While the United States has been victorious in Grenada, it has not relaxed its control over the Middle East.
Their logic is: whoever dares to disobey the US arrangement or oppose the US should be given some color to see, ranging from economic sanctions to military settlement.
On the one hand, it can kill chickens and show monkeys.
On the other hand, it is a warning to its opponent the Soviet Union.
In 1986, the United States led the war to the Gulf of Sidra in the Mediterranean and carried out a “surgical” bombing of Libyan head of state Gaddafi who dared to challenge the United States.
This typical high-tech war has caused great losses to Liberia.
Since the United States invaded Grenada in 1983, why has the United States fought against Libya, a small country in the Middle East, for only more than two years? This needs to start from the beginning.
Libya, a North African country with an area of only 760000 square kilometers and a population of only 3.
6 million, is an oil-rich region.
Its oil production accounts for 50% to 60% of its gross national product, and its oil exports account for more than 95% of its total exports.
This small country, originally an Italian colony, was later occupied by Britain and France, and was divided into North and south by Britain and France.
In December 1951, Libya declared its independence and established the United Kingdom.
Idris I was king.
The United States not only has great economic interests in Libya, but also has military bases.
King Idris I took a pro american position.
On September 1, 1969, Captain Gaddafi, who was only 27, launched a coup, overthrew the Idris Dynasty, established the Libyan Arab Republic, and then changed to the Socialist People’s Republic of Libya, and began to fall to the Soviet Union.
Newborn calves are not afraid of tigers.
The young head of state Gaddafi really dares to touch the ass of the tiger in the United States.
After he came to power, he not only thoroughly cleaned the pro american faction in personnel, but also took a series of actions against the United States: in June 1970, Gaddafi ordered the recovery of the US wheelers Air Force Base in Libya and drove away 6000 US military personnel.
This means that the United States has lost one of its largest military bases in Africa, one of its forward positions in competing with the Soviet Union for hegemony in the Mediterranean, and one of its key posts to directly monitor the Soviet Union’s military movements in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
– in 1972, Gaddafi abolished nine military, economic and technical cooperation agreements signed between the former king and the United States, and claimed that the United States was the number one enemy of Arab countries, and the diplomatic institutions of Liberia and the United States were also downgraded from Ambassador level to agent level.
– in 1973, in order to restrict the activities of American ships, Gaddafi announced that the whole Sidra Bay was Libya’s territorial sea.
The United States firmly opposes Gaddafi’s decision.
– at the end of 1979, Libya supported Iran against the United States, demonstrators burned the U.S. Agency in Libya, and both sides withdrew diplomatic personnel from each other.
— in 1981, Libya reiterated that the “death line” is south of the 32 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and those who break in without permission will be severely beaten.
After taking office, he became very angry with Gaddafi’s administration, especially with the United States.
Soon sent a special task force to Sidra Bay, waiting for the opportunity to teach Gaddafi a lesson.
On August 18, 1981, a huge fleet sailed into the Mediterranean.
This fleet of 16 ships consists of two aircraft carriers, one is Nimitz and the other is Forrest.
They soon drove to the edge of Sidra Bay, only 140 kilometers from the Libyan coast, and held a two-day “routine” missile exercise.
The commander in charge of the exercise was rear admiral James SEVIS of the 6th fleet of the US Navy.
He knew very well that the exercise was actually a pre prepared force deterrent to Libya.
The area of the US military “exercise” is irregular, about 3200 square nautical miles, and gradually goes deep into Sidra Bay.
We had trouble on the first day of the exercise.
Libya took off 35 batches of aircraft, 72 of which entered the exercise area.
However, all these planes were intercepted by us planes taking off from two aircraft carriers, Nimitz and Forrest.
Although there was no conflict between the two sides, Libyan aircraft sent a visible signal to let them know that they had entered the danger zone.
The US fleet suspended missile launches until Libyan aircraft left the exercise area.
The exercises of the US fleet were harassed throughout the day.
The next day, the exercise was conducted “as usual”.
At about 7:15 a.m., four Libyan planes flew over the fleet again, were intercepted and flew away.
After that, two American F-14 fighters took off from the “Nimitz” deck and went up to patrol at an altitude of 600 meters.
The pilot of the pilot is lieutenant colonel kliman and the pilot of the wingman is captain muzinsky.
Shortly after taking off, “Nimitz” received a report from the two pilots and found two Su-22 fighter bombers.
