– negation of “geographical environment determinism” Negation

since ancient times, the historical stage of human activities is inseparable from a certain geographical environment. The more distant in ancient times, the more human beings rely on the surrounding environment and rely on the gifts of nature to maintain their survival. Therefore, human beings also have a continuous process of understanding the geographical environment.

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were first proposed by Aristotle, a famous ancient Greek scholar. He believes that the natural environment is the first driving force for the development of the material world. In the 16th century, bodan, a famous French politician and historian, also put forward the view that geographical environment played a decisive role in the development of history. Later, Montesquieu, a French Enlightenment thinker, accepted and developed this view and was the epitome of “geographical environment determinism”. He believes that the development of human society is caused by many factors, and the natural and geographical conditions play a decisive role in a nation’s morality, fashion, legal nature and the establishment of regime. In other words, the geographical environment determines people’s character, physiological state and psychological characteristics, and then people with different personalities, physiological states and psychological characteristics determine the speed of national system and social development. Obviously, this argument is untenable. It violates the objective historical facts and, of course, runs counter to the Marxist theory on the relationship between geographical environment and human social development.

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on the role of geographical environment, as early as 1938, when criticizing the “geographical environment determinism”, they pointed out that “geographical environment is undoubtedly one of the regular and necessary conditions for social development. Of course, it affects social development – accelerating or delaying the process of social development”, “Geographical environment cannot be the main reason for social development”.. In a general sense, this conclusion is undoubtedly correct and in line with historical reality. Geographical environment does not generally play a decisive role in historical development, let alone it has an impact on society through productivity. This is the fundamental difference between Marxism and the determinists of geographical environment.

however, while emphasizing the decisive role of productivity, Marxism did not ignore the factors of geographical environment. Moreover, as an essential natural condition for the development of productive forces, geographical environment often has different effects on economic development in different periods and specific regions. Marx once divided the sources of natural wealth into two categories: the sources of natural wealth of means of living and the sources of natural wealth of means of labor, and pointed out: “in the early stage of culture, the former type of natural wealth plays a decisive role, while in the higher stage of development, the latter type of natural

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plays a decisive role.” ② Due to the different geographical environment, there are obvious differences in their productivity and economic conditions, which is bound to affect the process of social history, especially the development of social history in the initial stage of human culture. Moreover, due to the difference of geographical environment, the development of productive forces and socio-economic conditions are different, which will inevitably affect people’s lifestyle and social system.

unfortunately, the incisive exposition of Marxism on the role of geographical environment has not been deeply understood and recognized in the field of history in the past. In some academic works, the criticism of “geographical environment determinism” into “geographical environment invariability”,

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and “virtual indifference of geographical environment” directly affect the solution of some major academic problems. Therefore, when exploring the formation of China’s state, we must get out of the misunderstanding of this theory and re understand the natural and geographical environment of various regions in ancient times and its relationship and interaction with mankind. Environmental archaeology, which has sprung up quietly in recent years, has also complied with the tide of scientific development and taken a gratifying step forward. The region and ancient geographical environment of the second Xia Dynasty the activity area of the Xia tribe is in the west of Henan and the south of Shanxi. Especially in Yingshui, Yishui, Luoshui and other basins centered on Songshan Mountain and Jishui basin on the North Bank of the Yellow River, there are many documents and legends about the location of the capital of the Xia Dynasty and the important activity areas of the Xia people. For example, the national language · Zhou language: “xiyiluo is exhausted and the summer is dead; the river is exhausted and the business is dead.” According to the historical records of Fengchan book, “the kings of the past three generations were all between the river and Luo, so Songgao is the middle mountain, and the four mountains are just like each other.” “Xia Benji? Justice citation Shangshu” says that “Taikang loses the state, and the five brothers must be in luoye”, “this is where Taikang lives, which is near luoye”. “Yi Zhou Shu · Du Yi Jie” also said: “since Luoyou extends to Yiyou, there is no solid Yang, and it has a summer residence.” In the historical records and biographies of Sun Tzu, the residence of Jie in Guangxia has left Heji, right Taihua, yique in its south and sheep intestines in its north. ” It can be seen that Yiluo River is the main activity area of Xia people.

