The “United Nations army” suffered three defeats in a row.

It was not only driven across the 38th parallel by the volunteer army and the Korean people’s army, but also lost Seoul again, which alerted the US government and public dignitaries, which triggered mutual criticism on the responsibility for failure within the US ruling group: some accused of wrong judgment and clumsy command, and demanded the removal of this old and dizzy guy.

Some blamed Truman’s policies and proposed impeachment, which directly threatened Truman’s presidency and brought great pressure to Truman.

At this difficult time, MacArthur, a headstrong old man, not only did not reflect on his command mistakes, but tried his best to preserve his consistent and correct image of field commander and put all the responsibility on the White House.

He complained that the disastrous defeat of the offensive was due to imposed political restrictions, not his own mistakes in field command.

To this end, he frequently met with reporters from some news media at “Tokyo No.

1 building” and made speeches to justify himself and discredit the White House.

He boasted that his offensive had undermined the Chinese plan to launch a sudden attack.

If the Chinese plan succeeds, they will destroy the US military and occupy North Korea with unstoppable action.

He did not make the “United Nations army” rashly break into the ambush circle laid by the Chinese.

He was fully aware of the existence of the Chinese army, but sent an “Armed Reconnaissance Force” to wisely jump out and escape from the encirclement of the Red Army.

He opposed the press’s depiction of his “planned retreat” as “flight”, and expressed his anger at the endless “irresponsible comments” of European newspapers.

He downplayed some of China’s “tactical successes”, saying that these small successes were at the cost of absolute quantitative advantage and “shocking personnel losses”.

However, the question of the reporter of American news and world report put him in an awkward position.

The reporter asked, “Your Excellency, I understand your wonderful analysis.

My question is, why did the United Nations army retreat to the south of the 38th parallel instead of advancing to the Red North?” MacArthur had no choice but to shirk responsibility to his boss.

Shaking his corncob pipe in his hand, he replied in an impassioned tone: “this is due to the special Ban made by my superiors in Washington, because they didn’t let me pursue the Chinese army and prohibited me from bombing Manchuria base.

” “Such a ban is a huge obstacle, which has no precedent in military history,” he added President Truman was annoyed by MacArthur’s rhetoric of whitewashing and blaming the White House for failure.

He scolded in his heart that this stubborn old man, who didn’t know anything about affairs, seemed to be deliberately against me.

He even teamed up with my political enemy, American news and World Guide, and sang and attacked me.

He really wanted to remove the “commander-in-chief” who had always acted on his own and send him back to his hometown to rest.

However, due to the change of generals in the face of the war, the great taboo of strategists, and the accusations of the Korean War from the allies and at home, Truman, who was full of anger, had to vent his anger in his diary.

He wrote in his diary: “it has been a noisy month.

General MacArthur has been talking like usual.

Even if he demolished my platform on many different occasions, I still have to defend him and save face.

” Tolerance to tolerance, Truman still took the necessary action to urge the “commander-in-chief” to shut his nonsense mouth.

On December 6, he issued two orders: the first order was that he should not make “remarks on foreign policy” without the approval of the State Council, so as to ensure that the information publicly published was accurate and completely consistent with the policies of the United States.

The second order is that overseas officials, including military commanders, should “be extremely cautious in public speeches.

Except for routine statements, all statements should be approved by their competent authorities, and direct contact with American newspapers, magazines or other public media on military or diplomatic issues is prohibited”.

Although these two orders were issued to all officials, people with a clear eye knew at a glance that MacArthur was also the target.

The contradictions between MacArthur and Truman include both political views and personal grievances.

It has both historical origins and the background of practical struggle.

The political debate between MacArthur and Truman focused on the focus of American global strategy.

MacArthur opposed Truman’s Europe first strategy, advocated Asia first, and believed that Europe was a dying system, and the Pacific coast region with billions of people would determine the historical process in the next 10000 years.

