I.

ethnic origin there is no final conclusion about the origin of the Indian nation.

It is generally believed that the earliest people here are the Negro type Negritos.

Whether this race was originally formed in the South Asian subcontinent or in Africa.

If it was formed in Africa, how they came to India is still a mystery.

Some people believe that they came from Malaysia around the bay of Bengal to the foot of the Himalayas, and then distributed throughout the subcontinent.

The Negritos are likely to be the ancestors of the dravidans, at least in some way related by blood.

Some scholars have concluded that the darapitans were the product of a mixture of the Negritos and Europas, which occurred about 4000-3000 BC after the latter entered the South Asian subcontinent in large numbers.

The few Negritos who did not have such mixing still retain some traces of this race.

They are probably the ancestors of several tribes today, characterized by short stature and curly hair.

These tribes include Irula in Tamil Nadu, Kadar, ulali, paniyan, mutuwan and kanikar in Kerala, angaminaga in Assam, and some tribes in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and rajimahal mountain area in Eastern Bihar.

The negrito people are in the development stage of primitive stone tools and live by collecting food.

Up to now, the vast majority of the remaining tribes are still mainly engaged in primitive economic activities such as gathering and hunting.

According to research, the worship of banyan trees and the use of bows are likely to originate from these tribes.

After the Negritos, the original Australians who first lived in Palestine came to India.

It is unclear when and by what route they will migrate from west to East.

They gradually assimilated into the Negritos and Mongols.

These mixed race people are scattered from Kashmir in the west to the bay of Bengal in the East.

They all have the standing characteristics of primitive Australians.

They are short, dark brown or black skin, long head, wide and flat nose, wavy or curly hair and everted lips.

Primitive Australians belong to the South Asian language family and speak Kohl or Monda.

Mondas are typical of them, living in the Himalayas from Ladakh to Sikkim, the west of Madhya Pradesh and the south of ganjam and vizagapat.

This type of people is mostly in the tribal and low caste classes.

There is a free village system within the tribe, which can be shared by collective hunting, worship their respective tree gods, implement special laws and regulations, and be sentenced to entertaining tribal residents for misdemeanors and expelling them from the tribe for felonies.

Following the original Australians came the Mediterranean race.

They are migrating in batches.

The earlier one settled in the Ganges Valley and later gradually assimilated with the primitive Australians.

Mediterranean people are of medium build, thin and small, dark skin, long head, narrow face and wide nose.

Their current representatives in the south are Brahman castes in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Their traces can be found in the central region, from Gujarat to Madhya Pradesh to West Bengal.

They brought the skills of navigation, agriculture, building houses with rough stones and making pottery.

According to research, they are likely to have also brought the system of motherhood and the custom of respecting women.

Before the Aryans entered India from 2000 to 1500 BC, the darapitam were the main ethnic group living and operating in the vast areas of northern, Western and central India.

There are different theories about the origin of the darapida people.

Some believe that they are the original local residents, while others conclude that they have a direct relationship with Armenians in Mesopotamia.

The race is of medium and high stature, slender body, brown skin, long head, narrow nose, large eyes and developed chin.

At that time, the culture of the darapitam people was quite developed and was the main creator of the ancient culture in the Indus River Basin.

The basic contents of today’s Indian culture and religion are all originated from the darapitan people.

Although stone tools still exist, the smelting, manufacturing and use of metals (such as iron, copper, bronze, gold, silver, tin, lead, etc.

) have been very common.

The technology of cotton textile, printing and dyeing and wheel carving painted pottery has emerged.

Farming techniques have been greatly improved and ploughs have been put into use.

Cultivated crops include rice, wheat, etc.

In particular, the design and architecture of the city are amazing.

There are spacious houses, straight streets, exquisite drainage system, large baths, wells and so on.

The structure is complex and the layout is reasonable.

The original text has also appeared.

Aryans originally lived in Central Asia.

They were primitive farmers.

They also engaged in animal husbandry and were good at riding and shooting.

Their economic and cultural development level lags behind that of the dalapitans, but their powerful force is irresistible to the latter.

