was extremely shocked when they learned that Hiroshima, Japan, had been bombed by the atomic bomb. As the first person to promote the research of the atomic bomb in the United States, Einstein said with regret: my biggest feeling now is regret. I regret that I shouldn’t have written that letter… I wanted to rob the evil killing tool of the atomic bomb from the madman at that time. I didn’t expect to send it to another madman.

“Einstein (data picture)

mushroom cloud raised after the explosion of the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Hiroshima (data picture)

reprinted this article only for the purpose of information dissemination, It does not mean that they agree with their views and positions. The

,

,

,

atomic bomb has become a tool for human self destruction, which has a great shock to those scientists who have participated in or paid attention to the research and manufacture of atomic bomb. Most of these scientists express a deep repentance and remorse for this.

on August 6, 1945, Einstein was extremely shocked when he learned from a young reporter of the New York Times that Hiroshima, Japan, had been bombed by the atomic bomb. As the first person to push the United States to start atomic bomb research, Einstein said with regret: “My biggest feeling now is regret. I regret that I shouldn’t have written that letter to President Roosevelt… I wanted to snatch the evil killing tool of the atomic bomb from madman Hitler. I didn’t expect to send it to another madman now… Why should we take tens of thousands of innocent men, women and children as the living targets of this new bomb?” Ma Xuquan: development and application of nuclear energy, chemical industry press, January 2005, 1st edition, page 169. In November, Einstein published an article in the Atlantic Monthly, pointing out: “I don’t think atomic energy will be a blessing in the foreseeable future, so I must say that it is a threat at present.” Yang Jianye: scientific double instrument: Award and mushroom cloud, commercial press, January 2008, 1st edition, page 269. In a speech at Nobel University in New York on December 10, Unless scientists keep warning each other about the dangers of these weapons in the future, they must not change their attitude towards each other’s security as a result of their efforts Ibid., P. 269. In July 1948, In his letter to the international intellectual peace conference, Einstein said: “as intellectuals and scholars from all over the world, we are shouldering the important task of history. Today, we come together,… We know from painful experience that rationality alone is not enough to solve the problems of our social life. In-depth research and scientific work often bring tragic consequences to mankind.” “The tragic fate of scientists has enabled us to help create more terrible and powerful weapons of destruction. Therefore, it is our bounden responsibility to prevent these weapons from being used for barbaric purposes.” Ibid., pp. 269-270. later, In his “fateful decision”, Einstein continued to appeal: “now is the time to call on everyone (regardless of gender) It’s time to think about the biggest disaster in the history of modern civilization Apart from bringing unprecedented casualties and destruction to both sides of the war, atomic war can not solve anything. It is no longer possible to settle disputes by war. ” Ibid., P. 270. Until Einstein’s death, Einstein took every opportunity to appeal to the United States not to turn scientific discoveries into murder weapons, and called on scientists all over the world to unite against nuclear war.

extended reading:

“Einstein (data picture)

mushroom cloud raised after the explosion of the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Hiroshima (data picture)

reprinted this article only for the purpose of information dissemination, It does not mean that they agree with their views and positions. The

,

,

,

atomic bomb has become a tool for human self destruction, which has a great shock to those scientists who have participated in or paid attention to the research and manufacture of atomic bomb. Most of these scientists express a deep repentance and remorse for this.

on August 6, 1945, Einstein was extremely shocked when he learned from a young reporter of the New York Times that Hiroshima, Japan, had been bombed by the atomic bomb. As the first person to push the United States to start atomic bomb research, Einstein said with regret: “My biggest feeling now is regret. I regret that I shouldn’t have written that letter to President Roosevelt… I wanted to snatch the evil killing tool of the atomic bomb from madman Hitler. I didn’t expect to send it to another madman now… Why should we take tens of thousands of innocent men, women and children as the living targets of this new bomb?” Ma Xuquan: development and application of nuclear energy, chemical industry press, January 2005, 1st edition, page 169. In November, Einstein published an article in the Atlantic Monthly, pointing out: “I don’t think atomic energy will be a blessing in the foreseeable future, so I must say that it is a threat at present.” Yang Jianye: scientific Duet: Nobel Prize and mushroom cloud, commercial press, January 2008, 1st edition, page 269. In a speech at Nobel University in New York on December 10, “As scientists, we must constantly warn people of the dangers of these weapons. We must strive to make the people of the world, especially their governments, aware that unless they change their attitudes towards each other and recognize their responsibilities in shaping a secure future, these weapons will inevitably cause unspeakable disasters,” he said Ibid., P. 269. In July 1948, Einstein said in a letter to the “international intellectual peace conference”:“As intellectuals and scholars from all over the world, bearing the heavy responsibility of history, we come together today,… We know from painful experience that rationality alone is not enough to solve the problems of our social life. In depth research and dedicated scientific work often bring tragic consequences to mankind. “The tragic fate of scientists has enabled us to help create more terrible and powerful weapons of destruction. Therefore, it is our bounden responsibility to prevent these weapons from being used for barbaric purposes.” Ibid., pp. 269-270. later, In his “fateful decision”, Einstein continued to appeal: “now is the time to call on everyone (regardless of gender) It’s time to think about the biggest disaster in the history of modern civilization Apart from bringing unprecedented casualties and destruction to both sides of the war, atomic war can not solve anything. It is no longer possible to settle disputes by war. ” Ibid., P. 270. Until Einstein’s death, Einstein took every opportunity to appeal to the United States not to turn scientific discoveries into murder weapons, and called on scientists all over the world to unite against nuclear war.

