Although France won the first World War, its national economic foundation was seriously damaged.
In particular, the industrial base of the occupied areas was destroyed, and goods and property totalling 134 billion francs disappeared in the war.
5 million people in France died in the war, with an average of one in 10 French dying on the front line.
Although France suffered heavy losses in the war and the richest north and Northeast were seriously damaged, its post-war recovery work was fruitful.
Relying on German war reparations and foreign technology, France invested $8 billion to repair mines, rebuild factories, public buildings, shops and houses, build railways and roads, dredge rivers, fill thousands of meters of trenches, and heal the wounds left by the war.
The whole restoration project ended in 1924.
However, the world capitalist economic crisis from 1929 to 1933 interrupted the development chain of French economy and plunged France into the abyss of economic crisis.
Among capitalist countries, France was involved in the world economic crisis later.
In the autumn of 1931, the shares of the Paris Stock Exchange plummeted, and France began to get involved in the economic crisis.
In this year, industrial production decreased and the number of unemployed doubled.
Compared with the best year of 1929, industrial production decreased by 23%, steel production decreased by 37%, wage earners in institutions with more than 100 employees decreased by 14%, food wholesale price decreased by 12.
7%, business tax decreased by 28% and various certificates decreased by 60%.
Under the profound influence of the economic crisis, various fascist organizations took advantage of people’s dissatisfaction with the government to expand their influence for development.
The riots organized by fascists appeared many times.
Although there was no “climate”, it shocked the Third Republic of France, made it more and more unable to withstand the impact of storms at home and abroad, and began to decline.
Under the situation of rampant far right organizations and extremely unstable political situation in China, the reason why there is no fascist regime in France is that, in addition to France’s strong parliamentary democracy, the growth of the French Communist Party and the anti fascist people’s front formed with its efforts are important reasons.
The French Communist Party, founded in December 1920, actively participated in the struggle against fascism, signed the Convention on united action with the socialist party in 1934, established the anti fascist united front, and promoted the development of the French anti war movement.
In May 1936, the popular front won the election and formed the Blum government in June.
According to the anti fascist program of the people’s front, the new government implemented a series of new policies and successfully stopped the spread of fascist movement in France.
In terms of national defense measures, shortly after the end of World War I, the French military began to consider emergency measures for the next war, focusing on border defense.
On January 23, 1920, when the supreme military council of the French army was re established, it solemnly declared that the French army must study “the overall plan for the defense system of land or coastline”.
In fact, this sentence is the keynote of building a “continuous defense line” proposed and determined by the French supreme command in the future.
After nearly 10 years of research, demonstration, survey and design, on January 14, 1930, with the approval of the Senate and the house of Representatives, the French government officially promulgated the decree on building a defense line on the northeast border, which was named after Maginot, who served as Minister of the army from 1929 to 1931.
At the beginning of the same year, the main project of the defense line was fully started, and the organization committee of the fortified area presided over by general bellaju was responsible for the construction.
By the end of 1935, the defense line was completed, which took more than six years.
The Maginot line is located in the northeast of France, from longillon to Belfort, with a total length of about 390 kilometers, including Metz fortification area, Sal flood area, Lauter fortification area, lower Rhine fortification area and Belfort fortification area.
The fortified area of mettle and laus is the strongest.
Above ground and underground fortifications are built in important sections of these two places, and two defense systems are set along the first line of the Rhine River to adapt to the circular echelon defense.
Machine guns and artillery fortifications with armored or reinforced concrete on the ground.
Several basements are built in the underground part, including command post, rest room, food storage room, ammunition depot, ambulance station, hydropower station, ventilation and filtration room, etc.
The fortifications are connected by underground tunnels to facilitate the movement of personnel or vehicles.
The whole defense line consists of support zone (4-14km deep) and main defense zone (6-8km deep).
About 5800 permanent fortifications have been built.
There are anti tank trenches, cliffs, cliffs, metal and concrete piles and rocks and other anti tank obstacles in the defense line.
The Maginot Line costs 60 to 70 francs.
Its completion convinced the French that they could easily stop the German attack.
In 1938, a famous professor of the French military academy, general shovino, clearly pointed out that in France, the rapid invasion war, also known as mobile war, has become history.
Today, the defense force has increased tenfold.
Countries preparing to fight a short-term war are going to commit suicide.
Their shortcomings are obvious.
It is the continuous line of defense that breaks the wings of battle, and the fear of the continuous line of defense has formed a factor of peace.
According to his own estimation, shovino asserted that due to the continuous fortification front along the whole northeast border of France and the timely deployment of troops with a certain number of machine guns, it will be able to “contain the German army for three years”.
Moreover, French official documents also strongly claim that: the whole permanent fortification system built to protect the national territory from foreign invasion enables us to do now: mobilize under the reliable cover of less personnel.
Better protect China’s large industrial zones and key border towns.
A base with strong equipment for our military operations.
The “Maginot Line” became the basis of France’s passive defense strategy in the Second World War.
After that, a series of operational plans formulated by the French army focused on the “Maginot Line”.
Among them, the most famous is the “d” operation plan implemented from 1933 to 1935 and later adopted by the French army in the World War II.
The “d” plan was formulated under the auspices of general gammerlin, and its ideological core is positional defense.
When the plan was drawn up, France envisaged that the German army would carry out major raids through Belgium, as in 1914.
Therefore, the plan stipulates that the basic forces of the left-wing Coalition on the French northeast front, including some mechanized forces, will be concentrated to make a long-distance attack on the hinterland of Belgium when the German army invaded Belgium.