Aryans entered the Indus River Basin from the northwest through Persia and Afghanistan, and then reached the central part, the Ganges River Basin and Bangladesh, which caused great migration and mixing of ethnic groups in India.

Most of the darovitas were driven to the south, a few gradually mixed with Aryans, and a few were forced into deep mountains and forests.

Aryans are generally tall, slender, white, long head, narrow and high nose, blond hair, wavy and blue eyes.

However, due to the influence of ethnic mixing and climate, most of their skin has become light brown or brown, and their hair and eyes have become black.

Aryans have also made important contributions to Indian culture.

They brought horses and superior wheat.

Drinking milk, drinking alcohol and cutting clothes also originated from them.

In terms of culture, the most important gift is Aryan language.

Aryans also brought patriarchal society and established a caste system including Brahman, shatili, visha and sudara.

In Northeast India, it is geographically adjacent to inland Asia and Southeast Asia, which is easy for Mongols to enter.

About the middle of 1000 BC, the Mongols entered India from Northwest China and Mongolia and began to settle, reproduce and live here.

Some of them went south through the Brahmaputra River Basin, and some reached northeast India through Myanmar along the Mekong, Salween and Irrawaddy rivers.

First came the Kasi and Sinden, followed by the Garo, kachari, Tipula, laronga, Raba, Naga of Boda descent, as well as the Kuki, Lucia, Tai, chin and Ahom.

These tribesmen have brown complexion, medium and low stature, flat face, wide nose, high cheekbones and sparse hair.

The Mongols contributed a lot to Indian culture.

Pottery making, the use of bows and arrows, canoes, shovels and religious totem worship canIt all starts with them.

Because most of the residents of these tribes live in deep mountains and dense forests, they have inconvenient communication with the outside world, slow cultural development and low production technology, they still retain the production methods, religious beliefs and customs of many primitive tribes.

They are the basic ethnic component of many tribes in the northeast.

A remarkable feature of India’s historical development is the continuous invasion of foreigners, resulting in the continuous infiltration and integration of Protoss and nations, so that its culture presents diversity and complexity.

From about the 2nd century BC to the 1st century BC, the northwest of India was repeatedly invaded by foreigners.

At first, the Daxia people entered the Indus River Basin, then the Cypriots (i.e. the sakyamites) ruled the northwest of India and the Indus River Basin, and then the Dayue people established the kusana Dynasty.

Unfortunately, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the role of these historical events in the formation and development of the Indian nation.

In the 5th and 6th centuries A.D., Turks and gads (i.e. white Huns) entered India and mixed with local residents.

Their descendants are the Rajput people living in the northern and western regions of India (especially Rajasthan).

Due to the strict clan organization of the Rajput people, they were once prominent in politics.

They enjoyed the same high caste status as sardili in social life.

In the last 25 years of the 12th century, Muslims entered India on a large scale.

This not only led to great changes in religion, but also brought new ethnic elements.

In more than half a century, especially during the Mughal Empire, Muslim forces have developed rapidly, and too many Hindus have converted to Islam.

This has further developed India’s diversified society.

After the 15th century, due to the continuous invasion of western colonists and the mixed blood of India, a new British Indian hybrid was born.

Due to the above historical factors, Indian descent is mixed and there are many races, so it is known as the “race Museum”.

According to the Indian government, at the beginning of this century (1901), India has seven races: Indian Aryans (such as Jat, Rajput, Sikh, katri, etc.

, accounting for about 75% of the total Indian population), and darovitas (such as Santar, bir, toda, Nayar, South budiri, etc.

, accounting for about 20% of the total Indian population), Mongolians (such as Gara, Kasi, Kuki, Naga, etc.

), Aryan daropitea, montgolia daropitea, sishya daropitea and Turkic Iran.

In addition, there are hundreds of thousands of mixed British and Indian people. 2. Ethnic composition whether India is a single nation-state or a multi-ethnic state, and how the relations between various ethnic groups are, there have always been three different opinions and views, each holding one side and disagreeing.

One is the official view of India, which holds that all residents of India have integrated into a unified nation in the long-term historical development and the struggle against colonialism.