He regarded Japan as a vassal of the United States, China as a Japanese colony, an “unsinkable aircraft carrier and ship supply ship”, and the Korean War as a decisive battle between the United States and world communism.

He cannot tolerate the failure of the United States in North Korea.

He advocated strengthening the economic embargo against China, imposing a blockade on China’s coastal areas, and clamoring for the use of the US air force to destroy the northeast and all China’s industrial centers, transportation hubs, supply bases and troop assembly sites.

He demanded to accept Taiwan’s Kuomintang troops to fight in the DPRK and strongly supported the counter attack on the mainland.

After the outbreak of the Korean War, MacArthur and Truman continued to disagree on a series of foreign policies around the key issues of the global strategy of the United States.

First, the two sides disagree on the issue of Taiwan’s “neutrality”.

While intervening in the Korean War, the United States ordered the 7th Fleet to occupy China’s sacred territory Taiwan, which aroused strong repercussions in the international community and was resolutely opposed by the Soviet Union and other justice upholding countries.

In order to change the passive position of the United States in diplomacy, Truman came up with a unique coping strategy: the entry of the US 7th Fleet into Taiwan is a necessary measure to “neutralize” Taiwan.

The purpose is to ease tensions and neither allow the mainland to launch an armed attack on Taiwan nor Taiwan to launch an armed attack on the mainland.

However, MacArthur decided to visit Chiang Kai Shek in Taiwan.

Afterwards, Chiang Kai Shek said that MacArthur and he were in complete agreement on the action steps to be taken, which was tantamount to smearing a stain on Truman’s policy of “neutrality” of Taiwan.

Shortly after that, he made a lot of remarks in his statement to the president of the American Association of veterans of foreign wars, saying that “there is no more clich é than that kind of person who advocates that if we defend Formosa, we will cut ourselves off from the Asian continent and advocate the adoption of appeasement policies and defeatism in the Pacific direction, decided to scout himself.

He sat on the ah-6 old advanced trainer driven by the commander of the 5th air force Patrick and began reconnaissance within a depth of 20 miles.

The plane flew against the treetops and often circled in the valley.

Fortunately, Patric’s skillful driving skills made the commander safe several times.

Although Li Qiwei was so painstaking that his eyes sometimes stared sour on the plane, he didn’t even find his personal shadow, nor did he find the campfire, car prints and even the traces of stepping on the snow that proved that the volunteers had gathered in large numbers.

Where has the Chinese Army gone? Will they be gone without a trace? Unable to detect the result, Li Qiwei began to turn to logical inference.

He stood in front of the battle map and pondered.

A discovery that made him feel like a treasure came to his mind: since the Chinese Volunteer Army entered the Korean War, it has conducted three major battles with the United Nations army.

The first two were the United Nations army on the offensive side and the last was the United Nations army on the defensive side.

Thinking of this, Li Qiwei opened his battle record, Find the following digital records: “The first attack of the 8th group army on the Yalu River was ambushed by the Chinese Communist forces on October 25, 1950.

The large-scale battle began on October 26 and lasted eight days until the main force of the 8th group army withdrew to the south of the Qingchuan River on November 2.

The second attack of the 8th group army on the Yalu River was attacked by the Chinese Communist forces on the night of November 25, but the Chinese Communist army stopped fighting on December 2 The defeated United Nations attack lasted eight days.

The third time, the Chinese Communist Party and the North Korean army launched a large-scale attack on the United Nations army in the evening of December 31.

By January 8, the Chinese Communist army stopped the attack for 8 days.

“The first time was 8 days, the second time was 8 days, and the third time was 8 days.

Is this an accidental coincidence? Yes, three eight days, three identical numbers, three identical practices, that is, stopping pursuit in an unconventional manner under a favorable military situation – is it just a coincidence? No, it’s not that simple.

No matter how stupid a military commander is, he will know the truth of pursuing after victory.

There is only one answer: the Chinese army does not have the ability to attack for a long time.

