Early Christian sculpture the main form of early Christian sculpture is sarcophagus sculpture.
Sarcophagus carving inherited a lot of Roman art tradition, but changed it and gave it the content of Christian theme.
Around the 3rd century, sarcophagus carving almost completely adopted the carving art tradition of ancient Greece and Rome in the processing and carving techniques of Gospels or biblical themes.
The traditional expression content in ancient Greek and Roman sculpture is still used in Christian works.
The sarcophagus sculpture “good shepherd”, which is now stored in the Lateran Museum in Rome, Italy, shows that Christ claims to be a good shepherd.
In terms of composition and scene setting, it is very close to Hermes, the traditional theme of Greek sculpture.
Obviously, the Christian sarcophagus sculpture of this theme originates from Greek sculpture.
The general feature of Christian art is that it does not pay attention to the faithful description of the objective world, but emphasizes the expression of the spiritual world.
Therefore, the naturalistic carving technique was abandoned step by step.
By the 4th century, sarcophagus carving was produced in large quantities, so there were many works of mediocre quality, but there were also some works of high level.
Sarcophagus carvings in this period pay more attention to narrative and richer content.
The largest group of sarcophagus in early Christianity was found in Rome and nearby, and sarcophagus carvings were also found sporadically in the Mediterranean and other regions.
The sarcophagus of two brothers in the Lateran Museum in Rome, Italy, and the sarcophagus of chief executive eunius bassus, who died in 359 (now in the basement of St.
Peter’s Church in the Vatican), are all representative works.
In these two works, the characters in the relief are almost completely separated from the classical architecture in the background and close to the form of round sculpture.
The character image is relatively real, and the posture is naturally changeable, which maintains the traditional characteristics of classical art modeling.
Ivory carvings in the 4th century, such as the famous jewelry box in the Christian Museum in Brescia, are a relic box and are carved and decorated as a miniature sarcophagus.
Many scenes with themes from the Japanese Testament and the New Testament are carved in the form of continuous peach eaves.
In this sculpture, Christ is represented as a young hero in ancient mythology.
An ivory relief on a double connecting plate hidden in the national bagero Museum in Florence is influenced by the image of orpus in classical sculpture.
At that time, the Christian faith coexisted with the original religious beliefs of ancient Greece and Rome, and sculptors often served both at the same time.
Therefore, the artistic distance between the two beliefs was not obvious in their sculpture.
Byzantine sculpture (5th-15th century) Byzantine existed from 330 to 1453 when Turkey conquered it.
The center is Constantinople.
Byzantine art originated from Roman art, but soon evolved into a fusion of East and West.
Byzantine art has more Oriental decorative and abstract characteristics, simultaneous interpreting with traditional European art and keeping its continuity in the 1000.
Early Byzantine sculpture continued the tradition of classical art in Greece and Rome, but soon a new style developed from it.
In the 5th century, some sculptures adopted non realistic composition and modeling, and emphasized spirituality and expressiveness in modeling.
This is also a typical feature of Byzantine art.
After the iconoclastic movement in the 10th century, sculpture no longer occupied an important position in Byzantine art, and the round sculpture almost disappeared.
Carvings mainly exist in architectural decoration carvings and sarcophagus carvings.
In Byzantine churches, decorative sculpture is only used in capitals, lintels of doors and windows and screen decoration of stone altars.
Its forms are mostly bas relief and openwork.
Inlaid paintings and murals have replaced sculpture as the main decorative means in churches.
In the decoration and carving of buildings, the images of characters are rarely expressed, but the decorative patterns with trees, flowers and plants, birds and animals and abstract patterns are mainly expressed by means of openwork.
The relief form has also been more planarized by Byzantine sculptors.
Their relief works are similar to paintings with some ups and downs and certain light and dark effects.
The most famous wood carvings preserved in Byzantine period are the two wooden doors of St.
Sabina wooden door church.
It was made in the middle of the 5th century.
The two wooden doors each have 14 panels, some of which have been lost.
There are reliefs showing the contents of the Bible on the panels.
These reliefs take the same form of figure modeling and composition as painting at that time.
However, the carving style of the gate in the Middle Ages once influenced Italian and German artists, who imitated the carving of the gate in bronze.
Ivory carving and metal carving play an important role in Byzantine art.
Ivory is hard and durable, and can show tiny details.
The most common forms of ivory carvings are decorative plates, Archon folding plates, jewelry boxes and relic boxes.
However, the largest number of works remaining is the ivory carving double connecting plate, which is composed of two Ivory relief plates connected by hinges.