There are only differences in race, religious belief and language between them, and there are no obvious national boundaries and differences.

Those who hold this view deny the existence of the unique history and culture of all ethnic groups, keep sensitive ethnic issues secret, and denounce the growing ethnic disputes and conflicts as “localism”.

The second is the view of most foreign scholars and some Indian scholars that there are a large number of ethnic groups, ethnic differences, contradictions and ethnic oppression in India before and after independence.

The third kind of people hold a middle position and believe that although there are ethnic differences in India, they emphasize the balanced development of all ethnic groups, so there is no problem of ethnic oppression and exploitation.

It is generally believed that after thousands of years of migration, integration, assimilation and exchange, the pattern of ethnic composition in today’s Indian society has been formed.

Among many ethnic groups in India, the main ethnic groups are Hindustan (Hindustan), Telugu, maladi, Tamil, Bangladeshi, Gujarat, Malayalam, kanada, Assam, Oriya and Sikh.

These ethnic groups account for about 82% of India’s total population.

From the perspective of geo race, today’s India can be divided into three parts.

(1) The vast central, northern and western regions, including Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal, are under the control of the former Aryans.

The main ethnic groups originated from this Protoss are Hindustan, Gujarat, maladi, Sikh, Oriya, Bengal, etc.

(2) The southern region, including Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, is home to the darapitea people.

The main ethnic groups originated from this race are Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, kanada, etc.

(3) The northeast region is the confluence of Aryan race and Mongolian race.

The Assam nationality living in Assam state is the product of ethnic integration.

The Assam people are basically of Aryan origin, but they also have the element of Mongolian race.

Manipur, Meghalaya, Naga, Tripura and Mizoram in this region are dominated by Mongols.

Many tribes living here have typical Mongolian characteristics.

The following is a brief introduction to the main ethnic groups in India.

It is mainly distributed in the northern half of India, such as Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

It is the most populous nation in India, with about 240 million people (1978).

Most hindustans believe in Hinduism and speak Hindi of the Indo European Indian language family.

A few people believe in Islam and speak Urdu.

The nation retains the more typical caste system and other characteristics of Hindu culture.

Mainly engaged in agriculture, good at cotton and wool textile, embroidery, metal products and other handicrafts.

(II) Telugu.

Inhabiting Andhra Pradesh in the southeast.

With a population of about 54.

5 million (1978), it ranks first among the four ethnic groups of the darapitam race and third among the major ethnic groups in India.

Telugu, which belongs to the darovitan language family, is commonly used.

In history, it has created developed culture, literature and art.

In the 7th century, Chinese eminent monks described their characteristics as “swarthy, violent and good at learning”.

Donglugu people are tall, strong and strong.

They like cheese and pepper.

They used to believe in Buddhism and Jainism.

Later, most of them changed to Hinduism, and a few believed in Islam and Christianity.

More engaged in agriculture and fisheries, a fewWork as a city worker.

(III) maladi nationality.

It mainly lives in the western state of Maharashtra, and some are distributed in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

According to the research, it has the lineage of Aryans, darovichas and ancient Greeks.

The population is about 51 million (1978).

The Marathi language of the Indo European Indian language family.

Most people believe in Hinduism and maintain a strict caste system.

In the 7th century A.D., Xuan Zang described the maladi people in the records of the western regions of the Tang Dynasty: “they are great in shape, proud and easy in nature, will be rewarded if there is kindness, and will be recovered if there is resentment.

People may be humiliated, die for revenge, always throw in embarrassment, and forget their body for relief”.

It is mainly engaged in agriculture and produces rice, cotton, etc.

the proportion of industrial workers in the population has increased rapidly in the recent period.

In history, it has created prosperous literature and art, and navigation and overseas trade are relatively developed.

In 1674, the marathians defeated the Mughal army under the leadership of sivajie and established the Malata state.

Therefore, sivajiebi was respected as a national hero.

The Siwa army, a national organization active in Maharashtra and Mumbai established in 1966, is named after him.

(IV) Tamils.

It is one of the oldest nations in the world and has a civilization history of 5000 years.