Accordingly, he believes that the Chinese Communist army’s aggressive large-scale attack is nothing more than a “worship offensive”.

Later, Li Qiwei’s discovery confirmed his inference: after the volunteers crossed the 38th parallel, due to the extension of the transportation line, it was more difficult to supply, and they could not continue to fight.

He finally grasped a “life-saving straw”.

He decided to take advantage of the opportunity when the volunteer army was tired, difficult to supply and had no strength to fight back, and immediately began its attack of “returning to the 38th parallel” in order to recover the defeat.

Therefore, relying on superior transportation conditions, Li Qiwei commanded the “United Nations army” to complete the deployment of troops and logistical supplies in only half a month.

Starting from January 25, Li Qiwei launched a full line attack from west to east to the volunteer army and the people’s army.

In this attack, Li Qiwei mobilized five armies, 16 divisions, three brigades and five airborne regiments and all their artillery, tank and aviation troops, with 230000 ground troops alone.

They have changed their previous practice of rash advance, adopted the tactics of mixed formation of the US Army and the South Korean army, with the US Army as the main assault, approaching each other and fighting steadily.

In accordance with the poor equipment and difficult supply of the volunteer army and the people’s army, and relying on their advantages of fast mobility and strong firepower of modern equipment, they have always been willing to maintain contact with the people’s army, Prevent the other party from suddenly launching an attack, intersperse, detour and surround them.

After the volunteers and the people’s army determined that the enemy’s attack on the whole line was to reoccupy Seoul and force the volunteers and the people’s army to return to the battle attempt north of the 38th parallel, they decided to immediately stop recuperation and prepare for the battle, and made the battle decision of “launching from the west to the East”, that is, to organize defense on the west line with one force to contain the enemy’s main offensive force, and let the enemy go deep on the east line, Then concentrate the main force to counterattack, and then develop an assault on the enemy in depth, threaten the enemy’s main offensive forces on the western line from the flank, and stop them from attacking the “38th parallel”.

The defensive battle on the Western Front was extremely fierce.

The 112th division and 50th army of the 38th army of the volunteer army and the 1st corps of the people’s army withstood dozens of times the crazy attack of the enemy with heroic spirit under extremely difficult conditions such as lack of engineering equipment, lack of food, cold weather and even fortifications made of pouring water on snowdrifts.

During the more than ten day and night defensive war on the Han River, the enemy’s planes, tanks and artillery bombed the defensive positions into a sea of fire.

The artillery plowed every inch of the land on the top of the mountain.

The volunteers and people’s Army soldiers made great sacrifices and stained the Han River Red with blood.

On February 7, after paying heavy casualties, the enemy broke through the second defensive position.

Considering the arrival of spring, the Han River is thawing.

In order to avoid backwater combat, in addition to retaining some troops to stick to the bridgehead array on the South Bank of the Han River, the 1st corps of the people’s army and the 50th corps of the volunteer army, the main force withdrew to the North Bank of the Han River to organize defense.

The 112 division of the 38th army and the 113 and 114 divisions reinforced later still stick to the position on the South Bank of the Han River and continue to protect the main force of the volunteer army from gathering in Hengcheng area.

The South Bank of the Han River is an indestructible defense line built with the flesh and blood of the martyrs.

Decades later, all the survivors who participated in the Hanjiang garrison said with emotion, “the most unforgettable thing is the days and nights on the South Bank of the Hanjiang River”.

On February 9, the 8th and 5th divisions of the South Korean army on the eastern line entered the north of Hengcheng, and were in a prominent position on the whole front.

The flanks were exposed, which was conducive to encircling and annihilating the enemy in the movement.

The commander immediately decided to strike back and wipe out the enemy of Hengcheng.

At 17:00 on February 11, Deng Hua, the deputy commander of the volunteer army, commanded four times the superior force of the enemy, adopted multi-level encirclement deployment in shallow, near and deep, took a long-distance departure and advance at dusk, suddenly launched an attack, encircled the enemy of Hengcheng overnight, followed by bold interleaving and division, and achieved the effect of rapid battle to annihilate the enemy.