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the descendants of the Xia Dynasty did not often live in Jue, and they migrated many times and did not go out of this range. As early as in Kan, the Xia tribe lived near Songshan. Therefore, in the Mandarin zhouyu, he was called “Chongbo” and said that “the prosperity of the past Xia was also integrated into Chongshan”. Yu lived in the city of Yangcheng, and now Dengfeng is completed; Qiju Xiayi, Xiayi and Juntai, Shaokang Xiayi and Quercus, all of which are located in Yuzhou City, Henan Province; Taikang: Zhongkang and Jie lived in Zhenxun, and Yi also lived in it. It looks around Shaochai, Gongyi City today; Yin Jia and Kong Jia live in the Xihe River, looking from Luoyang to Huayin; Shaokang and Ning (Zhuyuan) were originally located near Jiyuan City; It is located in Puyang, Henan Province; Ning once moved to Laoqiu, which is located in Chenliu near Kaifeng. ③ There were many changes in the capital cities of the Xia Dynasty, but it is certain that the relocation of all kings should be in the relatively solid ruling areas of the Xia Dynasty.

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Yu delimited Jiuzhou, which is what Sima Hou, a doctor of the state of Jin, called “the danger of Jiuzhou” in the spring and Autumn period. ④ “Zuo Zhuan” in the fourth year of Zhao Gong: Sima Hou said to him, “relying on risks and horses, the difficulties of neighboring countries are three perils. Four mountains, three TU, Yangcheng, Taishi, Jingshan, central and South China, and the risks of Kyushu are also different surnames.” Here, four mountains, three TU, Yangcheng, Taishi, Jingshan and six central and southern mountains constitute the general scope of ancient Kyushu, which is concentrated in Yiluo in the west of Henan Province, Ying and Ru regions. This is not only consistent with the key activities of the Xia tribe, but also consistent with the many capital movements of the Xia Hou clan.

then, what kind of geographical environment were the Xia people with Songluo area as the activity center at that time?

first look at the paleogeology and geomorphology of Songluo area. This area belongs to the

depression of the North China depression of the North China platform. The Cenozoic strata cover a large area, the quaternary system is widely distributed and the strata are complete, which are relatively developed from the lower Pleistocene to the Holocene; Due to the influence of various crustal movements and the control of surrounding tectonic units, the general trend of this stratum is subsidence, especially after the Mesozoic Yanshan movement; Since entering the Cenozoic, the subsidence is still rapid. Due to the complex structure and parallel or staggered faults, there are many small Intermountain basins and valleys. Such as Yiluo basin, Ruying Valley and Qinxi valley. ⑤ To the East and north of Songshan is the alluvial plain of the Yellow River. Therefore, on the whole, it is a vast plain and wilderness. From a small area, it is also undulating hills. This is very similar to the so-called “crescent zone” in West Asia, that is, the shallow mountains and hills around the alluvial plains of the two rivers. This environment is conducive to the origin and development of agriculture. According to the research of bazer, an environmental archaeologist, the original agricultural villages were built in the crescent zone. ⑥ Moreover, Songluo area has been known as “in the world” since ancient times. The concept of “China” was first put forward in he Zunming’s article on bronzes in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. ⑦ it shows that this area has been regarded as one of the world at the latest in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. It is surrounded by Waifang mountain and Funiu Mountain in the south, crossed by the Yellow River in the north, Qinling Mountains and Guanzhong Plain in the West and East Henan Plain in the East. It can be said that mountains and rivers are worn together, surrounded by four regions and radiating in all directions.

the climatic conditions of Songluo area are now continental monsoon climate and warm temperate dry and cool climate. There are four distinct seasons here. The frost free period of the whole year is 6-8 months. The annual average temperature is about 12 ° C, the average temperature in January is about 0-12 ° C, the temperature in summer is relatively high, and the average temperature in July is about 26-28 ℃. The rainfall is moderate, with an annual rainfall of 600-800 mm, which is concentrated in summer. The rain and heat are in the same period, forming very favorable climatic conditions for agricultural production. However, according to the research of Japanese scholar Suzuki Xiufu, about 10000 years ago, the ice age ended, the temperature rose, and the old continent transitioned from hunting to agriculture. By 8000 years ago, the temperature rose sharply to the highest level, and continued until about 3000 years ago. Among them, the Yellow River Basin is affected by the northward wind from the equatorial northwest. About 8000 to 3000 years ago, the annual average temperature is 3-5 ℃ higher than now. ⑧ Mr. Zhu Sizhen, a famous meteorologist in China, also pointed out that in the first two thousand years of the past five thousand years, that is, from Yangshao culture to Anyang Yin Ruins, the annual average temperature for most of the time was about 2 ℃ higher than now, and the temperature in January was 3-5 ℃ higher than now. ⑨ According to sporopollen analysis, in 7500-5000 years ago, China’s rainfall is also 600 mm more than it is now. ⑩ This shows that in ancient times, Songluo area also had the climate characteristics of being much warmer and wetter than this world.