Major general James SEVIS realized that this situation was unusual because it was the only batch of aircraft of this type found.
He then ordered F-14 fighters to take off and fight, and finally shot down the two planes.
The US side announced the successful end of the “exercise” and admitted that the aircraft in the US military exercise had an air battle with Libyan aircraft and shot down two Libyan aircraft.
The United States also claimed that the encounter with Libyan aircraft was a “self-defense action”.
This kind of “self-defense action” is right in the heart of the top US figures.
Gaddafi also declared an air battle with the US aircraft and shot down the US aircraft.
Afterwards, Gaddafi threatened that if the US military attacked Sidra Bay again, Libya would attack the US nuclear facilities and create “international catastrophe”.
From the beginning of this air battle, the attitude of the United States and Libya has become more rigid, and they almost confront each other directly in case of trouble.
Therefore, it has laid a hidden danger for the recurrence of conflict in the future.
After a period of latent, this hidden danger finally broke out in December 1985.
At the end of December this year, two terrorist attacks on the Civil Aviation Office occurred at the airports of Rome and Vienna.
Among the 20 people killed, five Americans.
The United States insisted that the incident was caused by Libyan terrorists hidden in Rome and Vienna.
The United States attempts to use this as an excuse to carry out military retaliation against Libya.
So Reagan sent a number of warships to the southern Gulf of the Mediterranean Sea to exercise near the Gulf of Libya and pose a military threat.
Gaddafi already knew that a small country like Libya could not deal with the United States.
therefore,He moved closer to the Soviet Union.
During his third visit to the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union provided Libya with 100 sam-5 surface to air missiles and sent 2000 military personnel to Libya to help Gaddafi deploy these missiles in Sirte and Benghazi Air Force bases from December.
Sam-5 surface to air missile is a weapon with high technical content.
It has a maximum range of 250 kilometers and a firing height of nearly 30000 meters.
It is equipped with a semi-automatic navigation system.
It can effectively deal with ordinary fighters, reconnaissance aircraft and early warning aircraft, but its anti electronic interference ability is relatively weak and it is difficult to shoot down high-performance fighters.
After the air war between the United States and Libya, Gaddafi reiterated that the 200 nautical miles along the coast is his own territorial sea, which is divided by 32 degrees and 30 degrees north latitude, and declared this line an insurmountable “death line”.
Whoever dares to invade will die.
So far, the relationship between the two countries has reached the level of tension, and military conflict may break out at any time.
On January 3, 1986, the aircraft carrier “San h ú Hai” belonging to the 6th fleet of the United States sailed from Naples to Sidra bay with its fighter fleet.
On January 4, the “Saratoga” aircraft carrier stationed in the Indian Ocean and the “United States” aircraft carrier and fighter fleet in Virginia on the east coast of the United States were also sent there.
According to Reagan’s ideas and views, as long as Gaddafi does not step down, there will be no peace in the Middle East.
As long as the time is ripe, take large-scale action to subdue Gaddafi.
But if we really want to take action, we must find some excuses.
Reagan’s think tank is ready to raise the banner of “anti-terrorism” according to the rampant terrorist activities since the 1980s.
Accordingly, the National Security Council has formulated an action plan against Libya.
After consideration, Reagan believed that military action should not be taken immediately, but should be upgraded step by step to win international public opinion.
Therefore, he first announced the implementation of comprehensive economic sanctions against Libya, frozen all Libyan assets in the United States, and withdrew 1500 American staff in Libya.
He also sent his deputy secretary of state to Western European countries to lobby for joint action against Libya.
However, Libya not only did not succumb to the US economic sanctions, but also was not intimidated by the US military pressure.
Gaddafi firmly believed that the Soviet Union’s weapons were advanced and that the Soviet Union would not leave Libya to the United States.
Moreover, the Soviet Union is not easy to provoke.
We can rely on the Soviet Union to fight with the United States.
One of the reasons why the United States has been slow to do so is that it is worried about the Soviet Union’s military preparedness.
After several tentative attacks, it was found that the Soviets were unwilling to intervene in the conflict.
So Reagan decided to treat Gaddafi with confidence and boldness.
On January 22, photos taken by US spy satellites from the air provided such information: Libya has deployed sam-5 missiles purchased from the Soviet Union on the coast of Sidra Bay.
Leading Pentagon officials believe that these missiles pose a serious threat to US aircraft operating in the Mediterranean and should be removed immediately.