Among them, the 352 regiment of the 118th division of the 40th army directly raided Guangtian is particularly prominent.

On the night of the 11th, the regiment stepped on the snow along the path, climbed over the mountains 700 meters above sea level, broke through the enemy’s four blockages, traveled 30 kilometers, arrived in Guangtian on time, controlled the nearby roads, resolutely prevented the enemy from fleeing South and wiped out a large number of enemies.

Hengcheng counterattack ended on the morning of February 13.

In this battle, more than 12000 people were wiped out, including three regiments of the 8th division, one division of the 3rd Division and one division of the 5th division of the South Korean army, one battalion of the 2nd division of the US Army, and four artillery battalions of the US Army and the South Korean army.

The victory of this war shocked the “United Nations army” and taught Li Qiwei a lesson.

After an interval of 10Many years later, Li Qiwei was still haunted when he recalled the battle in Hengcheng area.

On February 17, all the volunteers and the people’s army moved to the North Bank of the Han River according to the established deployment, put the Han river behind the enemy, and then turned to the whole line of mobile defense, which ended the fourth battle.

MacArthur’s interest in the Korean War was revived by the news of the retreat of the volunteers on both sides of the Han River.

He also played the clich é of “hitting the ’38th parallel’ and burning the war to Manchuria”.

At this time, the participating countries of the “United Nations army” no longer listen to MacArthur’s demagogic propaganda on whether to cross the 38th parallel again.

Britain, France and other countries advocate that we should accept the situation as soon as it is good and establish a “de facto ceasefire” on the 38th parallel in order to solve the Korean issue through negotiation.

Many officials from the White House and the Pentagon also hold this view.

Even Bradley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, has to admit: “expanding the war to Communist China will involve us in a wrong war in the wrong place, at the wrong time and with the wrong enemy.

” Therefore, it also advocates armistice negotiations with North Korea after gaining a favorable position on the battlefield.

Where can MacArthur tolerate such remarks and opinions? Angrily, he sent Truman an urgent telegram calling for the expansion of the war until the Communist army was driven out of North Korea.

He also stated to the Pentagon that he believed that the war could be ended once and for all.

In fact, it was a plan to further expand the war: first, carry out large-scale bombing of all areas behind the enemy in North Korea and cut off its highway and railway traffic.

2、 If bombing of the Yalu River and the other side of the river is still prohibited, radioactive waste should be laid on the enemy’s transport line to cut off North Korea’s ties with China.

3、 Amphibious and airborne troops will land on the East and west coasts of North Korea to encircle the enemy.

This scale will be much larger than Incheon landing, so that they will either starve or surrender.

The Pentagon ignored this and turned away his suggestion by prevaricating.

MacArthur became angry when he saw that his suggestions were repeatedly rejected.

He scolded the Pentagon as a “coward” and “hairy child” in front of the staff.

MacArthur still goes his own way.

On March 15, he summoned Hugh Bailey, chairman of the United Press, to answer reporters’ questions again.

In his talk, he criticized the practice of stopping the 8th group army from crossing the 38th parallel as “damaging our mission of unifying North Korea”.

And complained that the United States and its allies have long abandoned this mission.

These public statements annoyed the White House and the Pentagon.

On March 20, the Joint Chiefs of staff sent a telegram to MacArthur in order to make the stubborn old man who did not know the current situation understand the situation and let him know another plan different from his plan – President Truman wanted to end the war, He was informed that “the State Council will soon prepare a presidential statement, which states that since most parts of South Korea have eliminated the enemy, it is generally believed that a ceasefire agreement should be reached through further diplomatic efforts before heavy troops are used to advance north of the 38th parallel.

” Instead of buying the account of the Federation, McArthur opposed President Truman and issued a statement on March 24 ahead of the president, publicly clamoring to “expand military operations to China’s coastal areas and inland bases” and “put red China in danger of immediate collapse”.

