Nile civilization Egypt is one of the oldest ancient civilizations in the world.

It is located in the north of Africa.

The beautiful Nile runs through the whole territory from south to north.

About 10000 years ago, the last ice age passed, and North Africa gradually became an arid region.

Residents who have long lived in this area have moved to both sides of the Nile River with the changes of environment and climate.

Later, they created a bronze and stone culture here, from which the Nile civilization began.

The Nile originates from the Central African plateau and runs through Egypt from south to north.

It has a total length of more than 6500 kilometers and is the longest river in the world.

Every year from June to October, the Nile floods, flooding the land along the coast.

The regular flooding of the Nile brought abundant water and fertile land to Egypt.

The flood mixed with a large amount of humus filled the long dry farmland.

When the flood subsided, a layer of mud several inches thick was left in the field, which was an excellent fertilizer for crop growth.

Therefore, ancient Egyptians called the Nile their “Mother River”.

The flood of the Nile in ancient Egypt not only brought life and prosperity, but also contributed to the formation of a slave state.

When the Nile floods, people should dredge the channels and drain the accumulated water.

In dry and rainy seasons, people have to divert water for irrigation.

Huge projects and heavy labor are by no means competent for one person and one family.

Therefore, Egypt had a joint venture earlier.

Several clans are united into communes, and several communes are combined into a larger union by regional relations.

In fact, each state has its own name – “the army, the dialect and the United Kingdom” along the Nile.

In order to compete for land, water and slaves, these small countries are often at war.

Through the annexation of the war, two slavery powers were gradually formed in 3500 BC: the North was called the kingdom of Lower Egypt and the South was called the kingdom of Upper Egypt.

Around 3000 BC, Menes, king of Upper Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Lower Egypt.

Since then, Egypt has established a unified slavery country.

Menez is also considered to be the first Pharaoh of the first dynasty in Egyptian history (the ancient Egyptians respected the king as “Pharaoh”).

From then on until the Macedonian Conquest of Egypt in 332 BC, the whole ancient Egypt experienced a full 31 dynasties.

During the period of Pharaoh’s ancient kingdom, Egypt established a unified centralized state.

The king took over the political, economic, military, religious and judicial power of the country, and the appointment and removal of all officials were in his hands.

He claimed to be the incarnation of God, the son of the sun god, and was honored as Pharaoh.

The first dynasty was established around 3100 BC.

Menes, the ruler of tinis state in Upper Egypt, gradually became stronger and established the first dynasty in the history of ancient Egypt – tinis Dynasty.

Since the first dynasty, the history of ancient Egypt has entered a new period, that is, the Tinys Dynasty.

Thutmosis III Thutmosis III is the Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of the new kingdom of ancient Egypt and the founder of the slavery empire of Egypt.

He fought all his life, first defeated the Syrian coalition led by kadiesh, and then defeated the Mitani kingdom.

Thus consolidating Egypt’s rule in Syria.

Since then, he continued to expand his territory, making the Egyptian version South beyond the fourth waterfall of the Nile and north to the city of Ebola in Syria.

Ramses II rebuilt the 19th Dynasty of Egypt, and Ramses II ascended the throne.

The forces of Hittites occupying Asia Minor have seriously threatened the interests of Egypt.

Ramesses II mobilized about 30000 troops to attack hetti, and the king of hetti led his army to fight, resulting in defeat.

Several years later, Ramses II sent troops to Syria and finally won the victory over hetti.

The solar calendar of Egypt is in Egypt.

The Nile begins to rise in June every year, and the flood period is from July to October.

At this time, the flood carries a large amount of humus and fills the cracked farmland on both banks.

A few weeks later, when the flood receded, the farmland left a layer of fertile silt, which was equivalent to a fertilizer.

Sow in November and harvest in March to April of the next year.

Another characteristic of the Nile River is that the annual flood is basically regular and quantitative.

Although there are certain differences, the difference is not too great.

There has never been a major disaster that floods drown everything.

This provided convenience for the ancient Egyptians to establish a large-scale irrigation system and formulate the calendar.

In order to develop agricultural production without violating the agricultural season, the ancient Egyptians gradually realized that they must master the law of Nile flooding and accurately calculate the time, which requires a calendar.

They have accumulated a lot of experience in long-term production practice.

The ancient Egyptians found that the Nile was about 365 days apart from each flood.

At the same time, they also found that one morning in June every year, when the tide of the Nile came near today’s Cairo, Sirius and the sun rose from the horizon at the same time.

On this basis, the ancient Egyptians set the year as 365 days and the day when Sirius and the sun rose from the horizon at the same time as the starting point of the year.

A year is divided into 12 months, 30 days a month, and 5 days at the end of the year as festivals.

This is the Egyptian solar calendar.

A social reform carried out by the 18th dynasty king of Egypt’s New Kingdom.

Before Akhenaten ascended the throne, the monks of Amun temple not only had rich material wealth, but also often intervened in political affairs.

In order to crack down on the power of monk groups and hereditary dignitaries and strengthen centralized rule, ekhenaten carried out comprehensive social reform by relying on small and medium-sized slave owners and emerging military aristocrats.

He banned the worship of the traditional Amun God and other local gods, ordered the closure of the Amun temple, confiscated its temple properties, erased the name of Amun on all monuments, established the Aton God as the only sun god worshipped in the country, and built Aton temples everywhere.

In the sixth year of Akhenaten’s rule, he moved his capital to Amana, the new capital on the East Bank of the Nile, and named it Akhenaten (meaning the realm of Akhenaten).

Promote new people, reform the composition of government officials, and vigorously build Aton Temple characters and sculpture Aton statues in Xindu.

In art, the pursuit of simple and beautiful realism has led to many excellent literary and artistic works.

But reform is short-lived.

Soon after the death of ekhnatun, the reform was completely abolished.

Mysterious pyramid pyramid is a tall pyramid building with a square base and a triangle on each side.

From the bottom to the top, it is smaller than one floor, just like a city.