How to get rid of sam-5 missiles? After careful consideration, national security adviser Poindexter offered Reagan a plan, that is, let the US ship deliberately exceed the “death line” to induce Libya to fire first, and then use this as an excuse to teach Libya a good lesson.
The idea suddenly inspired President Reagan, who immediately made a decision and named the action “prairie fire”.
To implement this plan, the US Navy mobilized 34 ships and more than 240 aircraft in the Mediterranean, including three aircraft carriers alone.
Subsequently, three aircraft carrier formations cleaved the waves and sailed to Sidra Bay.
When everything was ready, the United States announced that its navy would conduct military exercises near Sidra Bay from March 23 to April 1, and threatened that the United States had the right to enter Sidra Bay.
“If the Libyan army dares to open fire on U.S. warships or aircraft, we will take corresponding action,” White House chief of staff Regan said On March 23, the US 6th fleet stationed in the Mediterranean, under the command of general Kelso, the commander of the flagship “Colorado”, drove into Sidra Bay, which is regarded as the territorial sea by Libya and the high sea by the United States.
American planes and warships swaggered in the Gulf of Sidra for exercises.
At 23:30 today, Kelso issued an order to break through the “death line” to the moving fleet.
Immediately, a US Navy plane took off from the decks of three aircraft carriers.
The motors of more than a dozen warships also made earth shaking roars, and aircraft and warships lined up to push towards Sidra Bay.
Several F-14 and F-18 fighters took the lead in crossing the “death line”.
Gaddafi understood the stakes and did not let his air force take any action.
At 1:00 p.m. on the 24th, a combat group led by the anti submarine aircraft carrier “Ticonderoga” also broke through the “death line”, and about 100 aircraft of various types flew around the center of the fleet at different altitudes.
An official of the US Department of defense called the air shield network “steel barrel”.
At the highest level is the e-zc “eagle eye” Air Radar Reconnaissance fleet, and at the lower level is the EA-6B “rogue” fleet.
Their main task is to detect and disrupt the enemy’s radar radio system.
Underwater, there are “Los Angeles” class attack nuclear submarines.
The “exercise” has been going on for 15 hours.
The hour hand points to 2 p.m. and Sidra Bay is still very calm.
Why hasn’t Libya responded yet? General Kelso, the commander of the flagship of the US Navy Colorado, is wondering.
Time passed minute by minute.
Gaddafi finally couldn’t help it.
At 2:55 p.m., two Soviet made sam-5 missiles were seen, dragging two flames, shooting from the Sidra City missile base along the coast of Libya towards two reconnaissance aircraft in the shipborne fighter fleet of “Ticonderoga”.
However, this sam-5 missile model is relatively old.
After the EA-6B “prowler” aircraft took emergency interference against it, it deviated from orbit, both fell into the sea, and blew up two water columns 200 meters away from the “Ticonderoga”.
At this time, several senior officials gathered in the secret basement of the White House were anxiously waiting for news ahead.
National security adviser Poindexter said: “Gaddafi has fired the first shot and we have won the first victory.
General Kelso knows what to do.
” Sure enough, on the Colorado flagship, Kelso picked up the command microphone: “all aircraft carriersAttention, please! This is commander Kelso.
I order the implementation of scheme 1.
Please act immediately! ” Kelso’s “plan 1” is the “prairie fire” action plan.
According to this plan, the United States will use the most advanced weapons to destroy the radar facilities of the Libyan missile base and attack other Libyan military targets that directly threaten the US military exercise.
At 9:26 p.m. on the 24th, “grassland fire” finally burned.
An a-6 attack aircraft first took off from the “United States” aircraft carrier and launched an attack on the Libyan “fighter” missile patrol boat “approaching” the US warship at high speed with “harpoon” air-to-ship missiles and cluster missiles, and sank it.
This “harpoon” missile is a high-tech weapon with very precise guidance.
Before launch, it can input the guidance data into the missile body, which is controlled by the radar altimeter and automatic control device.
It flies close to the water surface.
When it approaches the target, the active radar in the missile body will automatically lock the target until it hits.
Therefore, even if it is to avoid a handy boat, it is hard to escape bad luck.
Two anti-10-6 missiles were launched from tharam base at zero altitude.
According to the US side, the radar station was damaged.
At 1:54 a.m. the next day, the radar on the anti submarine aircraft carrier “Ticonderoga” received the radar electronic radiation signal of Sidra missile base in Libya.
It turned out that Libya’s radar had not been completely destroyed and began to work after repair.
