the nature of feudal society: “feudal society”, in terms of its most original interpretation, should refer to its literal meaning: sealing land and building a country. That is, the enfeoffment system, which prevailed in China before the establishment of centralization, especially in the Western Zhou Dynasty. After King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty destroyed the Shang Dynasty, the emperor of the Zhou Dynasty enfeoffed the world. At that time, there were a large number of small states, a small city-state with an area of several square kilometers. Its ruler was enfeoffed by the emperor of the Zhou Dynasty as a monarch and regarded himself as a “state”, The social form of this period was strangely called “slave society”. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the small states of princes were gradually merged into large states of princes. Until the end of the Warring States period, the state of Qin annexed six states and established a centralized state with Prefecture and county system. After that, Chinese society was not called feudal society, because in the unified China at that time, the enfeoffment system of land enfeoffment for the founding of the country had been abolished, and no princes could be enfeoffed and build the country by themselves, Self reliance as a monarch is not allowed. There can only be one so-called emperor. Therefore, the period of Chinese history from the beginning of Qin Shihuang to the revolution of 1911 should be called a (centralized) patriarchal autocratic society. At the same time, Europe experienced a real feudal society in the middle ages. At that time, Europe did not have a strong centralized rule. After being enfeoffed, monarchs, large and small, ran their own affairs and established their own city-state. Like China, it was a feudal society that really closed land and then established a state. It can also be said that the development of social form in China in the period of agricultural society is ahead of that in Europe. China’s “patriarchal autocratic society” is more progressive than that in Europe in the same period, and there are obvious differences between the two social forms. However, just like a precocious baby, China has prematurely developed into a centralized system politically, while it is far behind economically, which has seriously hindered China’s development for 2000 years and made China’s progress enter a “dead end” since the Qin Dynasty. But why is China’s “patriarchal autocratic society” called “feudal society”, while the real “feudal society” is called “slave society”? This is because some people have misinterpreted Chinese history and misinterpreted it. In fact, for the division of social forms in Chinese history, It should be renamed as: traditional appellation: primitive society – slave society – feudal society – socialist society. Revised appellation: primitive society – feudal society – patriarchal autocratic society – socialist society. This is the result of the inconsistency between soil and water caused by quoting the division method of European history to China, Patriarchal autocratic society is the social form with Chinese characteristics.    “It has been widely recognized that the labor producers in feudal society were serfs rather than slaves. Since Yin and Zhou dynasties were feudal society, their labor producers were certainly serfs, needless to say. Zhou serfs may be said to be universal serfs in ancient societies all over the world. They were different from slaves in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. This was because Zhou serfs had three characteristics, namely Slaves have nothing. First, serf private property. Although they owned a limited amount of private property, they were not owned by slaves. Because the slaves themselves did not have their own property. Second, all serfs had parents and wives and lived together with relatives, while slaves had no family and were alone. Third, serfs are bound to the land, the land turns to the Lord, and people follow. The slave owner is a single subordinate, which has nothing to do with the land. Modern people say that the Zhou Dynasty is a slave society. If it is based on the facts contained in historical materials rather than mechanically copy the theory, it is difficult to establish the truth for this reason Historical stages of Han nationality, My proposition is as follows: ancient times – primitive Communist society Yin Shang was the prototype of feudal society of the Lord Yin to the Warring States Period – feudal society of the Lord Zhou was the feudal society of the Lord Yao was the feudal society of the Lord disintegration of the feudal society of the Lord Qin and Han Dynasties to the Opium War – feudal society of the landlord (which can be said in several stages) (excerpted from Huang Xian [a preliminary study on the interpretation of ancient books] There is much debate about the meaning of feudalism. In China, the concept of “Feudalism” can mean three different objects: the first refers to the feudalism in ancient China, such as the “feudal relatives of the Western Zhou Dynasty, with fan Pingzhou”; The second refers to the “feudal society” that China continued from ancient times to modern times. The problems such as when China entered the feudal society and why China’s feudal society continued for a long time come from this; The third refers to a social system in medieval Europe, which is often regarded as the reference prototype of various feudal societies. The feudal system in Western Europe, which Marx used as the research object, refers to the state in which the Lords acted independently before the concentration of kingship. Obviously, this state is not conducive to the emergence and development of capitalist economy. When the royal power is concentrated, it is conducive to the germination of capitalism economically. China’s inherent feudal meaning is similar, that is, enfeoffment and nation building. After that, it was basically not the mainstream, although it had been repeated in the early Han Dynasty and the early Ming Dynasty. The concentration of imperial power in Western Europe promoted the origin and development of capitalism, while the result of the concentration of imperial power in China was to stifle capitalist factors. It can be seen that the feudal system in Western Europe is one of the factors hindering economic development (due to tariff and other reasons). In China, the feudal system does hinder the economy, but the imperial power system deliberately stifles economic development. The reason is that the Western kingship was gradually strengthened after the emergence of the capitalist economy, making the kingship a public enemy of the society; The monarchy of eastern China has taken steps to strengthen while the slave economy is still disintegrating, which has restrained the emergence of advanced economic mode. After modern times, at the beginning of bourgeois politics, there was an urgent need for a strong political power to consolidate the rule, so the centralization of imperial power has become a historical trend; As for China, there is no such problem at all. There are three views on when China entered the feudal society: the Western Zhou Dynasty began to enter the feudal society; There are also two theories: the theory of Qin and Han Dynasties (entering the