for quite a long time, China’s literature and academic circles have either not mentioned a word or falsely transmitted the situation of nicolsky, one of the two foreigners who participated in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China in July 1921.

for quite a long time, China’s literature and academic circles either didn’t mention a word about nicolsky, one of the two foreigners who participated in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China in July 1921, or spread the wrong information. At the special moment that is about to usher in the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, it should be said that it is more meaningful to explore nicholsky’s real identity and his activities in China, as well as his situation after returning to the Soviet Union from China.

have not known the specific situation of nikorsky for a long time.

when introducing the representatives of the Comintern to the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China’s political and academic circles either do not mention nikorsky at all, or only mention nikorsky’s name and the identity of the representative of the Comintern in a few figures, And a large paragraph of text will introduce Marin very fully and accurately. According to the information currently available to the author, Bao huiseng, one of the participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, may be the first person to mention nikorsky’s identity in China. Bao huiseng described nikorsky in his article “what happened before and after the founding of the Communist Party of China” published in the 13th issue of new observation magazine in 1957: “with Marin and liknowski, a total of 15 people attended the meeting”, “Then liknowski reported on the work and tasks of red Workers International. He seemed to be a worker, spoke slowly and in a low voice.” Here, he did not directly explain the identity of “liknowski”, but in a recall material in June 1979, he clearly mentioned the identity of nikorski: “there are 15 people, including the international representative Marin and the international representative nikorski of red workers”. Here, it is clearly pointed out that “nikorski” is the “international representative of red workers”. The “liknowski” and “nikorsky” mentioned by Bao huiseng in the above articles and recall materials actually refer to nikorsky, a participant in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, but there are differences in Chinese translation.

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another participant in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Zhang Guotao, who mentioned nicholsky in some detail earlier, published his “my memories” in 1980 for “internal reference”, In the first volume of the book, Zhang Guotao mentioned that he was the first to arrive in Shanghai in preparation for the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Through Li Da’s introduction, he learned that “two representatives of the Comintern, one named nikolovsky, is an assistant and doesn’t speak much, like an honest man; the other responsible person is named Marin…” Zhang Guotao always mistook nikorsky for “nikorovsky” because he didn’t remember the Russian names accurately enough. Nothing else about nicholsky.

in fact, not only do China’s political and academic circles know little about nikorsky, one of the representatives of the Comintern who participated in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, but also the historians of the Soviet Union and Russia do not know much about nikorsky even during the Soviet Union and a long time after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, The root cause is the lack of this person’s archival materials.

the research results of Dr. kartunova, a Soviet scholar

Dr. kartunova, a historian in the Soviet period, has been paying attention to nikorsky, a more important historical figure in the history of Sino Soviet relations for many years. She herself is mainly engaged in the research on the relationship between red workers international and the Chinese workers’ movement. Since the mid-1960s, she has found some unimportant indirect materials about nicholsky through her efforts, but she still failed to find out what kind of person nicholsky is. This is reflected in the fact that she was working on an archival material in the 1990s, When commenting on the “letter dated October 13, 1921 from smorkis, the international representative of red workers in Chita”, it was pointed out that: “On behalf of red Workers International, Li konoski worked on trade unions and workers during the first Congress of the Communist Party of China. Li konoski’s identity is uncertain. According to the customary saying of historical documents, he is the representative of red Workers International participating in the ‘first National Congress’ of the Communist Party of China.”

in 1987, at the invitation of the CPC Central Committee, a secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union visited China. After returning to Moscow after the visit, the Secretary assigned a task to the then Marxist Leninist Institute of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: to find out the biographical data and photos of nikorski, a participant in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China. So the task fell to On Dr. kartunova’s head. After accepting the task, she searched the central party affairs archives of the Marxist Leninist Institute of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for a long time in the autumn of 1987, and then published her research results in the second issue of the magazine Far East issues in 1989 under the title of “forgotten participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China”.