Tamils belong to the darovitan race, living in Tamil Nadu in the southeast, and a few are distributed in the adjacent Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra and other states.

In India, the population of this ethnic group is about 44.

02 million (1978).

In Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa and other countries, there are a large number of Tamils, amounting to about 10 million.

Tamil language spoken in the darovitan language family.

In history, he has created developed culture and art, and is good at navigation and overseas trade.

Originally believed in Jainism, then converted to Hinduism.

In the past, the caste system was more strict, but now it has changed.

Most people are engaged in agriculture and fishing.

(V) yugala nationality.

It is an ancient people living in West Bengal and a few scattered in Assam.

They belong to the same ethnic group as the main residents of Bangladesh, but have different religious beliefs.

India has a population of about 56.

03 million (1978), ranking second among all ethnic groups.

The Bengali language of the Indo European Indian language family.

The nation has a long history and developed culture.

Literature, painting and music are very prosperous.

Buddhism prevailed at first, and then converted to Hinduism.

The caste system is popular, but not very strict.

Xuanzang said in the “records of the western regions of the Tang Dynasty” that Bangladesh “has strong human nature, low form and black color, is eager to learn and encourage, and believes in both evil and righteousness”.

Most residents are engaged in agriculture and produce rice, jute, etc.

The staple food is rice, and I like fish.

(VI) Gujarat.

It is concentrated in Gujarat, and a few people are distributed in adjacent areas.

The population is about 32.

6 million (1978).

Gujarati, which belongs to the Indo European Indian language family, is commonly used.

Most believe in Hinduism and a few believe in Islam.

Ancient Chinese books call it “Qu zhelao” or “Hu Cha La”.

There was a developed culture and maritime trade.

Mainly engaged in agriculture, planting rice, cotton, etc.

Industry and commerce are relatively developed, and a considerable part of India’s large industrial, commercial and financial industries belong to members of this nation.

(VII) Malayalam nationality.

They live in Kerala, and a few are distributed in adjacent states.

With a population of about 25.

47 million (1978), it believes in Hinduism, and some people believe in Catholicism and Islam.

Maritime navigation and overseas trade have been developed since ancient times.

The God surname system is relatively strict.

Compared with other ethnic groups, more people belong to low castes and “untouchables” (Dalits).

There are many remnants of matriarchal clan system in social life.

Mainly engaged in agriculture, planting rice, coconut, mango, betel nut, etc.

, and some people are engaged in fishery.

(VIII) kanada.

It mainly lives in Karnataka state, and a few are distributed in adjacent areas.

With a population of about 25.

8 million (1978), the kanada language of the darapitan language family is widely used.

Most people believe in Hinduism, while a few believe in Catholicism and Islam.

Engaged in agriculture, planting rice, cotton, coffee, etc.

, and a few people are engaged in textile and other industries.

(IX) Assam nationality.

According to the research, it is the descendant of the Ahom people who originally lived in Myanmar and the local residents, which is the origin of the national name.

With a population of about 10.

5 million (1978), Assam, an Indo European Indian language family, is used.

Most believe in Hinduism and a few are Muslims.

Mainly in agriculture, a few people are employed in tea plantations and other plantations.

The vast majority of people are deeply oppressed and exploited and become landless farmers and hired workers.

(10) Oriya.

It lives in Orissa with a population of about 23.

5 million (1978), and speaks the Oriya language of the Indo European Indian language family.

Most people believe in Hinduism and retain more typical Hindu traditions and customs, with more low castes.

Mainly engaged in agriculture, planting rice, wheat, sorghum, rape, sugarcane, jute, etc.

Staple food: rice, fish R, drinking.

The clothes are simple, usually only wear a T-shirt and wrap around trousers.

(XI) Sikhs.

They live in Punjab, and a few people are distributed in adjacent areas.

With a population of about 10.

4 million (1978), it believes in Sikhism.

“Sikh” was originally a transliteration of the word “believer” in Pali or Sanskrit, so the Minfang attribute of Sikh nationality is the same as religious belief.

Although the Sikhs have a caste system, it is not very strict.

Sikhs are burly with broad chests and slightly brown skin.

Plain clothes and men’s turban are special symbols of Sikhs.