MacArthur’s alarmist remarks shocked Washington.

Britain, France and other countries also reacted strongly.

They wrote and called President Truman for clarification and even protested.

This made Truman very embarrassed.

It not only put Washington in a passive position in diplomacy, but also made it impossible for Truman to make his own statement aimed at seeking a “ceasefire”.

To this end, he wrote angrily in his diary: “MacArthur’s move forced me to have no choice.

I can no longer tolerate his anti upper behavior.

” Because MacArthur’s move directly violated the instructions issued by the Joint Chiefs of staff on December 6 last year according to the president’s instructions that he should not publicly publish any foreign policy statements without the approval of the Pentagon, Truman could hardly restrain his inner anger.

He felt that the gap between him and MacArthur was widening and difficult to bridge.

Since the Wake Island meeting, he had hoped that the arrogant commander-in-chief of the Far East would show respect for the president’s authority.

But it turned out that MacArthur didn’t give him face and humiliated him.

He felt that he had no choice but to dismiss him as the supreme commander of the battlefield.

But he also considered that his government was in turmoil because of falling into the Korean War.

At this moment, taking off MacArthur’s “black hat” would cause unpredictable political unrest.

“If you can’t bear it, you will make a big plan”.

After careful consideration, Truman still endured the evil spirit.

He decided to warn MacArthur for the last time and told him unequivocally: stop at the precipice and turn around.

According to Truman’s will, the Pentagon informed MacArthur in the tone of order: “the president’s instruction reminds you of his order issued on December 6, 1950.

In view of the fact that you have been notified of the” United Nations decision to seek a truce in North Korea “on March 20, 1951, any subsequent statements must comply with the order of December 6.

” The Pentagon’s stern warning did not stop MacArthur’s mouth.

At the press conference during his inspection of the battlefield, he said that crossing the 38th parallel would have no adverse consequences.

Both the air force and ground forces could cross at will, because this issue had been fully discussed and solved in the past.

In an interview with the military reporter of the daily telegraph in London, he asserted that his troops were “bound in an artificial net” and complained that in his half century military career, “the first discovery was to fight a war without a clear goal”.

As for the 38th parallel issue, it was those politicians who knew nothing about the military in China who grossly violated the terms of reference of soldiers and killed thousands of his soldiers in vain.

Truman kept an account of MacArthur’s repeated “rebellion”.

He believed that the removal of MacArthur was irreparable, and now it was just a matter of waiting for the right time.

The time has finally come.

On February 12, representative Joseph Martin, the leader of the Republican Party, said in a speech to Congress that he believed that the Chinese Kuomintang army would not be used in North KoreaIt’s “stupid”.

After the meeting, Martin sent the speech to MacArthur in Tokyo and asked him to comment.

MacArthur wrote back to Mr.

Martin, who speculated on the subject, four days before he issued his statement of March 24.

The letter not only agreed with Martin, And further play the way: “Some people seem inexplicably difficult to understand.

The Communist Party conspired to select Asia to realize their plot to conquer the world.

Therefore, we participated in the resulting struggle on the battlefield.

At the same time that diplomats fought back against the Communist conquest with words in Europe, we are here to fight for Europe with weapons.

if we are defeated in the war in Asia The Communist Party, then the fall of Europe is inevitable.

If we win, Europe is likely to avoid the scourge of war and remain free.

As you (Martin) pointed out, we must win.

There is no choice but victory.

” In order to attract more supporters in Congress, Martin read out MacArthur’s letter to him in public in his speech in the house of Representatives on April 5, which aroused strong repercussions from the participants.

This heavyweight political bomb directly challenged Truman’s European first strategy and made Truman in a mess.

On the afternoon of April 11, 1951, Truman summoned Bradley from the White House presidential office, angrily handed MacArthur’s letter to Martin to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, and then said with extreme seriousness: “this is a political bomb.

