The fascist movement first came into being in Italy.
Italy is a rising imperialism, and its economy lags far behind the major capitalist countries in Europe and the United States.
From 1920 to 1921, the economic crisis broke out in Italy, and many large companies, including some large monopoly groups, went bankrupt because they were unable to overcome it.
The economic crisis triggered a revolutionary crisis.
In the face of the great tendency of the workers’ and peasants’ revolutionary movement to seize power, the ruling class was alarmed.
They tried to find a strong government and an iron hand to maintain their rule.
In this context, fascism began to rise and spread in Italy, and mastered the military and political power.
After the end of the first World War, Italy, as one of the victors, sent a delegation to the Paris peace conference to ask for the fulfillment of the promise made to Italy by the London treaty.
However, Britain, France and the United States do not want to see the strengthening of Italy’s power in the Mediterranean and Balkans, and refuse to hand over the promised territory to Italy.
The news spread to Italy and aroused great dissatisfaction and indignation from all walks of life.
Italians thought they had been fooled.
When the Italian government agreed to sign the peace treaty, it aroused the anger of nationalists.
Among them, Mussolini and Deng nanzha are the most prominent.
Mussolini proposed that either the Treaty of Versailles should be amended or a new war should be carried out.
Dunnzie declared that Dalmatia belongs to Italy, whether according to divine rights or human law.
It used to belong to us and will belong to us in the future.
All sectors of Italy have accused the government of weakness and incompetence, hoping that a strong government will take military action to fulfill the territorial promises of Britain, France and the United States to Italy.
It is this fanatical nationalism that creates the environment and conditions for fascism to “take root and sprout” in Italy.
In fact, as early as October, bionki, the representative of the trade unionism, established the first fascist organization in Milan – international action revolutionary fascist.
In October of the same year, Mussolini also joined the organization and renamed it “revolutionary intervention fascist” in January 1915.
After the end of the first World War, Mussolini agreed with Wei Ji, the leader of the Veterans’ Association, Bi ANGJI, the leader of the trade unionism, and others to rebuild the fascist organization.
In March 1919, Mussolini’s “fighting fascism” was founded.
Since then, it has tried its best to expand its influence among veterans, workers and other petty bourgeois elements.
In order to win over intellectuals and nationalists, it stood in the position of territorial recovery and united with the reactionary literati and the Nationalist Party to hold many powerful rallies and demonstrations against “abandonment”, demanding that the “Paris Peace Conference” honor its territorial promise to Italy, unconditionally annex the adjacent fum and transfer the city of Dalmatia to Italy.
After the establishment of the fighting fascists, it is obvious that the momentum is huge, but the impact is very small.
In the Italian general election in November 1919, none of the fascists was elected.
Mussolini, who ran in Milan, won the most votes, only 1064.
The failure of the election made the fascists lose confidence, and many people abandoned the organization one after another.
By December 1919, the number of Italian Fascist members was less than 1000.
At the same time, the fascist group had a greater crisis – divided into two factions: one, led by Mussolini, is known as “urban fascism”.
The other, led by Roberto farinachi, Italo barbo and Dino grandi, is known as “rural fascism”.
Rural fascist members are mainly veterans.
During the first World War, Italian soldiers mainly came from rural areas, and most of them were farmers with no or little land.
In order to attract these people to serve as soldiers, the government promised to give land after retirement.
After the war ended at the end of 1918, the government announced the lifting of the mobilization order, and more than 1 million soldiers withdrew from active service.
When these people returned to their hometown from the front line full of the joy of acquiring land, they not only did not get the land and the desired job, but also were brutally treated and discriminated against by the socialist parties who had opposed the war since the first World War.
In pain and despair, they organized and demanded land, and some areas launched a land occupation struggle.
By April 15, 1920, veterans and farmers had occupied 2.
17 million hectares of land belonging to 191 nobles and big landlords.
In order to bring these people into the group and increase their influence, rural Fascist leaders publicly supported the land requirements of veterans and farmers, put forward the slogans of “giving farmers land” and “farmers have their land”, and provoked the relationship between farmers and the socialist party.
Through these deceptive propaganda, the fascist movement developed rapidly in the countryside.
Rural fascists set up fascist action teams to carry out terrorist and violent activities, and a large number of tenant farmers and farm workers were forced to join the fascist action teams.
They occupied the entire Po River Basin except Cremona, Parma and Romania, the region of Venice milia in northern Italy, and part of the provinces of Caria and Novara, Tuscany, Umbria and PriA.
According to the successful experience of the rural fascist movement, urban Fascist leaders believe that fascism can seize power only through violence.
In Mussolini’s own words: reality tells us that we must take up arms and not be unarmed.
We must form our own team instead of gathering those mobs in the square.
Based on this idea, on May 24, 1920, the second National Congress of “fighting fascists” was held in Milan.
The city Fascist leaders led by Mussolini formulated a new program to turn to the right and publicly announced that violence was the norm of action.
Moreover, according to this program, urban fascists have also established armed action teams.