The national character is forthright and open.

Mainly agriculture, planting rice, etc.

A considerable number of Sikhs serve in the army and police, or make a living abroad. III. tribes some tribes in India may be the oldest resident groups in the subcontinent.

In India, tribes have different names, such as indigenous people, primitive people, forest tribes, mountain tribes, primitive tribes, etc.

The name used in the Indian constitution is “scheduled tribe”.

Various documents, studies and investigation reports have different opinions on how many tribes there are in India.

A total of 212 scheduled tribes were included in the Constitution in 1950.

In 1956, the president of India issued a special decree to list 414 tribes as scheduled tribes.

Various survey results show that there are more than 400 tribal societies.

Due to the inconsistent standards of identification, coupled with human theology, history, society, language, religious belief and other reasons, it is almost impossible to provide conclusive tribal social figures.

India has the largest tribal population in Asia.

According to statistics, the tribal population was 22.

51 million in 1951, accounting for 6.

25% of the total population, 29.

38 million in 1961, accounting for 6.

81% of the total population, and 38.

02 million in 1971, accounting for 6.

25% of the total population.94%. It should be noted that due to different statistical standards, the difficulties caused by inconvenient transportation in tribal residential areas, and the continuous assimilation and integration between tribes and major nationalities, the accuracy of tribal population statistics has been greatly affected, resulting in the inconsistency of figures provided by different statistical sources.

As for the number of tribes, the difference is extremely wide.

Some tribes have a small number, only a few hundred or even dozens, and are decreasing day by day.

The larger tribe has a population of millions and continues to grow.

According to statistics, there were six tribes with a population of more than 1 million in 1971, namely, the bir nationality, with 5189542 people, accounting for 13.

65% of the total tribal population.

Gongde nationality, 4809164, accounting for 12.65%. Santar nationality, 3633459, accounting for 9.56%. Oran nationality, 1702063, accounting for 4.48%. Mina nationality, 1533513, accounting for 4.03%. Mengda nationality, 1163338 people, accounting for 3.06%. The total population of these six tribes is 18.

032 million, accounting for 47.

43% of the total tribal population.

Tribal residents are distributed in vast areas of India.

Except for Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and bendi governance areas, other states and regions directly under the central government are dotted with different tribes.

Table 1 provides the distribution of tribal population in states and central territories.

It can be seen from here that there are nine states with a tribal population of more than 1 million.

Madhya Pradesh ranks first, with a tribal population of 8.

347 million, accounting for 20.

04% of the state’s population and 21.

56% of the total tribal population of all India.

The second is Orissa, with a tribal population of about 5.

072 million, accounting for 23.

11% of the state’s population and 13.

34% of the total tribal population.

The third is Bihar, with a tribal population of 4.

933 million, accounting for 8.

75% of the state’s population and 12.

98% of the total tribal population.

After that, Gujarat (3.

734 million), Rajasthan (3.

126 million), Maharashtra (2.

954 million), Assam (including Mizoram and Meghalaya, 2.

734 million), West Bengal (2.

533 million) and Andhra Pradesh (1.

658 million).

The geographical distribution of Indian tribes can be roughly divided into the following six regions: (1) northeast region: including Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, shaoga, Tripura and Mizoram.

The main tribes here are Naga, Mizo, Kashi, Kouki, Meitai, jaintiyarakal, Mismi and laronge, Most of them are Mongolian, accounting for about 11% of the total tribal population in China.

(2) Himalayan foothills: including northern West Bengal, northern Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.

The main tribes include Lepcha, Laba, taru, Raji, boksa and KASA.

Most of them are also Mongolian, accounting for about 5% of the total tribal population in China.

(3) central region: including Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.

The main tribes include Santar, Monda, bumiji, gonde, Kariya, Kho, Oran, kerwa, KISAN, Buya and Baiga.

Most of them belong to primitive Australian race.

Different from the northern region, there are several larger tribes living here, so the tribal population is large, accounting for more than half of the national tribal population.

(4) western region: it includes Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, dadra and Nagar avili.

The most important tribe is bir, which belongs to the original Australian race.