from the perspective of hydrogeology, Songluo area flows through Iraq, Luo, river, Ji, Ru and Ying. Yishui, also known as Yihe River, is the main tributary of Luoshui. It originates from Xionger mountain, flows through today’s Luanchuan, Song County, Yichuan and Luoyang, and injects Luoshui into Yanshi; Luoshui, also known as Luoshui, originates from zuoling mountain in Shaanxi, passes through Luonan in Shaanxi, Lushi, Luoning and Yiyang in Henan, enters Luoyang and Yanshi, gathers Jianshui, Lihe and Yihe, and then flows into Gongyi City and flows into the Yellow River.

according to the historical records of Xia Benji: “daoluo has natural ears, which will meet in streams and Li in the Northeast, in Iraq in the East, and in rivers in the northeast.” The river is the Yellow River, here refers to the middle reaches of the Yellow River; Jishui, also known as ■ water, “Xia Benji”: “Tao ■ water, flows to the East as Jishui, and people live in the river.” It originates from Wangwu mountain and flows into the Yellow River. Its old road goes beyond the Yellow River to the south, flows to Shandong in the East, and runs parallel to the Yellow River; Ru River originates from the South Waifang mountain of Song County, Henan Province, flows through Ruyang and Ruzhou in the northeast, Jiaxian and Xiangcheng in the southeast, and joins Shahe (ancient Yin water), so it is called Shahe, and flows to Yinghe in the East through Jiacheng and Shangshui; Yinghe river originates in the southwest of Dengfeng County, Henan Province; In the southeast, it flows through Yuzhou, Linying, Xihua and Shangshui to Zhoukou Town, with Jialu River in the north and Shahe River in the south. In addition to the six large rivers and their tributaries, they are also dotted with large and small lakes and pools, such as Yingze and Putian Ze, which constitute a dotted and crisscross hydrological landscape, and the valleys and platforms close to the river; It has become an ideal place for early humans to live. The soil in Songluo area belongs to brown soil and cinnamon soil (commonly known as loess), and the loess layer is generally more than 10 meters thick. Moreover, the loess layer in this area belongs to clayey loess, that is, fine loess. The content of fine sand is less than 15% and the content of clay is more than 25%, which are conducive to the emergence and development of primitive agriculture. In particular, after years of cultivation, it is formed into loam (by the river) and black ridge soil (on the tableland). The parent material is fertile and the vertical joints are developed, which is conducive to the generation of capillarity. It can bring the fertility and water of the lower layer to the surface. It has “natural fertilizer effect”, high fertility and loose soil, which is conducive to reclamation and trial planting with stone shovel, wood Lei and other primitive agricultural production tools, It is also conducive to excavating wells and canals for farmland irrigation.

from the perspective of paleobiogeography, at that time, it was the transition zone between forest and forest grassland, located at the edge of subtropical forest, so there was the coexistence of warm and humid plants and cold and drought tolerant plants. There are abundant subtropical plant and animal species here. According to the forest distribution map of the middle reaches of the Yellow River in the Western Zhou Dynasty, which was researched and drawn by Mr. Shi Nianhai, the foresters measured and calculated. The results showed that the forest coverage rate of the Loess Plateau, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, the adjacent Qinyang basin and the middle and lower reaches of the Luohe River near the Yin Ruins was 53%. However, this era is still more than a thousand years away from the Xia Dynasty. I believe that the forest coverage will be higher at that time. Among the animals, muntjacs and wild boars haunt the forest,Deer and rabbits chase on the grassland and herd cattle and goats; The lake can be used for the activities and survival of aquatic and wet loving animals such as elk, Swertia, raccoon dog, crane, turtle, turtle, crocodile, fish, mussel and snail. ” At the same time, it is also a place for the breeding and rest of subtropical animals and elephants. Since ancient times, Henan Province has been known as the “Central Plains region”.

