in September 1978, in a speech to his clergy, Gaddafi warned his audience that if he continued to oppose him, he would burn the “green book” and replace it with the “red book”.
data map: Gaddafi
Gaddafi did not expect that his people had changed a face. Libyans shout to let “brothers” and “mentors” leave
on September 3, 2009, Tripoli, the Libyan capital.
in case of Israeli and American invasion, road signs and traffic signs were painted with white paint. Only at every intersection, the portrait of Omar Muammar Gaddafi is bright and clear.
in Tripoli during Ramadan, hundreds of thousands of Libyans gathered in the green square to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Gaddafi’s rule and praise the “brother of the people and mentor of the revolution”.
these days, Libyan state television has repeatedly broadcast Gaddafi’s documentaries. Gaddafi wore a gray white military uniform, with golden braids, gold epaulets, gold medals, a gold belt around his waist and glittering gold all over his body. His eyes examined the soldiers in front of the viewing platform through black sunglasses. On the
viewing platform, there is a huge slogan mounted with a portrait of Gaddafi: Libya is heaven, and we will protect our leader forever with blood, flesh and soul.
Gaddafi did not expect that 17 months later, the green square and his people had changed their face. Without the slogan of praise, his portrait was also “pockmarked” by bricks and tiles. Libyans shouted to let “brothers” and “mentors” leave.
made a dramatic debut
on September 1, 1969, “there was no order from beginning to end, and the circumstances were wrong”. Gaddafi succeeded in such a lame coup.
in 1942, Gaddafi was born in a sheepskin tent in the Sirte desert, and his illiterate parents were Bedouin herdsmen, This nation has a tradition of opposing alien invasion.
Gaddafi is the youngest child in the family and the only boy. In his childhood memory, out of the tent is the desert Gobi, leaving the desert is the tent.
according to Bedouin tradition, parents and neighbors often tell Gaddafi all kinds of stories: Bedouin history, heroes, resistance to foreign invasion. Italy replaced Turkey’s colonization of Libya, and the story of Omar Mukhtar, a national hero, made Gaddafi decide to be a national hero and spiritual leader from an early age.
in middle school, Gaddafi listened to the egyptian radio “voice of Cairo”. The speech of Egypt’s second President Nasser and the spirit of Arab nationalism made him interested in politics. On the issue of launching the revolution, the first lesson Gaddafi learned was Nasser’s discussion on the “free officers organization”. “Spekds”, the 17-year-old British conspirator of “spekds” to overthrow Gaddafi. His eloquence, surging encouragement and guiding spirit made him a student leader soon. He secretly organized student groups, attempted to assassinate the king of Libya, and organized demonstrations in support of Egypt and President Nasser against Israel.
in October 1961, Gaddafi was expelled from school for organizing a demonstration against the dissolution of the alliance between Egypt and Syria. After that, he carefully prepared to build an underground organization and asked its members to study hard, pray on time, no drinking, no playing cards and no playing women. This also became several important principles in the later green paper.
under the influence of Nasser’s revolutionary philosophy, Gaddafi realized the magic of “force” and “eagerly looked forward to firing on the enemy”. In 1963, he entered the Benghazi Military Academy in Libya, established the Central Committee of the 12 member “free officers organization” headed by him and the subordinate “people’s Committee” in the army, and began to plan to overthrow the rule of Idris I.
in 1965, Gaddafi graduated from Benghazi military academy and received the rank of second lieutenant. The following year, he went to the armored radio communication school in birkensfield, England for training. After six months of training and study, Gaddafi returned to Libya as a captain and officer of the communication Corps.
during his service, he personally designed and established a huge communication network to unite a large number of young junior officers.
at this time, Gaddafi appeared in the vision of the CIA – his desire to overthrow the British supported government is just to the taste of Americans. In Gaddafi’s view at that time, the arrival of the CIA will become the key factor for the success of his coup. He not only received a lot of material support, but also obtained a lot of important intelligence.
Gaddafi decided to move ahead.
but it was a muddled revolution with material and intelligence support.
after the operation, Gaddafi ordered his men to fly to the capital to organize the takeover of tarhorna military camp. But when the man arrived at Benghazi airport, he found that the tickets were sold out. After arriving, he took a taxi to the military camp, but left his weapon in the car.
in Benghazi, Gaddafi personally took the lead. He sat in the car loaded with weapons and led his men to occupy the radio station. On the way, he found that he was alone on the way to Benghazi radio station, and the vehicle behind him was lost at the fork of the road. The “revolution” vehicles circled the city for a week, but they didn’t find the radio station to occupy, so they had to return the same way.
at the same time,The partners in charge of taking over the air defense forces outside Tripoli found that there was not enough ammunition at the beginning of the operation: only 1050 bullets were available for 600 people. Fortunately, there was no resistance along the way – the old king was in Turkey, while Prince Hassan Rida, the crown prince and prime minister who stayed at home, was drunk in the palace.