There are also Mina, galasia, wallI and other tribes.

The tribal population in this area is also large, accounting for more than a quarter of the total tribal population in China.

(5) Southern Region: including Karnataka, Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and other states.

The main tribes include Irula, chinchu, Kadar, Kota, kurichan, giri River, malayor, toda, kolumba, senwar, kunduwadian, elegant, alandan, Lombardi, etc.

The ethnic composition of tribes in this area is more complex.

Some are Caucasian, some Negro, some primitive Australian and some mixed race.

Although the number of tribes is large, the number is small, accounting for only about 6% of the total tribal population in the country.

(6) archipelago area: including Andaman Islands in the bay of Bengal, Nicobar Islands and lakedev islands in the Arabian Sea.

The main tribes are Andaman, Sentinal, Ngog, jalava, champen, nicoba, etc.

Some of them belong to Negro race and some belong to Mongolian race.

The number is about 48000, accounting for 0.

13% of the total tribal population in China.

Due to the different geographical environment and traffic conditions of each tribe, they are also affected by modern science and culture.

Therefore, their production and lifestyle are also very different.

A small number of tribes living in deep mountains, old forests or valleys still collect wild fruits or use primitive tools for fishing and hunting as their main means of livelihood.

The vast majority of tribes are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry.

Some of them have fixed agricultural and animal husbandry sites, while others carry out nomadic and slash and burn mobile farming.

Generally speaking, the level of productivity is low and can only barely make a living.

Another part takes handicraft industry as its main occupation, such as wood and bamboo processing, weaving, making iron and pottery, etc.

Some tribal residents act as laborers, folk artists and small traders.

Due to backward production technology, low production level, frequent attacks of natural disasters, and more importantly, fraud and exploitation by local officials, police, landlords and usurers, most tribal people engaged in agriculture are heavily in debt, lose their land, become farm workers and struggle on the line of hunger and death.

Tribes engaged in handicrafts and small traders lose their means of production and funds, join the ranks of the unemployed or become workers.

In terms of social form, most Indian tribes are in the stage of development in which clan society has disintegrated and class society has begun to form.

Many features of primitive society can be found in all tribes.

Kinship is the link connecting the internal relations of the tribe.

Matriarchy and patriarchy play a dominant role in the tribal society.

The investigation and research results in recent years show that most tribes have developed to a more typical stage of patriarchy, except that a few tribes in the northeast and south, such as Kasi, Gallo, kurichan, kunduwadian and malayor, are still in a matriarchal society.

In the matriarchal clan, women are the main body of the society.

The family connected by the mother’s blood relationship constitutes the foundation of the clan society.

The husband lives from his wife and inherits property according to his mother’s lineage.

In contrast, patriarchyThe patriarchal clan forms the basis of the family and even the clan based on the blood relationship of the father, and the male tribal elders dominate the tribal society.

Elders regulate or organize social activities of tribal residents, mediate internal disputes, preside over religious ceremonies and celebrations, etc.

Of course, some tribes, especially those living near plains or hills and having more contacts with the outside world, have more complex social structure and mode of production.

They not only have the remnants of ancient clan system, but also mix with some feudal and even capitalist factors and components.

For example, the marriage system, although a few tribes still have the characteristics and customs of primitive clans such as polygamy, polygamy, dual marriage and residual polygamy of group marriage, monogamous marriage system has become the basic form of family in most tribes.

Of course, many tribes still maintain the public housing system, which provides convenient places for young men and women to participate in social activities and choose spouses.

Some tribes are also popular to rob the bridegroom and bride.

Some tribes still have some marriage customs related to feudal superstition.

The religious beliefs of Indian tribal residents retain the traces of clan society and also reflect the infiltration and influence of other religions.

Animism, a religious and philosophical concept that believes that all things in nature have extraordinary power to dominate and dominate human activities, is still quite popular among tribes.

This worship is the product of backward productivity and the extremely weak ability of human beings to conquer and control nature.

They believe that only by praying, offering sacrifices, holding celebrations and other forms can we obtain the blessing of these gods o.

Some tribes especially believe in some or some gods, and totem worship is quite popular.