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based on the above geographical characteristics of landform, climate, hydrology, soil and biology, Songluo region took the lead in entering civilization and establishing a country, which is inseparable from its unique geographical conditions. (III) the role of geographical environment in the formation of Xia state

on Neolithic culture, the history and development of the Yellow River Basin and the Yangtze River Basin are indistinguishable. The advantages of

do not seem to be on the side of the Yellow River Basin; As far as the Yellow River Basin is concerned, Majiayao culture and Qijia culture in the upper reaches, Dawenkou Culture and Shandong Longshan Culture in the lower reaches have a high level. In that case, why was the country first formed in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, specifically in Songluo region? In fact, Mr. Yu Weichao noticed this problem very early. After analyzing the cultural mutation between Shandong Longshan culture and Liangzhu culture, which are located in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, and their successors Yueshi culture, Maqiao and Hushu culture, he believes that the mystery of this cultural mutation lies in “a catastrophic flood that lasted for several years occurred in China more than 4000 years ago”, which destroyed the original cultural foundation. The Longshan Culture in Henan Province, located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, continued to develop normally, thus entering the era of civilization as early as the Xia Dynasty. “If this flood had not occurred more than 4000 years ago, China’s initial Dynasty might and should have been established by the Dongyi.” 12] this fact needs further scientific demonstration. But this gives us a useful enlightenment: the geographical environment of Songluo area is undoubtedly an important factor in the formation of early countries.

firstly, the environment of Songluo area is most suitable for early human settlement and agricultural production.

Songluo area is similar to the crescent zone in West Asia. The warm and humid climate, dotted rivers and lakes, fertile and loose loess land and biogeographic characteristics on the edge of subtropical zone are not only conducive to the development of settlements, but also conducive to the emergence of agriculture. The Neolithic culture distributed in this area, from Peiligang culture to Yangshao culture and Henan Longshan culture, has developed continuously and formed its own sequence in the early, middle and late stages, which is rare in other areas. Moreover, the cultural relics are densely distributed on the platform or valley near the river, which fully shows the development and prosperity of the settlement at that time. At present, the 50 or 60 Peiligang cultural sites found are mainly distributed in the transition zone between the eastern edge of the mountain in western Henan and the Huang Huai plain, especially around Song Mountain. Therefore, its cultural connotation directly reflects the economic life and production of Songluo area. According to the analysis of Peiligang cultural relics, the sources of economic life and food at that time included agriculture, fishing, hunting and livestock breeding. And agriculture is an important production activity and food source of Peiligang culture. This shows that Songluo region formed the center of agricultural culture as early as 8000 years ago. In the period of Yangshao culture, the main feature of its agricultural economy was that the settlement was more stable, forming a comprehensive economy dominated by agriculture; During the Longshan culture period, the agricultural economy in Songluo area was further improved, and the grain output also increased greatly. In Longshan cultural relics, round bag shaped pits with small mouth and large bottom were generally found, and a large number of large ceramic containers and ■, ■, ■ and other wine vessels were found, indicating that there were more reserves for grain production and used for wine making at that time. However, in other areas outside Songluo area, due to the constraints of natural environment and ecosystem, the agricultural economy has not been fully developed or developed slowly 13]

the invention of settled life and agriculture is a major change in the history of

in prehistoric human living style and social life. Moreover, the two complement each other. The typical form of prehistoric settlements is based on the comprehensive economic life dominated by agriculture.

similarly, “the origin of civilization must be based on the agricultural revolution without exception. The settled areas must be based on farming, and the nomadic tribes must reach the stage of food producers before it is possible to turn into civilization.” [ 14]

secondly, geographical environment is the direct factor in the formation of Xia state.

as mentioned above, although other areas outside Songluo area also show a high level in the development of ancient culture. However, due to the differences of natural environmental conditions, the speed and level of social development are different. Moreover, in the absence of iron, the agricultural productivity can be developed to the natural conditions of the country, which only exists in the loess layer 15] the ancient residents of Songluo area rely on the generous gifts of nature and can obtain certain surplus products only by using wood and stone agricultural tools for agricultural production. In the era of Erlitou culture, he took the lead in entering the class society and establishing the country.

the Erlitou Culture named after the Erlitou site in Yanshi, which is distributed to the north of the Yellow River, the South and the edge of Danjiang River, and the lower reaches of Weishui River in the West; East reaches the great plain of Eastern Henan, and its center is Yi around today’s Song Mountain; The plain of Luo, Ying and Ru River Valley is generally consistent with the activity range of Xia people recorded in the literature; The dating of carbon 14 of Erlitou culture is also roughly consistent with that of the 21st and 16th centuries before the Xia historical era recorded in the literature; Volume II and I of Yue Jue Shu said that “when Yu cave was built, copper was used as a weapon”. In the third year of Xuangong in Zuo Zhuan, “in the past summer, there was virtue in the side, pictures and objects in the distance, nine pieces of tribute gold, and objects like tripods were cast”. It also said that “Jie had faint virtue, and the tripod moved to Shang”. This is also consistent with the emergence of bronzes in the early Erlitou culture and the relatively developed situation in the late Erlitou culture; The literature records that the Xia Dynasty entered the class society and established the state from Yu, which is roughly equivalent to the social nature of Erlitou culture. Documentary recordsThe consistency between Zai and archaeological discoveries is by no means accidental. It just shows that Erlitou culture is Xia culture. At the same time, it is further confirmed that the geographical environment of Songluo area is the direct factor leading to the formation of Xia state.