feudal society during the Qin and Han dynasties) and the theory of Wei and Jin Dynasties (entering the feudal society during the two Jin Dynasties). In feudal society, the natural economy formed was an economic structure based on land, combined with agriculture and handicraft industry, with family as the production unit, with self closure and independence, and mainly to meet their own needs. Most of the key means of production in this economic structure are in the hands of landlords (or feudal lords), so “landlords (feudal lords)” can be formedThe class relationship of “exploiting farmers”. The way of feudal society: in feudal society, the foundation of the landlord class ruling other classes is feudal land ownership. In the west, all the land belongs to the king. The king grants the land to the nobility and meritorious officials, and the nobility grants part of his land to his confidants. So on. In China, private ownership of land has been implemented since the reform. Landlords have absolute control over the land under their jurisdiction and can buy and sell it at will. By mastering the means of production of land, the landlord class exploits other classes by means of squeezing land rent and usury. At the same time, the forms of feudal land ownership are also different, which are realized by contract lease, paying land rent, hiring tenants and so on, but its essence is still a relationship between exploitation and being exploited, which will not change the essence of feudal society as a class society. In Chinese feudal society, landlords occupied the land, drove away the original landowners (i.e. farmers), and then leased the land to these landless farmers, who developed and cultivated the land by themselves and paid the land rent. In the period of Western feudal society, the feudal lords not only occupied farmland, but also included the farmers who originally lived in this territory in their own account books, making a large number of farmers become serfs. In China’s feudal society, farmers had an independent person in name, but in fact, due to various reasons, farmers had no freedom at all. In the west, serfs were regarded as part of the Lord’s property, similar to slaves, but serfs could only be used and could not be bought or sold. Moreover, both Western feudal lords and Chinese feudal lords have great power to restrict the king. Every big feudal lord has an army within his jurisdiction, just like a “country China”. Unique feudal thought: there are often quite obvious class systems in feudal society, such as the patriarchal system in China and the patriarchal King Lord Jazz system in Western Europe, forming a pyramid like ruling structure, but the relationship between them is not so perfect. Usually, the Lord’s Jazz will no longer be loyal to the king, Therefore, there is a famous saying “my vassal is my vassal, not my vassal”. However, what this ruling structure can maintain for a long time is the ideology of feudal society: it usually takes “monarchy and power” as the framework and integrates with some thoughts conducive to the ruling class, which also contains some excellent moral values, the most typical of which is China’s “thought”. Changes in feudal society: what fundamentally shakes the feudal rule is the destruction of its relations of production. The peasant uprising and the bourgeois revolution are class struggles aimed at changing the feudal land ownership (and thus the whole feudal system). The most typical one is the basic production relationship of capitalism – employing labor force. The earliest capitalism was born in Italy with developed commodity economy at that time, such as Florence, Venice and other regions. The natural economy representing capitalism is a commodity economy with commodity exchange and commodity production as the core. Because the purpose of production has changed from single satisfaction to providing products to the society, it determines that the relationship of production will be different from the original feudal system. Due to the development of commodity economy, the original natural economy was impacted and began to disintegrate. Farmers and handicraftsmen began to lose their means of production and become the proletariat. Then the factory owners, the earliest bourgeoisie, signed employment agreements with them to form new production relations and hire labor force. With the disintegration process of the capitalist economy to the original feudal natural economy, the increasingly powerful bourgeoisie has the ability to eliminate all factors contrary to the development of capitalism, such as the ideas of “divine right of talent”, “three cardinal principles and five permanent principles”, the production structure of men farming and women weaving, and finally overthrow the feudal society and establish a capitalist country. The end result of feudal society: usually, due to the development of productive forces, feudal society will be transformed into capitalist society. According to various relations between the bourgeoisie and the feudal class, constitutional monarchy (Britain, Czarist Russia, the Second Reich of Germany, Japan, etc.) and Republic (French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, United States of America, etc.) will be formed. However, there are also special changes. For example, China formed a semi colonial and semi feudal society from a feudal society, and then crossed the capitalist society into a socialist society. (see Communist Party, communism and communist countries) there can be societies composed of various production relations in the same period. Disputes over feudal society: the “feudal society” of Marxist historians and the “feudal society” of Western and scholars are two different concepts, because they both use the same term, which makes people confused. The “feudal society” of Marxist historians refers to the social form in which landlords or lords occupy land and exploit farmers or serfs, The “feudal society” of Western and Taiwan scholars refers to the enfeoffment of territory by the Communist or central dynasty to royal family members, royal families and meritorious officials. It is a “state management” system “rather than a” society “, which belongs to the category of political system. Many Chinese mainland and Western historians do not think that China has a strict feudal society (the system of separation), or that China’s feudalism is limited to the Zhou Dynasty and even the Western Zhou Dynasty (see the system of separation). However, according to Marxist Historiography (Marx himself once stated that Marxist historiography is only applicable to Europe and not to civilized societies in other countries), most countries and regions in history have experienced the period of feudal society, such as Europe from the 9th century to about the 15th century. Since the Warring States period, China has also experienced a long period of feudal society. In feudal society, in addition to emphasizing the ownership of land division, there was usually a top-down and obvious class system. Explanation: the above explanation should be the viewpoint of classical Chinese Marxist political economy This is a social form division method derived from the habit of European historical research. This imported product is not suitable for the division of social forms existing in Chinese history.