Therefore, two “pirate” A-7 light bombers took off from the “Saratoga” aircraft carrier after receiving the order, fired two missiles at Sidra missile base, and destroyed its radar station again.
So far, the retaliation task specified in “scheme 1” has been completed.
On the 26th, due to international and domestic public opinion, the Pentagon issued an order to withdraw troops to Kelso.
At 16:00 on the same day, the US fleet withdrew from Sidra Bay.
The “prairie fire” went out.
The Libyan capital Tripoli is full of jubilation.
They will hold a victory conference here.
Colonel Gaddafi, wearing a white navy uniform, walked onto the rostrum with a “V” sign and announced loudly: “we have driven the Sixth Fleet out of Sidra Bay.
We have won!” Almost at the same time, Reagan was announcing that the “drill” to break through the “death line” had ended successfully.
At the same time, he threatened: “the United States will never compromise with terrorists! The United States will conduct military exercises in Sidra Bay in the future!” In response, Gaddafi said tit for tat: “we will not succumb to any pressure, we will accompany to the end! We want to fight this war with the United States all over the world!” The “prairie fire” has just been extinguished, and a new incident has happened again.
This brought the United States and Libya to the brink of war again.
On April 2, a white Boeing 107 Civil Aviation Aircraft stretched its wings and soared into the air.
This is Pan Am flight 804 from Rome, Italy to Athens, Greece.
Suddenly, there was a loud noise, and a 2-meter-square hole appeared on the starboard side of the aircraft.
When the cabin was full of blood and flesh, four people were pushed out of the hole by the air wave, and the seats were full of bloody meat and red and white brains.
One hour later, the American ambassador received a notification from the Greek police.
Flight 804 killed 4 people and seriously injured 9 people, all Americans.
On April 5, in front of the La Belle ballroom in West Berlin, cars of various colors were parked under a row of huge neon lights.
People prepare for a carnival weekend after work.
The staff of the US military base in West Berlin also came here to join in the fun.
When the dance was in full swing, a huge light accompanied by a thunderous sound suddenly put an end to the crazy dance music.
The blast knocked all the standing people to the ground.
b ō The glass pieces flew everywhere, and the groans were mixed with the cries and screams.
Finally, the number of casualties was 155, of which 44 were Americans.
The difference between the two events was only three days.
Afterwards, Gaddafi issued a statement saying that Libya had nothing to do with terrorist events.
However, the CIA announced on April 6 that it had intercepted and decoded the telegrams between Tripoli and the Libyan people’s office in East Berlin about the explosion of the discotheque in West Berlin.
The telegram sent by Libya’s office in East Berlin said that the “operation” was very successful, and the reply from Tripoli expressed “Congratulations”.
The United States announced to the media that dozens of terrorist incidents in recent years were related to Libya.
Reagan threatened to make another “military response” to Libya and decided to instruct the Joint Chiefs of staff to formulate specific plans.
However, when the Joint Chiefs of staff discussed the action plan, the participants were not satisfied with the choice of objectives.
There are different opinions on the target strike limit.
Therefore, Reagan convened a meeting on the evening of April 8 and put forward several principled opinions to the plan makers: first, attack targets related to terrorism and punish Gaddafi.
Second, minimize the casualties of the US military.
Third, try to avoid damaging the houses and personnel of civilians around the target.
It was also decided at the meeting that Central Intelligence Director Casey was responsible for identifying candidates to replace Gaddafi in the future.
Under the guidance of Reagan’s “principles”, the “plan” finally decided to attack five targets: the first is the aziziye barracks in the capital Tripoli, the second is the military airport, the third is the port of sidibilar, the fourth is the “people’s Republic” barracks in Benghazi, and the fifth is the Benina military airport.
The attack time was set at night, because Gaddafi always had to sleep at night and was likely to be bombed.
Libya has less civilian activities at night, which can reduce casualties.
Libyan pilots are generally unable to take off at night.
The night attack on Libya was a risky military operation.
Admiral Crowe jokingly called the operation “golden Canyon”.
Because the main targets of this air raid are airports, ports, barracks, command centers and missile bases, it is difficult to achieve the ideal purpose of long-distance attacks.
The best way is to use bombers to throw heavy bombs.
The aircraft carrier “USA” participating in the operation carries F-14 fighters, and the aircraft carried by “Shan h ú Hai” is FA-18 fighters.
Although these aircraft are very advanced, they generally only carry air-to-air or air-to-ship missiles, escort and air combat missions.
