After the outbreak of the European war, Japan’s Nobuyuki Abe cabinet issued a statement: “the Japanese Empire does not intervene and focuses on solving the Chinese incident.
” On September 13, 1939, the Japanese government announced the diplomatic policy of “adhering to an independent position to cope with the complex and delicate international situation”, in an attempt to get rid of its dependence on Germany and maintain coordinated diplomatic relations with Britain and the United States, so as to finally solve the “China Incident”.
In the early days of being in power, the cabinet of mineguangzheng, which came into power on January 16, 1940, basically followed the diplomatic line of Abe’s cabinet.
From April to June 1940, the German army successfully attacked six countries in northern and Western Europe, making the once silent call for the conclusion of an “alliance” rise again in Japan.
After the alliance between China and Japan, the British government should first take advantage of the vacuum to get rid of the dilemma of China and Italy in Southeast Asia.
On the other hand, after Germany wins in the western front, especially once it defeats Britain, it will force the defeated countries to cede their colonies in the Pacific region.
If Japan joins the axis alliance, Germany may consider its obligations so as not to damage Japan’s interests in the region.
On June 19, Japanese ambassador to Germany Saburo laiqi informed the German Ministry of foreign affairs that general Sato Shangwu, an adviser to the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs who was visiting Rome, was visiting Berlin.
Emperor Hirohito was ready to reconsider the proposal he rejected a year ago on the establishment of a “military alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan”.
At this time, Germany is complacent about its victory in the western front and is not interested in the “Japan Germany alliance”.
Therefore, he said coldly to Japan’s proposal: “if Japan is likely to provide substantive benefits to Germany, such as the supply of raw materials, an agreement may be reached.
” On July 8, Sato said when meeting with German Foreign Minister ribentrov: “because Japan’s actions in the Far East have diverted the attention of Britain, France and the United States, Germany can successfully win in the western line.
I hope that the two countries will cooperate closely in the future, eliminate U.S. interference in European Affairs, establish a new German order in Europe and a new Japanese order in Asia.
” Ribbentrop said that the failure of the trilateral alliance negotiations was due to Japan’s indifference to European affairs.
He did not understand the purpose of Japan’s proposal to strengthen German Japanese cooperation, suggesting that Japan put forward more specific suggestions.
To this end, Japan’s Ministry of foreign affairs drafted a outline of the Japan Germany agreement: first, Germany recognized the Southeast Asian region, including Indochina and Dutch India, as the sphere of influence of Japan, and supported Japan’s hegemony in the region, helping Japan deal with the “China Incident” and giving preferential treatment to Japan and Europe. 2. Japan recognizes Germany’s hegemony in Europe and Africa, assists Germany in forcing Britain to surrender and gives Germany preferential treatment for trade with the “Greater East Asia” region. 3. Germany and Japan shall jointly maintain peace with the Soviet Union, but if one country is threatened by the Soviet Union, the two countries shall jointly negotiate and take measures.
If one country goes to war with the Soviet Union, the other country shall not give assistance to the Soviet Union. 4. Germany and Japan should work together to prevent the United States from interfering in European and Asian affairs.
On July 12 and 16, officials from the Ministry of foreign affairs, the Ministry of the army and the Ministry of maritime affairs of Japan discussed the above draft.
The participants unanimously agreed on the policy formulated by the Ministry of foreign affairs and adopted the “Japan Germany Italy promotion and strengthening case”, proposing that Japan, Germany and Italy “implement maximum cooperation within the scope of not participating in the war”.
Before the outbreak of the European war, Minai, as a maritime minister, strongly opposed the alliance with Germany.
After the outbreak of the European war, the mineI cabinet pursued “independent diplomacy”.
Later, forced by the situation, its attitude towards the alliance with Germany changed, but it was not very positive.
The cautious attitude of the mineI cabinet was strongly opposed by the army generals and other radical groups.
They demanded to form a strong alliance with Germany and Italy, determined to kick out the mineI cabinet and establish a cabinet that can cooperate closely with the axis countries.
On July 16, 1940, the prime minister x JunLiu was instructed to resign, but the military refused to recommend a successor, and the Minai cabinet was forced to resign.
On July 22, the fascist guard Wen o formed a cabinet again.
After the downfall of the cabinet, the plan of alliance negotiation with Germany and Italy failed to be implemented.
On July 19, on the eve of the formation of the guard cabinet, he held talks with the incoming prime minister Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister Yoshida and foreign minister yoyo Matsuoka in his private house and formulated the foreign policy guidelines of the new cabinet: in order to adapt to the great changes in the world situation and quickly build a new order in East Asia, we should strengthen the Japanese German Italian axis and coordinate East and West in order to implement their respective important policies.
On July 27, the joint meeting of the Japanese base camp and the government adopted the outline for dealing with the current situation to adapt to the changes of the world situation, and decided to “promote the handling of the China Incident” and solve the southern problems.
In terms of foreign policy, we should “focus on morality and Italy, especially quickly strengthen the political unity with morality and Italy”.
On July 30, yoyo Matsuoka presided over the formulation of the document on strengthening Japan Germany Italy cooperation, which proposed that if Germany and Italy asked for military assistance against Britain, Japan would agree in principle, but the time for the use of force should be decided by Japan itself.
If a contracting party is in danger of war with the United States, the contracting parties should consult on what measures to take.
On August 1, yoyo Matsuoka and ambassador to Germany Saburo came to Tokyo and Berlin to test Germany’s attitude towards the “Greater East Asia co prosperity circle” and the alliance between Japan, Germany and Italy.
The German government changed its cold attitude and responded positively to Matsuoka’s proposal.