third, the special geographical environment made the Xia country have a special development path in the process of formation.

due to the different geographical environment and natural conditions, various nationalities in various regions of the world show great differences in the process of establishing a country. From the perspective of productivity, Greece, Rome and other countries formed after entering the iron age. The Xia state is based on wood and stone tools. Although the Xia Dynasty entered the bronze age before and after the founding of the people’s Republic of China, bronze did not exclude wood and stone tools. The ancient ancestors living in Songluo area took advantage of the superior conditions such as loose and fertile soil and easy reclamation. They did not need to wait for the emergence and universal use of iron ware. When the level of production technology was still relatively low, they could produce more surplus products. From the perspective of social foundation, the social foundation of ancient Greek

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was rural commune, while the Xia state did not break the ancient clan system when it was formed. On the contrary, clan communes linked by blood were preserved 16] Note:

① selected works of Stalin, 193 pages, people’s publishing house, 1962.

② Marx: Volume I, 554 pages, people’s publishing house, 1976.

③ see Xu shunzhan: re exploration of the culture of the Xia Dynasty, Henan Wenbo communication, issue 3, 1979.

④ Xu Zhongshu: on Xiaotun and Yangshao again, Anyang excavation report, issue 3, 1931, Xin Shuqi: new interpretation of Yugong, 52 pages, Agricultural Press, 1964.

⑤ Shi Ziming, etc; Natural conditions and natural resources in Henan, Henan science and Technology Press, 1983,

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⑥ see Zhao Shigang: Discussion on several issues of Peiligang culture, Chinese Archaeology), issue 2, 1987.

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⑦ Ma Chengyuan: preliminary interpretation of he Zun inscriptions, issue 1, cultural relics, 1976. ・

⑧ group 14C, quaternary sporopollen group, Guiyang Institute of geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences: “evolution of natural environment in southern Liaoning in the past 10000 years”, Chinese science, 1977, issue 6.

⑨ Zhu Kezhen: preliminary study on climate change in China in recent 5000 years, Journal of archaeology, issue 1, 1972.

⑩ Wang Kaifa and Zhang Yulan: inferring the ten thousand year climate change in Shanghai and Hangzhou according to the sporopollen analysis “, the founding issue of historical geography, 1981. ・

[11] Zhang Zhongzhong: environment and Peiligang culture, research on environmental archaeology, Vol. 1, Science Press, 1991.

[12] Yu Weichao: the mystery of the decline of Longshan culture and Liangzhu culture, world of cultural relics, issue 3, 1992.

[13] see Chen Changyuan, the central area of ancient civilization from the cultural distribution and economic types of the Neolithic age, Heluo civilization papers, Zhongzhou ancient books publishing house, 1993.

[14] Rizhi: origin of agriculture and civilization, Prehistoric studies, 1983, issue 2. ⑩ Wang Depei: (some views on exploring the origin of Chinese civilization), Central Plains cultural relics, 1990, issue 2. ⑩ see Gao Guangjing: the origin of China, 215 pages, Henan University Press, 1989.

the geographical and paleogeographic environment of the second summer

The activity area of Xia tribe is in western Henan and southern Shanxi. Especially in Yingshui, Yishui, Luoshui and other basins centered on Songshan Mountain and Jishui basin on the North Bank of the Yellow River, there are many documents and legends about the location of the capital of the Xia Dynasty and the important activity areas of the Xia people. For example, the national language · Zhou language: “xiyiluo is exhausted and the summer is dead; the river is exhausted and the business is dead.” According to the historical records of Fengchan book, “the kings of the past three generations were all between the river and Luo, so Songgao is the middle mountain, and the four mountains are just like each other.” “Xia Benji? Justice citation Shangshu” says that “Taikang loses the state, and the five brothers must be in luoye”, “this is where Taikang lives, which is near luoye”. “Yi Zhou Shu · Du Yi Jie” also said: “from Luoyou to Yiyou, there is no solid Yang. It has