“forgotten participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China”

in her article, she overturned her previous speculation that “maybe liknowski’s last name is not real, but the pseudonym of a staff member of the Far East Secretariat of the Communist International”, She pointed out: “It was previously confirmed that nikorski was sent to China by the Far East Secretariat of the Communist International, and in the correspondence between the staff of the Far East Secretariat of the Communist International, he appeared under the pseudonym of ‘Vasili’ or ‘Vasiliev’. However, is there Vasili in the list and list of the staff of the Far East Secretariat of the Communist International from May 1921 to January 1922? Among the staff of this institution, the only one is bukat whose name is Vasili, and bukat visited Mongolia in the summer of 1921, during the first Congress of the Communist Party of China. However, according to conclusive and credible information, it is impossible to determine that bukat is nicholsky. Because according to the archives, we can confirm that nicolsky has been active in Shanghai from June 3 to December 1921. ”

She also judged according to the work report submitted by a staff member named Likin sent by the Comintern to work in China to the Far East Department of the Comintern Executive Committee on May 20, 1922: she had completed the preparations for the ongoing joint construction of the party and participated in the mission of the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and organized Zhang Guotao and others to attend the first National Congress of the Communist parties and revolutionary organizations of the Far East held in Soviet Russia After the CPC representatives from the meeting went to Soviet Russia, “nikorsky should return to Irkutsk to attend the first Congress of the Communist parties and revolutionary groups in the Far East”. According to the report of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai in early October 1921, I was confirmed by Comrade kollikin that I had no necessary funds to work in the Far East International Committee in Shanghai; (according to the report of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China in early October 1922, I had no necessary funds to carry out my work in Shanghai.) According to the instructions of the Far East Secretariat, I should wait there for new arrangements. The new arrangement was received soon… Let me stay in Shanghai while Comrade Vasili (i.e. nikorski) attended the Far East National Congress. ” But Dr. kartunova believes that, in fact, “nicolski did not attend the conference, because none of the conference participants mentioned that they had met him at the conference, and Nikolski’s documents were not found in the various representative cards of the participants of the conference collected in the archives.”

kartunova put forward some speculative conclusions.

Dr. kartunova pointed out at the end of the article, “Nikorski, it seems, is Neyman nikorski, Vladimir Abramovich, also known as Berg Victor alexandrovic (1898-1943). He joined the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) in 1921 。 Went to Chita business school for three years. From 1919 to 1920, he served in the revolutionary people’s army of the Far East Republic. Some data show that Berger worked in the administrative office of the Comintern at least in 1921. From 1921 to 1925, Naiman nicholsky worked in Manchuria. In the summer of 1926, he arrived at Chita from Khabarovsk. He was arrested in 1938 and sentenced to participate in the Trotsky opposition and died in 1943. Later, after his death, he was rehabilitated. ” But she stated that this conclusion was provided to readers as a statement.

because I don’t know nicholsky’s photos, so Dr. kartunova quoted Bao huiseng and Zhang Guotao’s textual description of nikorsky’s image to make up for the lack of nikorsky’s photos. She also asserted that “there is no possibility of finding any more accurate material about nikorsky in the archives, because as far as we know, there are no personal archives of nikorsky in the archives of the Far East and Siberia.” At the end of her article “the forgotten participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China”, she hoped that nicholsky’s living relatives and historians who found information about nicholsky in their scientific research work could provide her with information and materials about him.