at 6:30 the next day, Gaddafi broadcast the first bulletin through radio Benghazi. This is the initial news of the new regime, and the broadcast is anonymous (for security reasons, Gaddafi only revealed his identity a week after the coup). The hastily prepared Communique is full of wit: “Libyan people, in order to fulfill your will, realize your sincere wishes, and respond to your constant demands for change and your desire to strive for this goal, your army has taken action to overthrow this reactionary and corrupt regime…
on September 1, 1969, “On that day, there was no order from beginning to end, and the circumstances were wrong”. Gaddafi succeeded in such a lame coup, which was later described as “launching a bloodless coup”.
everywhere, the smiling portrait of Gaddafi
still appears on the government stamp, watching the children’s faces and schoolbags in the school, staring at the tea drinker’s face at the bottom of the tea cup…
the United States thought it had cultivated its own little brother, And a little brother with a lot of oil. However, the year after Gaddafi took office, he announced the withdrawal of the US wheelers Air Force Base in Libya and drove away more than 6000 US military personnel.
this means that the United States has lost its largest military base in Africa, an outpost that directly monitors the military movements of the Soviet Union in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. In 1972, the United States declared that the “spkds” was the first “military and technical cooperation agreement between the United States and the former Arab King Gaddafi, and” spkds “was abolished. While “violating” the United States, Gaddafi actively moved closer to the Soviet Union. The US government was extremely angry with Gaddafi’s series of practices. After Reagan came to power, he decided to “pinch the nose of this disobedient Gaddafi”.
on August 18, 1981, the 6th fleet of the United States conducted military exercises in the sea area not far from the Libyan coast, which directly triggered a short-term air battle. “TWA flight 847 incident” after
, as well as several terrorist incidents against Americans, led the CIA to identify Gaddafi as the mastermind.
Gaddafi’s portrait can be seen everywhere. He said he hated personal worship, but “they insisted on doing so. What can I do?”. Smiling portraits still appear on government stamps, staring at children’s faces and schoolbags in schools, staring at tea drinkers’ faces at the bottom of tea cups…
but few Libyans have seen him with their own eyes. After several attempted assassinations and several bankrupt coups, Gaddafi’s security measures have been strengthened. At every turn, the two armed convoys drove out in the opposite direction, and the two planes took off together. His plane didn’t know whether it would take off two hours before he boarded the plane.
made the leaders of other countries angry that the pilot didn’t ask for landing until Gaddafi’s plane came to his airspace, saying only: “there is an important person on the plane.”
seven CIA assassinations against Gaddafi failed.
at 2 a.m. on April 15, 1986, several American warplanes flew to Tripoli and dropped 500 pounds of laser guided bombs and 2000 pounds of heavy bombs. 41 people were killed in the air raid, including Hannah, Gaddafi’s 15 month old adopted daughter, while he himself was safe and sound. Since then, the confined space of reinforced concrete has made Gaddafi feel extremely uneasy. When he is out, he prefers to stay in the Bedouin tent he carries with him rather than in the hotel. His preference has caused confusion in concierges around the world. In 2007, in Paris, Gaddafi lived in a tent for a week.
when attending the 2009 UN General Assembly, Gaddafi tried to set up tents in three different open spaces in New York, one of which was owned by American billionaire Donald Trump. Although Gaddafi got a lease, the Bedford town government ordered the tent construction project to stop immediately on the grounds that there was no permit. The local prosecutor said, “setting up tents violates many Bedford laws and regulations. Since the land is privately owned, we must comply with our laws and regulations. Diplomatic immunity is useless in this matter.”
had no choice but to stay in the Libyan Embassy in the United States.
a telegram entitled “a list of Gaddafi’s eccentricities” was sent before the 2009 UN General Assembly, listing some of the iron fisted figure’s eccentricities, such as fear of flying over the water and refusing to climb more than 35 steps.
may be acting strangely, which makes Gaddafi escape assassinations again and again.
constantly disguised diplomatic means
“Gaddafi is like an old antique from another era. He doesn’t understand that the world has changed. This set of tricks has long been popular from time to time.
Gaddafi always tried his best in speech wording and personal dress.
but beautiful words are not popular. Arafat calls him “the knight of revolutionary words”, and one of Arafat’s few pastimes is to ridicule Gaddafi’s “revolutionary words” and “eccentric costumes”. Even Nasser sometimes found his young disciple a little unbearable, “like a quarrel, like a child”. The comments of Russian and American diplomats are more direct – “that’s a madman.”
2009 jointThe general assembly is Gaddafi’s “debut” at the United Nations. The milk chocolate Satin suit, black beret and African shaped Brooch made diplomats put up with his 100 minute speech for the time being.