I will never tolerate such wanton behavior, repeatedly disobeying the will of the supreme commander, going my own way and making a mess of the situation.

” After reading the letter, Bradley said: “MacArthur’s stubbornness is tantamount to disobeying orders.

He insisted on expanding the war and using the Kuomintang army.

He said that if Asia loses to communism, Europe will come to an end.

This is advocating Asia first.

Now more than 600 Americans are killed and injured in North Korea every month.

To expand the war, the United States will fall into the abyss and can’t let him continue.

” Truman continued, “the Korean issue cannot be solved by military means alone.

I think our ‘lovely hero’ should have a rest.

He is too tired.

” Bradley echoed: “the main allies have wavered.

It seems that it is imperative to negotiate a truce.

” Truman said, “we have to get rid of this troublemaker first.

” Bradley handed in a written order to remove MacArthur and said, “the Joint Chiefs of staff agreed that MacArthur should be removed from all his posts.

It’s time to make a decision, Mr.

President.

” Then Secretary of state Acheson walked into the president’s office and said to the president, “we need a reliable battlefield commander.

MacArthur should get out.

Marshall and Harriman agree with me.

” Truman signed the order without hesitation and asked Acheson, “so who will replace MacArthur?” Bradley has already prepared a replacement candidate.

He and Collins have recommended Li Qiwei as the ideal candidate to replace this position and believe that general James Van fleet should take over as the commander of the 8th group army.

Truman agreed with both candidates.

At 3 pm the next day, Truman asked defense minister pace, who was in North Korea at that time, to return to Tokyo immediately and convey the dismissal order to MacArthur.

By doing so, MacArthur could avoid the embarrassment caused by the direct transmission of orders through military channels.

I don’t know which channel leaked the news or the professional sensitivity of the reporter.

A reporter of the Chicago Tribune in the Far East Radio sent a telegram back to the newspaper saying that MacArthur would be dismissed according to the secret information of authoritative channels.

After learning the news, Bradley decided to immediately convey the order to MacArthur for fear that MacArthur would retaliate against the president and resign, leaving the president in a passive position.

At the same time, Bradley decided to hold a press conference at 5 a.m. on Monday to announce it.

On the afternoon of April 11, US News broadcast the news that MacArthur was removed from his post.

At this time, MacArthur was inviting two American guests to dinner with his wife Jenny in the living room of the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo.

Suddenly, Colonel Haff, MacArthur’s entourage, entered the living room with a painful expression.

Jenny got up and went to Haff.

Haff whispered briefly and quickly, “I heard from the radio that the commander was dismissed.

” Mrs MacArthur was panicked by the sudden news, but she still controlled herself and went to MacArthur and whispered, She told her husband the painful news.

MacArthur’s face darkened, and his guests stopped to look at him.

At this time, MacArthur was as silent as a stone statue.

He looked up at his wife and said gently to her in a voice that everyone could hear, “Jenny, don’t be sad.

It’s also a good thing.

We can finally go home.

” MacArthur saw off the guests without disrespect and returned to the room to receive a telegram from Washington from Colonel Haff.

“I deeply regret that I have to do my duty as president and commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces to remove you from your duties as commander in chief of the Allied forces, commander in chief of the United Nations forces, commander in chief of the U.S. forces in the Far East and commander in chief of the U.S. forces in the Far East.

Your command will be handed over to lieutenant general Matthew B.

Li Qiwei with immediate effect,” the cable said Signature: Truman.

Then the embassy staff sent the news records released by the White House to MacArthur, It reads: “I deeply regret to announce that five-star general Douglas MacArthur has been unable to wholeheartedly support the policies of the US government and the United Nations on issues related to his duties.

In accordance with the special responsibilities entrusted to me by the US Constitution and the responsibilities entrusted to me by the United Nations, I have decided to change the command of the Far East.

” signature: Truman.

It’s over.

It’s over.

MacArthur, a war maniac, reluctantly ended his political life and bid farewell to his military career.