Dr. kartunova’s explanation of nicolsky’s identity in the article “forgotten participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China” has been widely cited. However, 17 years later, Kartunova’s discovery of new archival materials about nicolski overturned her claim in the article “forgotten participants in the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China” “There is no possibility of finding any more accurate material about nikorsky in the archives, because as far as we know, there are no personal archives of nikorsky in the archives of the Far East and Siberia.”.

finally found nikorsky’s precious archives

in 2006, kartunova found her dream nikorsky’s precious archives with the help of the central archives of the Russian Federal Security Agency, which made nikorsky’s real identity more detailed and accurate, As she pointed out in the article “Naiman nikorsky – participant of the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China” published in the fourth issue of the Russian magazine “Far East issues” in 2006: “Now, thanks to the help of the central archives of the Russian Federal Security Agency, we have a more comprehensive understanding of nikorsky’s situation before going to China and after returning to Soviet Russia from China. Therefore, we now have a fairly complete description of what kind of person Naiman nikorsky is: Vladimir Abramovich Nai Man nikorsky, also known as victor alexeyevichberg, was born in qiekan village, Barguzin area, waibaikal Province on February 10, 1889. He was born in a small citizen family and went to Chita business school for three years. From 1912 to 1916, he worked as a clerk and employee in some private stores in Chita city and the sberga station of Amur railway. From 1916 to 1917, he served as a private soldier in the 16th Siberian reserve infantry regiment and the 516th UFA reserve infantry regiment. From 1917 to 1918, after demobilization, he worked as an employee in some private enterprises in Chita and Vladivostok. From 1918 to 1920, he served as an independent private soldier in the 31st Chita infantry regiment of the white bandit army and the Jews of the Shimonov Department of the white bandit army. In April 1920, he joined the whole Jewish independent company to the Red Army. From 1920 to 1921, he served as an ordinary soldier in the yakobson Red Army guerrilla (that is, the 4th guerrilla of the 24th Amur uprising regiment of the revolutionary people’s army of the Far East), served in the Intelligence Department of the revolutionary people’s army of the Far East from 1921 to 1923, and then served in the intelligence department under the Staff Department of the 5th group army. He joined the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) in 1921. ”

kartunova pointed out in the article that she once made a conjecture with senior researcher paladzova that “nikorski worked in Manchuria from 1921 to 1925 and arrived in Chita from Khabarovsk in the summer of 1926”, “But the new materials we now have can not confirm this statement. In fact, from 1921 to 1923, Naiman nicholsky served in the Intelligence Department of the staff of the revolutionary people’s army of the Far East, and then in the Intelligence Department of the staff of the fifth group army. From then on until the end of his career, he tied his life to the intelligence and anti espionage agencies in the Far East of the Soviet Union Get up. one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two- in 1925, he served in the intelligence section of the Far East frontier branch of the state political security administration of the Soviet people’s Committee. From 1925 to 1926, he was the plenipotentiary representative of the anti espionage section of the Far East frontier branch of the state political security administration of the Soviet people’s Committee. From 1926 to 1927, he was the plenipotentiary representative of the anti espionage section of Chita branch of the state political security administration of the Soviet people’s Committee, From 1927 to 1929, he served as the plenipotentiary and senior Plenipotentiary of the anti espionage section of the Vladivostok branch of the state political security administration of the people’s Commission of the Soviet Union, and from 1929 to 1930, he served as the plenipotentiary representative of the Vladivostok branch of the state political security administration of the people’s Commission of the Soviet Union in gerrogkovo station, From 1930 to 1932, he served as the chief of the anti espionage section of the Far East frontier branch of the state political security administration of the people’s Commission of the Soviet Union. From 1932 to 1933, he served in the Far East frontier Bureau of the Ministry of internal affairs of the people’s Commission of the Soviet Union, From 1935 to 1937, he served in the seventh division of the State Security Administration of the Ministry of internal affairs. On February 23, 1938, Naiman Nichols Kiefer m’a was arrested by the people’s Committee of the interior in Khabarovsk on charges of “actively participating in the espionage and sabotage activities of the Trotsky terrorist organization”. On September 21, 1938, according to the judgment of the circuit court of the military court of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, nikorsky was found guilty of the following crimes: ‘since 1931, he has actively participated in the anti Soviet activities of the Trotsky terrorist organization, engaged in subversive and sabotage activities in the organs of the people’s Committee of the interior in the Far East frontier region’, and participated in espionage activities for the Japanese intelligence agencies, Veraneman nikorsky was sentenced to death, and the sentence was executed in Khabarovsk on the same day. Before his arrest, Neyman nikorsky was already a captain of the Soviet national security agency. On November 8, 1956, according to the decision of the military court of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, “due to the lack of elements of crime”, Naiman nikorsky? A was vindicated. ”