Gaddafi’s speech on the same day, from climate change to the economic crisis and the current situation of the United Nations. First, he denounced former US President Bush and former British Prime Minister Blair as “Holocaust makers”, then said that “influenza A (H1N1) is a bacterial weapon released by a country for military purposes”, and asked to thoroughly investigate the cause of death of former US President John W. Bush and civil rights pioneer Martin Luther king, and even “defend rights” for the Taliban, He said that the right of the Taliban to establish an “Islamic emirate” should be safeguarded, denounced the incompetence of the Security Council, turned it into a “terrorist Council” to punish small countries, and threatened to tear up the Charter of the United Nations.
when Gaddafi fiercely attacked former US President Reagan as a “madman” in the 90th minute of his speech, the interpreter responsible for his simultaneous interpretation collapsed. He interrupted Gaddafi’s speech and said out loud, “I can’t stand it at all!”
Gaddafi’s speech on the same day was behind US President Barack Obama, but Obama and Hillary Clinton left the conference hall immediately after the speech to avoid hearing Gaddafi’s speech.
“during Obama’s administration, we had a good relationship with the United States. Before that, it was not satisfactory: in the Reagan era, we were on the brink of war. Libya has been committed to anti America for a long time. Now that Africans can rule the United States, we will support him because he is our child and a people of Africa.” Gaddafi commented on Obama in an interview.
in March 2003, Bush sent troops to Iraq to capture Saddam Hussein, prompting Gaddafi to rethink his policy towards the United States. He sent his son Saif to London to secretly meet with officials of MI6 and extend an olive branch to Britain and the United States. Gaddafi also finally decided to pay $2.7 billion in compensation to the victims of the Lockerbie air crash and promised to give up terrorist means.
Gaddafi always hopes to repair with the international community while making Libyan nationals and allies in the Middle East and Africa feel that he is not condescending. His explanation of compensation is: “to hell with money, what is money? Money is used to protect our country. Now that we have lost money, the previous problems are no longer problems, and we have entered a new era.” In February 2004, the US diplomatic office of “spekds” was upgraded to “spkds” in Libya, and then the representative office of “spekds” was established in Libya. “There is no eternal hostility or friendship. We have all made mistakes. The most important thing is to correct them,” Gaddafi said in an interview with Time magazine
but Gaddafi has concerns about a comprehensive reconciliation with the United States. In April 2007, US Deputy Secretary of state Negroponte visited, and Gaddafi refused to meet with him.
it was not until December 2007, during Gaddafi’s visit to Europe, that Gaddafi expressed his willingness to visit the United States and meet with President Bush for the first time. Later, when then Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visited Libya, the meeting place was exactly the place where the United States had air strikes in 1986. On the plane to Tripoli, Rice said: “I never thought I would visit Libya.”
just as Libya’s relations with the international community were warming up, Gaddafi greeted Megrahi, the suspect of the Lockerbie air crash, with the highest level of courtesy in Libya. The footage of Gaddafi’s son Saif helping Megrahi out of the plane made Americans quite unhappy. At the celebration of Gaddafi’s 40th anniversary, many invited dignitaries from western countries also refused to participate in the celebration.
“Gaddafi is like an old antique from another era. He doesn’t understand that the world has changed and this set of tricks has long been out of fashion.” Said Dunn of the Carnegie Endowment for international peace.
have a “green book” in hand. Gaddafi warned that if he continued to oppose him, he would burn the “green book” and use Mao Zedong’s “red book” instead of
, especially foreign ideas, which made Gaddafi uneasy all the time. In 1976, he regarded students in two Libyan universities as the main opposition force at that time. On April 23 that year, after mass arrests in Benghazi and Tripoli, “Amnesty International” called Gaddafi to ask for details of the alleged arrest of 800 students.
when repression in domestic universities intensified, foreign Libyan students began to protest. For Gaddafi, the students’ disobedience only shows that his cultural revolution has a long way to go. For the rest of 1976, he was busy establishing people’s congresses and political organizations according to the ideas of Volume I of the green paper.
in May 1973, Gaddafi put forward the “third theory of the world” which is neither capitalism nor communism, and successively published three green books on this theory from 1976 to 1979.
in Libya, these three “green books” are like China’s “quotations of Mao Zedong” in those years. They are a “green book” for Libya. Green symbolizes hope and life in the hearts of Libyans. Their national flag is completely filled with green, and the national emblem also takes green as the core. Gaddafi also put forward the ideal of “turning the desert into an oasis” in the green paper, encouraging his people: “only through self-reliance can Libya’s future be bright.”
but “the green paper has not been implemented as expected”, Gaddafi himself admitted: “it will take a long time. Maybe it can achieve greater results in China, India or other countries that need the system of people’s congresses and people’s committees. As for small countries with small populations, they can rule through centralization