A double plate in the Louvre is believed to represent the Emperor Justinian, who rode a war horse and a general holding a statue of victory came to him.
In the lower part of the ivory plate, barbarians led by the goddess of victory came with gifts.
At the top of the ivory plate are two angels holding a large badge engraved with the bust of Christ.
This ivory carving inherits the relief form of ancient Rome to show the triumph of the emperor in terms of conception and character modeling.
Another important Byzantine ivory carving work is the throne of Maximilian unearthed in Ravenna.
The lower part of the throne is carved with five biblical characters, namely St.
John and the evangelist.
Their images are upright and dignified.
They all stand in front of a small building with spiral colonnade, with a shell shaped halo on their heads.
The saint is also decorated with various animal and plant patterns.
The sculpture on the upper part of the throne shows the story of the virgin and the son.
In the 5th century, a large number of nomads from the northern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire migrated to the core of the Roman Empire.
The economic and cultural level of these nationalities is far behind that of Rome and is still at the production level of primitive communes, so they are called “barbarians” and “barbarians”.
Their invasion finally destroyed the slavery system in Rome and established the feudal system in Europe.
Their art is full of naive, simple, free and broad imagination, with unrestrained creative spirit, and is based on the tradition of ancient Greece and RomeThe graphic representation of the image, due to the doctrine at that time, attempted to become an all inclusive philosophy.
The sculpture art that annotates its image may involve a wide range of subjects.
In addition to the biblical stories, there are also themes about history, geography, production labor and court life in Gothic sculpture, which makes it possible for artists to directly express their lives in addition to the complete religious themes.
Gothic sculpture increasingly pursues realism and the expression of natural and true feelings in terms of expression, forming the so-called “Gothic realism”.
Gothic sculptors have conquered many unsolved technical problems encountered by their predecessors.
Although they do not know much about human anatomy, their sculptures are full of passion.
The characters in early Gothic sculpture were rigid and indifferent, and then gradually became rich and free.
Sculptors were no longer satisfied with the formulation of the image, and began to pay attention to imitating the natural modeling and adopting the natural proportion of the human body, so as to make the posture of the statue more and more accurate and vivid.
Gothic sculpture in its heyday was monumental in nature.
It did not pay much attention to the expression of characters’ personality, but emphasized the transmission of faith.
But this situation was basically over by the end of the 13th century.
Since then, the sublimity of religious belief in Gothic sculpture has been replaced by human warmth.
Monumental solemnity gives way to pictorial and perceptual details.
The son and the baby are important themes of Gothic sculpture.
The characters in this kind of works are endowed with gentle human emotion.
Influenced by the religious movement at that time, themes of dedication and mysterious meditation appeared in Gothic sculpture in the 14th century, such as the statue of the virgin and the mourning child exaggerating the horror of death and sorrow.
The artistic tendency in the 14th century has gradually developed into the International Gothic style in the 15th century.
This style is characterized by emphasizing the sense of volume and weight of objects, and has a trend towards elegance and dexterity.
The secularization tendency of late Gothic sculpture is more obvious, and there are a large number of decorative sculptures with complex architectural structures.
Some countries represented by Britain have also appeared mausoleum statues in pursuit of realism.
During this period, the carving production gradually broke away from the control of the church and turned to trade unions and private workshops.
Charlotte Church in France is a famous Gothic architecture.
The west gate of the church was built in 1145.
It represents the earliest and most complete style of Gothic sculpture.
The three gates at the entrance of the west gate are side by side, which are connected by the door image column diagram arranged on both sides.
These image columns are decorative carvings with the function of architectural structure.
This kind of elongated portrait carvings have also been found on the jambs of Romanesque gates, but they are designed as reliefs on buildings, while the figures on the jambs of Charlotte Church are treated as independent statues and show a tendency to be independent from buildings.
The figures are not rigid patterns close to the columns, but high reliefs with vivid looking around.
In order to be unified with the vertical lines of the building, these statues are too slender in the treatment of the human body.
However, the clothing lines of these statues are exquisite and elegant.
Each sculpture character has its own personality performance.
They seem to be thinking and introspecting, full of a sense of sanctity.
Although the bodies of these statues are still stiff, they have begun to develop in a more natural direction.
This is a revolutionary development, which marks the gradual restoration of the tradition of three-dimensional sculpture in three-dimensional space since the classical period of Greece and Rome.
In the heyday of Gothic sculpture, the composition and layout and the dynamic treatment of characters show that the skills of sculptors have become increasingly mature.
The round and relief sculptures on the side facade of the sleeve gallery of Notre Dame in Paris and the sculptures of Amiens cathedral and Reims Cathedral are excellent masterpieces of this period.