Therefore, although the fascist group is divided into two factions, there is no difference in essence.
If the fascist movement wants to win, it must win the trust and support of the ruling class and various power groups.
To this end, Mussolini looked for all kinds of opportunities to please new and old politicians, monopoly capital, feudal landlords and the royal family.
On June 15, 1920, joriti succeeded NiTi as Prime Minister of the kingdom of Italy and issued a policy statement with the fundamental purpose of suppressing the revolutionary movement.
On June 25, Mussolini published a signed article in the Italian people’s daily, claiming that joriti’s statement was “completely consistent with the basic points of the new fascist program” and followed itThose who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote.
Women have the right to vote.
Local government autonomy.
The right of referendum.
Disbanding Parliament and the political police force.
Confiscation of church property.
Prohibit speculation in the stock market.
Retirement at the age of 55.
8-hour working system.
Statutory minimum wage.
Those whose war profits rise to 85% will be subject to capital progressive tax.
From late August to early September 1920, when 600000 workers across Italy occupied the factory, Mussolini personally ran to the office of Milan mayor Lucini oli, Assure him: “fascists and nationalists are determined to use all means, including more violent means, to oppose the atrocities of extreme parties that will destroy Italy and stop the riots of trade union organizations.
” Subsequently, fascist white terror enveloped the whole of Italy.
Violence broke out one after another across the country, and many cities fell into chaos.
On November 21, 1920, when the new government composed of socialists who won the Bologna City Council election held a ceremony, hundreds of fascist thugs rushed into the venue and smashed the site of the inauguration ceremony.
The royal government turned a blind eye and did not investigate.
As a result, fascists and violent actions increased day by day.
In the six months of 1921 alone, the fascist action team took 726 large-scale violent actions across the country.
They destroyed and destroyed the branches and clubs of the socialist party and the Communist Party, as well as many left-wing publishing houses and newspapers, and forced the left-wing mayors and parliamentarians to resign with threats of violence.
These fascist actions won the favor of the ruling class, and the fascist movement took the opportunity to develop rapidly.
By the second half of 1921, the fascist action team had basically destroyed all the socialist cities, towns, village political power organizations and workers’ and peasants’ mass organizations in Julia, Veneto District, Cremona, Parma and Romania, and most of the villages and towns in these areas had been controlled by fascists.
Mussolini was ecstatic about his achievements and believed that the moment he had been looking forward to since 1914 had come.
He was determined to replace the original ruling group, seize the power of the country and establish fascist totalitarian rule in Italy.
On November 7, 1921, “fighting fascists” held the third National Congress in Rome.
The Congress changed the name of “fighting fascist” to “Italian national fascist party”, elected Mussolini as leader and Bianchi as general secretary, and decided to take the “stick bundle” sign of ancient Rome as the party emblem.
The provisions of the National Congress have been adopted as the guiding tool for the establishment of the National Congress, which reflects the totalitarian concept of labor and capital development in the party.
Externally, it seized the Mediterranean and overseas Italian colonies, realized its complete historical and geographical unity, exercised the function of the fortress of Latin civilization in the Mediterranean, and restored Italy’s reputation as a nation-state.
In order to seize the state power and achieve the objectives stipulated in the program, Mussolini first stepped up the expansion of fascist forces.
In the month when the fascist party changed its name, he instructed bionki to order, in the name of the Central Secretariat, that the Party branch merged with the local fascist action team to form a fascist armed combat team.
It was clearly stipulated that from November 15, 1921, fascists should join the combat team without exception.
On December 15 of the same year, Mussolini dissolved the headquarters of the fascist action team, removed marsik, who had always competed with him for power, and appointed Balbo, de Bono and de weki to organize the “fascist military headquarters” to command the fascist fighting team.
The organizational sequence of the combat team is: general headquarters, regional headquarters, legion, wing and combat team.
This establishment enabled Mussolini to fully control the fascist armed forces and created conditions for him to further expand the fascist combat team and put the violent and terrorist actions taken by fascists all over the country under his direct control.
The newly-built combat team has a great attraction to veterans and young people who did not have the opportunity to participate in the first World War.
They joined one after another, resulting in a sharp increase in the number of the national fascist party.
In a short period of more than two years, the fascist movement not only jumped from a trivial force to the largest party in the country, but also established a team of thugs, the number of which is almost equal to the total number of Italian national regular army, gendarmerie and royal guard.
After months of armed expansion and military preparations, Mussolini began to seize local power.
First, in the name of defending law and order, he ordered the fascist fighting team to seize the local power in the remote areas of the country and the places where fascist forces were dominant.
The method used was to secretly provoke the unemployed to hold a demonstration, and the fascists took the opportunity to create violent terrorist incidents, causing chaos, and then ordered the combat team to take action to seize the local regime.
In this way, they successively seized the political power of more than 10 cities and their subordinate towns.
If the fascists still appeared as defenders of law and order in the early stage of seizing local power, then after seizing a considerable number of local power and controlling large rural areas, they took off all these masks and publicly announced their intention to seize state power.