extended reading:

Oppenheimer, known as the “father of the atomic bomb”, was also one of the first people to doubt the scientific achievement of the atomic bomb. On October 16, 1945, Oppenheimer said, “if the atomic bomb is used by a belligerent world to expand its armaments or by countries preparing to wage war to arm themselves, mankind will curse the name of Los Alamos and the Hiroshima incident”, He took the opportunity to appeal that “people all over the world must unite, or mankind will destroy itself.” Ma Xuquan: development and application of nuclear energy, chemical industry press, January 2005, 1st edition, page 169.

Hahn, a British scientist who made great contributions to the development of the atomic bomb due to the discovery of element 93 plutonium, felt very depressed after learning that Japan was hit by the atomic bomb. He felt that it was because of his discovery that the original bullet was discovered, so he felt that he should be responsible for the deaths of more than 100000 people. He said on many occasions that he was deeply frightened when he saw the terrible consequences that his scientific discoveries might bring. Now that all these possibilities and fears have become a reality, he feels he has been blamed by his conscience.

a few months after the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the famous British philosopher Bertrand Russell had foreseen the danger that the huge destructive power of the atomic bomb would cause to human civilization. The success of the first hydrogen bomb test in the United States further prompted Russell to decide to take measures to persuade many outstanding scientists around the world to issue a statement with him, warning governments and the public of the danger of nuclear war. To this end, Russell wrote to Einstein in 1955. Einstein immediately replied enthusiastically, asking Russell to draft a declaration and send his signature to Russell. On July 9, 1955, the Declaration on nuclear weapons, the famous Russell Einstein declaration, was officially issued in London. A total of 11 famous scientists with Nobel laureates as the main body signed this declaration. In addition to Russell and Einstein, the Nobel laureates who signed the declaration also included the French physicist jorio Curie, the German founder of quantum mechanics Marx born, and the Japanese pioneer of the basic principles of meson theory Hideki tangchuan. The declaration and its annexes read as follows: “Nuclear weapons will definitely be used in any future world war, and such nuclear weapons will certainly threaten the sustainable survival of mankind. In view of this fact, we strongly urge the governments of the world to recognize and publicly recognize that their own purposes cannot be achieved through World War. Therefore, we strongly call for the search for peaceful means to resolve their disputes.” Ibid., pp. 171-172. In July 1957, under the call of the Russell Einstein declaration, 22 scientists from 10 countries belonging to different camps in the East and the West held their first meeting in pagwalsh, a small fishing village in Nova Scotia, Canada, to discuss how to assess the consequences of large-scale nuclear weapon tests, how to control nuclear weapons and reach a comprehensive disarmament agreement, And how scientists take on social responsibility. The conference was named “pagwalsh Conference on science and world affairs” by the participating scientists, and became the beginning of the famous “pagwalsh movement” that continues to this day.

on January 13, 1958, 9000 scientists from 43 countries in the world wrote to the Secretary General of the United Nations, demanding that an international agreement to stop nuclear testing be signed immediately. Wang Zhongchun: nuclear strategy of nuclear weapon states, current affairs press, August 2007, 1st edition, page 433.

in the spring of 1988, Stephen, a famous British physicist, won the Wolff prize for physics awarded by the Wolff foundation in Israel. Hawking also expressed his worries about the development of modern science and technology by using the award ceremony in Jerusalem. In his speech, he said, “The development of science has proved that we are a small part of the vast universe. This small part should be governed by the laws of reason. I hope we can also govern our affairs by the laws. However, the development of science also threatens us – it will destroy everything we have… Let us try our best to promote peace and ensure the next century and beyond We humans can continue to exist in the future. ” [US] Christine Larsen: Hawking’s biography, Shanghai Far East publishing house, August 2010, 1st edition, page 106. Obviously, Hawking’s remarks are aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, because until now, only nuclear weapons are the “science” that Hawking said can lead to the destruction of mankind.

extended reading:

however, we should note that no matter how indignant these scientists, philosophers and thinkers expressed their concerns about nuclear weapons, most of these suggestions and concerns remained in the stage of “air vibration” and did not produce any great practical effect. The reason is particularly simple: first, most of these scientists were active promoters of nuclear weapon development in those years, but now they are plausible