The A-7 and a-6 aircraft of the Shanghai army of the two ships are also light bombing aircraft, which is obviously not enough to undertake this important task alone.
So you have to moveOne hit the target.
After completing the rapid, accurate and clean attack on five important targets in Libya as planned, the U.S. Navy and air force airmen who attacked from a long distance began to withdraw from the theater at 2:13 a.m. At 0246 hours, all the naval aircraft returned to their aircraft carriers.
At 10:10, the air force plane safely returned to its original place of departure, the British air force base, and made a round-trip trip trip of more than 10000 kilometers, flying for 14 hours and 34 minutes, and refuelling six times in the air.
This action would be unimaginable if it were not for today’s advanced science and technology.
The air raid, which lasted 18 minutes from 1:54 a.m. to 2:12 a.m. on the 15th, took only 11 minutes to attack the main military targets.
This is by far the shortest air strike in the history of world air warfare.
In this air raid, the United States dispatched more than 150 aircraft and dropped more than 150 tons of bombs, destroying five important military targets such as Gaddafi headquarters, Gaddafi standby headquarters, commando training center, Tripoli and Benina military airport, blowing up 14 aircraft, wounding dozens of Libyan aircraft and destroying five air defense radar stations.
In the air raid, Libyan soldiers and civilians were killed and injured about 700 people, Gaddafi’s two sons were injured and an adopted daughter was killed.
Gaddafi himself survived because he quickly entered the underground command post tens of meters deep at the beginning of the air raid, while the United States lost only one aircraft and two pilots.
The United States has achieved the expected results at a low cost.
One of the important factors is that it benefits from the input of high-tech weapons into the battlefield.
There are two main types of electronic warfare aircraft that the United States put into operation in this war: one is ef-111 electronic warfare aircraft.
It is equipped with 10 high-power electronic jammers, which can disable all radars within 200 kilometers.
The other is EA-6B electronic warfare aircraft.
It is equipped with advanced electronic reconnaissance and jamming system, which can quickly search radar electronic signals, determine positions, emit clutter, answer, deceptive jamming or guide anti radar aircraft to attack.
In electronic warfare, these two kinds of aircraft only took six minutes to interrupt Libya’s radio communication, failure of air defense radar and paralysis of the whole air defense system.
Another high-tech weapon used by the United States in this battle is the “ham” high-speed anti radiation (anti radar) missile.
This is the third generation anti radiation missile of the United States.
Its main feature is that it is fast and can track the radar beam at Mach 3.
Long range, up to more than 48 kilometers.
Wide frequency band, which can deal with all kinds of pulse radiation and continuous radiation radars.
Moreover, it has high hit accuracy, can automatically detect, locate and identify the target, and has strong storage and memory ability.
After launch, even if the other party’s radar is suddenly shut down or interferes, it can still automatically guide the target and destroy it.
The US military also used shipborne attack aircraft, fighter bombers, laser guided bombs and other advanced weapons in this operation.
Although the a-6 shipborne attack aircraft is not a new generation of weapons, it is equipped with a new generation of multifunctional radar and electronic equipment.
It can detect and identify terrain at the same time and track a variety of targets.
Even at night, it can automatically guide the aircraft to attack targets at low altitude, high speed and accurately.
The f-111f fighter bomber is equipped with the third generation infrared system, avq-26 laser irradiator, laser guided bomb system, terrain matching radar and other high-tech equipment, which greatly improves its overall combat efficiency and has become the most advanced fighter bomber.
Due to the terrain matching radar, it can automatically surpass obstacles and fly freely at an altitude of only 60 meters at night without being detected by the other party’s radar.
It has good penetration ability at ultra-low altitude at night.
Due to the infrared ray, laser guided bomb system and laser irradiator, it has a good ability to accurately attack targets at low altitude at night.
Gbu-10 laser guided bomb, weighing 907kg, is equipped with TV and infrared guidance system.
It can accurately hit the laser irradiation point with a theoretical error of only 1m.
It is an effective weapon for attacking point targets at night.
It was these high-tech air raid weapons, under the control of well-trained U.S. aviation forces, that destroyed all five highly sensitive targets, including Gaddafi’s headquarters and the tents in which he lived, in only 18 minutes.
With the help of high-tech weapons, the long cherished wish of both sides of the war to directly attack the other party’s supreme headquarters, which was not realized due to the limitation of the technical performance of weapons, was fulfilled in this war.