The sculpture of Amiens Cathedral reflects the typical style of Gothic sculpture in its heyday.
The statue of Christ in the porch is an excellent example of the Gothic S-shaped human body.
This S-shaped shape of human body is an important achievement in the process of returning Gothic sculpture to naturalism.
It vividly shows the natural dynamics of people standing casually.
The S-shaped body dynamics of late Gothic sculpture became overly artificial.
In Gothic sculpture in its heyday, the bending of the human body was very measured.
The carving technique of this Christ statue is bold and bold.
Carving attaches importance to the expressiveness of lines, and the pleats on clothes have a smooth sense of rhythm.
Christ’s hair, beard and lines are also rhythmic.
The dynamics of the hand is accurate.
The face of Christ was handsome and solemn.
The whole statue is exquisite and neat, with rich inner depiction, with a dignified and harmonious beauty.
The Virgin Mary in the Southern Cross transept of Amiens church was originally gold-plated and was called “gold-plated Maria” or “Golden Mary”.
The virgin holds the baby in her hand, with a loving smile from her heart.
She bows slightly, as if playing with her son.
Her body is naturally curved and S-shaped, and her posture is relaxed and elegant.
This sculpture reflects the rise of new naturalism.
The huge number of statues in Reims Cathedral were created in the 1930s and 1970s.
Most of the statues in this church reflect the creator’s desire to reveal people’s spiritual world.
The interest in depicting the unique character of the characters is also a sign of the secularization of sculpture.
The sculpture of the west gate of Reims cathedral has the natural and soft characteristics of classical sculpture.
Among them, the group of statues of the main column in the angel’s visit to the virgin, the expression of the statue has a more subtle expression of emotion.
Although the clothes folds of the characters are complex, they accurately reflect the actions of the human body under the clothes, truly show the three-dimensional shape of the human body, and add the elegant demeanor of the statue.
The classical treatment of these carvings is easily reminiscent of the carvings of the Parthenon.
The two gables of the double doors of the South transept of Strasbourg’s main church were carved around 1230.
The contents are “the death of the virgin” and “the coronation of the virgin”.
The door pillars represent “Christian faith” and “Jewish faith” respectively.
Their style is very close to that of the carving of Charlotte Church in France, but emphasizes the dramatic factors full of neuroticism.
Relief in the late Gothic period developed greatly.
The colored reliefs on the Notre Dame bypass in Paris (1318-1344) reflect more of the content of secular life.
The exquisite through-hole relief “Maria ascended to heaven” (made around 1319) on the north of the altar bypass is an excellent example.
Another type of sculpture from the 14th century Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
It does not pay attention to depicting the real shape of the human body.
But he tried to express the feelings of the world, littleCombine.
The new style they created opened a new wind of the Renaissance.
After 1250, Nicolas Pisano and his son came from southern Italy to the north and settled in Pisa.
They worked in Pisa Cathedral and Siena cathedral.
In 1260, they designed and produced marble pulpit reliefs, pilucha fountain and other decorative carvings for the Baptistery of Pisa Cathedral and Siena cathedral.
Nicolas Pisano’s sculpture retains the traditional components of Gothic sculpture, such as supporting columns, trefoil arches and stone lions, while combining the classical style of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture with the style of Christian sarcophagus sculpture.
His ornamentation of ornate capitals clearly combines Collins capitals with Gothic ornamentation.
The reliefs of Christ’s Nativity and crucifixion directly imitate the images of Christ’s coffin and crucifixion in Rome.
For example, although the reclining posture of the virgin in the birth of Jesus (1297-1301) originates from Byzantine ivory carving and mosaic painting, the characters are realistic, magnificent and dignified, and the shape is greatly influenced by the ancient Roman sarcophagus carving, with a strong classical charm and a sense of sublimity and solemnity.
Giovanni Pisano is not only a talented sculptor, but also an architect.
He is an active advocate of Italian Gothic art.
The style of his early sculptures is similar to that of his father.
The two are difficult to distinguish from each other.
But the style after becoming famous is quite different from that of his father.
His representative works include the pulpit of St Andrea’s Church in pistoya (1301) and the engraving of the lectern of Siena Cathedral (1302-1310).
The relief created by Giovanni has accurate human structure and dense composition.
Giovanni’s statue of the virgin for Prado Cathedral, with the body’s center of gravity on one leg and the hips twisted outward, has a beautiful momentum.
This posture is called Gothic tilt.
This posture was later adopted by French sculptors and had an impact on Gothic sculpture throughout Europe.