However, many major religious changes in Indian history have had a certain impact on tribes.

Some tribes or members of tribes believe in Hinduism, evangelism and Christianity.

It is worth noting that according to the survey, the number of tribal residents who believe in Christianity has increased rapidly in recent years.

Before India’s independence, tribal residents, like the “untouchable”, were extremely poor in economy and the most humble in social status.

The colonists adopted a policy of discrimination against the tribe.

In the name of suppressing the people and imposing strict restrictions on them.

A large number of people were classified as “innocent criminal groups” in 1871.

These “criminals” must regularly report their actions to the police, carry ID cards when going out, send their children to correctional institutions, and report to the police or officials every day.

According to this law alone, as many as four million tribal people are classified as “criminals”.

In addition, the British colonialists also used their usual tactics to divide the tribal settlements into “special zones”, “scheduled areas” and “closed areas” under the pretext of “protecting” the special interests of the tribes, so as to isolate them from the outside world.

The colonial government set up special management institutions in these areas to exercise strict control.

The purpose was to prevent the vigorous movement for national independence from spreading to the tribal areas politically and to keep the tribal areas backward and stagnant economically, so that they could plunder at will.

In some tribal areas, they collude with foreign or local landlords and usurers to occupy land and plunder forest resources, forcing a large number of tribal people to be displaced.

In order to achieve the purpose of cultural slavery, the colonialists also sent a group of Christian missionaries to tribal areas to spread western culture and paralyze people’s thoughts.

In the final analysis, all the cunning tricks of the colonialists are to consolidate their evil rule.

However, things backfired, and the tribal people fought against colonial rule one after another.

From the early 19th century to more than 100 years of Indian independence, there were more than a dozen large tribal uprisings, such as the Kho uprising in 1831, the Gunde uprising in 1m6, the Santar uprising in 1855, the ankami uprising in 1877, and the Mizo people’s struggle against the invasion of colonialists for more than 50 years since 1840, all of which dealt a heavy blow to the colonial rule.

By the 1920s and 1930s, the struggle of tribes against colonial rule was gradually combined with the national liberation movement in India, forming an irresistible historical trend.

After India’s independence, the Congress government adopted a dual policy of appeasement and assimilation in order to ease the dissatisfaction of the tribal people and consolidate its rule over the tribal areas.

Politically, the Constitution stipulates that the scheduled tribes shall be protected.

The main measures are: reserve a certain number of seats for the tribes in the central and state legislatures and a certain proportion of positions in the administrative organs.

The establishment of scheduled caste and scheduled tribe commissioners under the president to take care of the special interests of tribes.

Organize various special committees under the central government to evaluate the development and welfare work in tribal areas.

The establishment of “scheduled areas” in states and regions directly under the central government (except Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram) with the focus of the president.

Autonomous counties (8 in total) are established in the “tribal areas” of Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram, and the executive, legislative and judicial power of the county is exercised by the Council of each autonomous county.

Economically, shortly after independence, the Indian government announced the abolition of the privileges of the king of the state, tribal chiefs and chaimingdar, giving priority to the needs of tribal residents in land reform.

Restrict non tribal people from entering and settling in tribal areas and purchasing land and other assets.

The government has also specially formulated the development plan for tribal areas and provided financial and technical support in the development of local industry, household handicrafts, water conservancy, agriculture and infrastructure.

In terms of culture, education and health care, the Indian government has also taken some measures to give preferential treatment to tribal people, such as reducing tuition fees, providing scholarships, providing free accommodation and textbooks, and reserving places for tribal students in Colleges and universities.

It should be noted that after nearly four decades of efforts by the Indian government, the backwardness of some tribal areas has changed.

Nevertheless, the disparity between tribal areas and other areas (not to mention advanced areas) is far from being eliminated.

Some areas are almost the same as they were decades ago.

The production mode of most tribes is still primitive agriculture, and some still make a living by collecting wild fruits and fishing and hunting.

According to the estimation of a British scholar, it will take Indian tribes 50 years to reach the current level of other residents in India, and in these 50 years, other residents will develop at a faster speed, so the difference between them is very small.