On August 13, Ribbentrop informed the Japanese ambassador to Germany through his Far East expert Heinrich stamer that Germany was ready to resume negotiations on strengthening the German Japanese Alliance.
In this regard, Germany has its own considerations: on the one hand, after the defeat of France, Britain vowed not to surrender and sternly rejected the “peace proposal”.
Germany is in danger of long-term war, and the United States continues to strengthen its assistance to Britain, which greatly increases the possibility of participating in the war against Germany.
Germany hopes to use its alliance with Japan to put pressure on Britain, force it to comply, contain the United States and prevent it from participating in the war.
On the other hand, since the defeat of France and the Soviet Union’s ultimatum to Romania to cede Pisa Rabia and North Bukovina, German Soviet relations began to break, and Germany accelerated its preparations for invading the Soviet Union.
It hoped to contain the Soviet Union in the Far East with the help of Japan.
In early September, the Japanese cabinet held four meetings of prime minister, foreign minister, land minister and marine Minister for many times to determine the essentials of negotiations with Germany: first, Japan and Germany and ItalyThe two countries share a common position on building a new world order and should support each other in establishing and governing their respective “survival circles”.
Second, Japan, Germany and Italy should strengthen economic cooperation.
Japan should provide Germany and Italy with agriculture, forestry, aquatic products and mineral products of “Greater East Asia”.
Germany and Italy should provide Japan with necessary technical assistance and aircraft, machinery and chemicals.
Third, Japan, Germany and Italy contain the Soviet Union from the East and West, make good use of the situation, make it in line with the common interests of the three countries, and try to develop their sphere of influence to areas that have less direct impact on the interests of the three countries, such as India.
Fourth, if the “China Incident” is roughly handled, or the international situation changes and hesitation is no longer allowed, then Japan can use force against Britain and the United States.
On September 7, the German government plenipotentiary steimer arrived in Tokyo and began talks with Matsuoka two days later.
He put forward several German requirements for Alliance: Japan should contain the actions of the United States in East Asia, prevent it from entering the European war, and assist Germany in obtaining strategic materials.
Germany provided weapons and military supplies to Japan and recognized Japan’s political leadership in East Asia.
After two days of talks, the two sides reached a consensus on a series of issues: Japan, Germany and Italy hope that the United States will not participate in the European war and the “Japan China dispute”.
Germany did not ask Japan to intervene in its war against Britain.
Only when Japan, Germany and Italy resolutely adopt a consistent attitude can we curb the actions of the United States.
In the next step of the three countries treaty, the Soviet Union should also participate, and Germany should mediate on Japan Soviet cooperation.
Germany has worked hard to avoid the conflict between Japan and the United States in East Asia.
On September 11, the two sides reached an agreement on the draft treaty.
On September 19, the pre imperial meeting of Japan approved the results of the talks.
After Germany and Japan reached a consensus on the conclusion of a military alliance, Hitler was determined to pull Italy into the alliance treaty.
Although Italy has concluded a military alliance with Germany, it does not want to be Germany’s deputy.
It attempts to fight a “parallel war” with Germany in order to realize the dream of reviving the “great Roman Empire”, so it shares a strange dream with Germany.
On September 19, Ribbentrop went to Rome to brief Mussolini and Italian foreign minister ziano on the German Japanese negotiations, and the two sides reached an agreement on Italy’s signing of the Treaty of alliance of the Three Kingdoms.
On September 27, Germany, Italy and Japan signed the 10-year “alliance treaty” in Berlin.
The treaty clearly stated at the beginning that the purpose of the cooperation between Germany, Italy and Japan is to establish and maintain a new order in Europe and “Greater East Asia”.
Articles 1 and 2 stipulate that “Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in establishing a new order in Europe”.
“Germany and Italy recognize and respect Japan’s leadership in establishing a new order in Greater East Asia”.
Article 3 stipulates that “if one of the three Contracting States is attacked by a country that is not currently in the European war or the Sino Japanese conflict, it shall provide assistance by all political, economic and military means.
” Article 5 stipulates that the provisions of this treaty “shall not affect in any way the existing political status between the three Contracting States and Soviet Russia”.
In addition, in order to implement this treaty, the treaty also stipulates that the three countries shall send personnel to form a joint technical committee.
On the day of the signing of the Treaty of alliance of the Three Kingdoms, Matsuoka and German ambassador to Japan o’ott also exchanged several secret protocols in Tokyo.
The protocol stipulates that if Japan is attacked by countries that have not yet participated in the European war and the China Japan war, Germany will give full economic and military assistance, and try its best to give technical and material assistance in advance to help Japan prepare for such incidents.
If Japan goes to war with Britain, Germany will try its best to help Japan.
Germany will do its utmost to promote friendly understanding between Japan and the Soviet Union.
The islands formerly belonging to Germany and now managed by Japan under the entrustment of the League of nations are still ruled by Japan, but Japan should give Germany some compensation.
At this time, the German possessions occupied by Japan should be returned to Germany after the end of the European war.
At that time, the two sides can sell these possessions to Japan through negotiation.
The signing of the Treaty of alliance of the Three Kingdoms is a sign of the comprehensive political, economic and military collusion between Germany, Italy and Japan.
It strengthens the strategic position of fascist countries and accelerates the pace of aggression and expansion of Germany, Italy and Japan.
After the outbreak of the Pacific War, in order to consolidate the alliance of the three countries and coordinate the actions of all parties, Germany, Italy and Japan signed the “joint operations agreement” in Berlin on December 11, 1941, which stipulates that all contracting parties will fight against Britain and the United States by all means until complete victory.
Without consultation, they shall not separately truce or make peace with Britain and the United States.
On January 18, 1942, the three countries signed a new “military agreement” to divide their respective combat zones.