nikorski’s real identity is a Soviet Russian intelligence officer

to sum up, the author believes that nikorski’s real identity is a Soviet Russian intelligence officer.

first of all, Dr. kartunova’s discovery of the above-mentioned precious archives about nikorsky has fully proved this. As she herself pointed out: “it is now clear that Naiman nikorsky had some experience in intelligence reconnaissance before he went to China.”

secondly, the impression and memory of the participants of the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China who had dealt with nikorsky also confirmed his identity as a Soviet Russian intelligence officer from the side. For example, Zhang Guotao mentioned in his book my memories that in mid October 1921, as one of the representatives of the Communist Party of China, he was going to Soviet Russia to participate in the “Far East working people’s Congress”, and Chen Duxiu asked him to “meet nikorovsky in order to solve the technical problems in travel”, “Nikorovsky led me to his studio to sit down and began to talk to me in his hard English. He told me a summary of the situation along the Manchurian border between China and Russia and asked me if I had prepared clothes to keep out the cold. I replied that everything was ready to leave today. He took out a very ordinary business card from his drawer and pointed out: ‘this business card is ready It’s your passport. There’s an invisible pinhole on it. It’s a code. ” Ask me to hold this business card and go to the owner of a certain barber shop in Manchuria in an invisible way. He will escort me through the border and so on. ” Zhang Guotao’s feeling about this man is: “the Russian usually doesn’t see him talking much. He just looks like a safe assistant, but it seems that he is fine and experienced in dealing with such things.” In Zhang Guotao’s eyes, nicholsky’s image is actually the performance and demonstration of the good skills and basic quality of a well-trained intelligence officer.

again, according to the declassified archives and documents, it was common for Soviet Russian intelligence personnel to be sent to work in China at that time. For example, in the report submitted by Marin to the Executive Committee of the Comintern on July 11, 1922, in addition to nikorsky, it also mentioned a man frombergo, “During this period, comrade fremberg from Chita worked for the international trade union, and I often cooperated with him.” what Marin said here is “Comrade fremberg” Fromberge, who was sent to work in China by the red Staff International Far East Secretariat in Chita in January 1921. His main task was to keep in touch with vikeski in Shanghai Frombergo has been working in the intelligence bureau of the eastern nationalities Department of the Siberian Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Russia (Bolshevik). His real identity is also a Soviet Russian intelligence officer.

finally, the success of the October Revolution and the internal and external difficulties of the new Soviet regime after the success of the October revolution forced the Soviet and Russian leaders to promote the implementation of the world revolutionary strategy. In order to publicize the experience of Marxism Leninism and the October Revolution of Soviet Russia to Chinese revolutionary organizations, investigate the possibility of establishing Communist organizations and even the Communist Party in China, and accurately select and determine the future Chinese allies of Comintern and Soviet Russia, Soviet Russia especially needs to accurately and comprehensively understand the actual situation of the Chinese revolution, At the same time, they carried out effective revolutionary propaganda, encouragement and organizational work in China. However, under the special period and complex domestic conditions at that time, these work could not be carried out openly. Therefore, the personnel sent to China to carry out work are often compound special talents, who often not only perform the tasks assigned by the Comintern, And they also perform the mission entrusted by red Staff International. At the same time, they are also a Soviet Russian intelligence officer. The declassified archives confirmed that at that time, a large number of compound talents with various missions such as nikorsky in Soviet Russia carried out activities all over China.