter.
The key is to adopt a correct attitude and policy. III. Japan and Singapore absorb the experience of western culture.
Among the eastern nationalities, the Japanese nation is an example of constantly absorbing foreign culture, especially realizing modernization through Westernization.
Japan has implemented the so-called “bringing doctrine” for a long time.
In history, the early Japanese nation mainly absorbed Chinese culture.
Japan takes the highly developed ancient Chinese culture as the main object of absorption.
From the time when Japan sent a special envoy to China in AD 600 to the Tokugawa Shogunate era in 1636, Japan mainly implemented the so-called “overall Sinicization”.
During this period, there were two large-scale upsurge of learning Chinese culture.
After these two large-scale studies, Japan’s politics, economy and culture have absorbed a large number of excellent civilization achievements from China.
In modern times, with the gradual introduction of western culture, Japanese national culture based on Chinese culture was violently impacted by western strong culture.
People began to worship western culture and despise Eastern culture.
Yuki Fukuzawa, the enlightenment master of Japanese modernization thought, put forward the slogans of “overall Westernization” and “leaving Asia and entering Europe”, advocating a thorough study of the West.
Under the guidance of this trend of thought, Japan has had two large-scale waves of so-called “overall Westernization” since modern times: the first upsurge was from 1853 to the 1920s to 1930s.
It took learning western civilization as the goal.
Through westernization, the advanced western culture quickly dominated the social development trend of Japan, resulting in great development in Japan.
As early as 1871, Japan sent a large delegation composed of 100 people to visit 12 countries in Europe and the United States for nearly two years, made a detailed investigation on the political, economic and cultural systems of western developed countries, and comprehensively introduced the Western rules and regulations.
In the 26 years from 1872 to 1898, Japan employed more than 15000 foreign experts.
Japan has almost completely absorbed all kinds of natural sciences, social sciences, bourgeois democracy, freedom, human rights, individualism, utilitarianism and other Western values in Europe and America.
Western living customs, clothing, diet, songs and dances also flow into Japan.
The upsurge of Japan’s second Westernization (mainly beautification) was in the post-war period (1945 to 1960s-1970s).
Due to the military occupation of Japan by the United States, the parliamentary democracy, educational system, academic thought, science and technology, management style and lifestyle of the United States “have profoundly rewritten the history of Japan after the war”.
This time, the “Westernization” or “beautification” also had a profound impact on Japan, and Japan has become a large country with rapid economic development.
It can be seen from this that “externalization”, especially the “West”, has played an immeasurable role in the development of Japanese history.
It made Japan surpass China at the end of the 19th century, and surpass Western European countries in the 1980s and 1990s, from a weak culture to a strong culture.
It can be said that without understanding foreign culture, it is impossible to understand its (Japanese Culture) development.
“Sinicization” and “Westernization” have their own emphases.
“Sinicization” is mainly reflected in Confucian values and ethics, “Westernization” is mainly reflected in political, economic and educational systems.
However, Japan is not completely “sinicized” or “Westernized”.
Japan is not sinicized by absorbing a large number of Confucian culture, nor westernized by absorbing a large number of European and American Christian culture.
On the contrary, the Japanese nation has created a unique Japanese Daiwa national culture on the basis of these two foreign cultures.
For the good things in foreign culture, Japan always takes the first step, accepts them all, and implements the bold “taking doctrine”.
Then “discard less and take more”, imitate and copy it, and always absorb it selectively and differently when introducing foreign culture, and integrate and process it.
In short, there are both imitation and replication and comprehensive innovation.
The Japanese claim to be the so-called “harmonious souls and foreign talents” or “western art and Oriental morality”.
Referring to the characteristics of “Sinicization” and “Westernization” of Japan, former Japanese Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida pointed out that the Japanese nation is a nation that spares no effort to learn from foreign strong culture, “Since ancient times, the Japanese have been like this.
On the good side, they are magnanimous to other nations and civilizations.
On the bad side, they are easy to become imitators who are obsessed with foreign civilizations.
” Singapore is not only an example of advocating Confucian culture, but also an example of learning from western culture.
In the process of modernization, Singapore, like Japan, also implements “taking doctrine”.
It is these Western cultures that have become the “starter” or “catalyst” for the modernization of Singapore and other East Asian countries.
The reason is that the modernization of these countries is different from the original modernization of western countries.
Their modernization is post modernization.
The start of this modernization depends largely on the impact and “transplantation” of western culture.
Confucian culture in East Asian countries pursues ethics or values of harmony and order, which is not conducive to the start of modernization in developing countries.
“The experience of modernization in the western style has opened up in the early stage of Singapore’s modernization”.
In other words, Confucian culture cannot independently promote modernization.
It must introduce the advanced system and technology created by Protestant Ethics in Europe and America, and combine it with traditional culture, so as to promote economic development and create new civilization.
This is a brand-new “regeneration mechanism”.
On the one hand, Singapore has a Confucian traditional culture, which existsTo remain invincible in the economy and the new world, we must embrace world civilization.
We welcome globalization and the information technology revolution, and we know that they bring more opportunities than they cost us.
” In recent years, Singapore has taken bold reform measures against many conformist systems.
For example, the restrictions on foreign ownership in the banking industry have been lifted and the telecommunications industry has been fully opened.
Revised the conditions of stock listing, allowed loss making companies to list on major stock markets, and revised bankruptcy regulations to encourage failed companies to try again.
Establish a reward system to reward entrepreneurs who rise from failure and succeed, and cooperate with professionals in the private sector to provide several insurance investment funds.
In order to prevent adverse political effects, the authorities have proposed a number of preferential measures, including plans to provide people with preferential shares in government-owned companies and reduce the housing burden of subsidized families.
It is “this pragmatic attitude that has enabled Singapore’s policymakers to be at the forefront of many leaders in the world”.
In short, Singapore has provided valuable experience not only in carrying forward oriental traditional culture, but also in boldly absorbing western culture.
From 1950s to 1970s, it paid more attention to the introduction of western culture and played a positive role in breaking through the traditional conservative economy and social ethics.
Through “taking doctrine”, modern western capitalist civilization, including material civilization and spiritual civilization, entered Singapore, combined and collided with various non Western civilizations with a longer history in Singapore.
After a period of transformation, digestion and integration, it finally shaped a new type of spiritual civilization, a spiritual civilization with Singapore characteristics.