summer residence.” In historical records, biographies of grandson Wu Qi, the residence of Jie in Guangxia, left Heji, right Taihua, yique in its south and sheep intestines in its north. ” It can be seen that Yiluo River is the main activity area of Xia people. Xia Hou’s family didn’t often live in Jue, and they migrated many times, so they didn’t go out of this range. As early as in Kan, the Xia tribe lived near Songshan. Therefore, in the Mandarin zhouyu, he was called “Chongbo” and said that “the prosperity of the past Xia was also integrated into Chongshan”. Yu lived in the city of Yangcheng, and now Dengfeng is completed; Qiju Xiayi, Xiayi and Juntai, Shaokang Xiayi and Quercus, all of which are located in Yuzhou City, Henan Province; Taikang: Zhongkang and Jie lived in Zhenxun, and Yi also lived in it. It looks around Shaochai, Gongyi City today; Yin Jia and Kong Jia live in the Xihe River, looking from Luoyang to Huayin; Shaokang and Ning (Zhuyuan) were originally located near Jiyuan City; It is located in Puyang, Henan Province; Ning once moved to Laoqiu, which is located in Chenliu near Kaifeng. ③ There were many changes in the capital cities of the Xia Dynasty, but it is certain that the relocation of all kings should be in the relatively solid ruling areas of the Xia Dynasty.

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Yu delimited Jiuzhou, which is what Sima Hou, a doctor of the state of Jin, called “the danger of Jiuzhou” in the spring and Autumn period. ④ Zuo Zhuan: in the fourth year of the reign of the Duke of Zhao, the Marquis Sima said to each other, “relying on risks and horses, the difficulties of neighboring countries are three perils. Four mountains, three TU, Yangcheng, Taishi, Jingshan and ZhongshanSouth, the risk of Kyushu is also different. ” Here, four mountains, three TU, Yangcheng, Taishi, Jingshan and six central and southern mountains constitute the general scope of ancient Kyushu, which is concentrated in the areas of Yiluo, Ying and Ru in the west of Henan Province. This is not only consistent with the key activities of the Xia tribe, but also consistent with the many capital movements of the Xia Hou clan.

then, what kind of geographical environment were the Xia people with Songluo area as the activity center at that time?

first look at the paleogeology and geomorphology of Songluo area. This area belongs to the North China depression of the North China platform. The Cenozoic strata cover a large area with

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. The quaternary system is widely distributed and the strata are complete. It is relatively developed from the lower Pleistocene to the Holocene; Due to the influence of various crustal movements and the control of surrounding tectonic units, the general trend of this stratum is subsidence, especially after the Mesozoic Yanshan movement; Since entering the Cenozoic, the subsidence is still rapid. Due to the complex structure and parallel or staggered faults, there are many small Intermountain basins and valleys. Such as Yiluo basin, Ruying Valley and Qinxi valley. ⑤ To the East and north of Songshan is the alluvial plain of the Yellow River. Therefore, on the whole, it is a vast plain and wilderness. From a small area, it is also undulating hills. This is very similar to the so-called “crescent zone” in West Asia, that is, the shallow mountains and hills around the alluvial plains of the two rivers. This environment is conducive to the origin and development of agriculture. According to the research of bazer, an environmental archaeologist, the original agricultural villages were built in the crescent zone. ⑥ Moreover, Songluo area has been known as “in the world” since ancient times. The concept of “China” was first put forward in he Zunming’s article on bronzes in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. ⑦ it shows that this area has been regarded as one of the world at the latest in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. It is surrounded by Waifang mountain and Funiu Mountain in the south, yellow

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rivers in the north, Qinling Mountains and Guanzhong Plain in the West and East Henan Plain in the East. It can be said that mountains and rivers are worn together, surrounded by four regions and radiating in all directions. The climate conditions of Songluo area are now continental monsoon climate, warm temperate dry and cool climate type. There are four distinct seasons here. The frost free period of the whole year is 6-8 months. The annual average temperature is about 12 ° C, the average temperature in January is about 0-12 ° C, the temperature in summer is relatively high, and the average temperature in July is about 26-28 ℃. The rainfall is moderate, with an annual rainfall of 600-800 mm, which is concentrated in summer. The rain and heat are in the same period, forming very favorable climatic conditions for agricultural production. However, according to the research of Japanese scholar Suzuki Xiufu, about 10000 years ago, the ice age ended, the temperature rose, and the old continent transitioned from hunting to agriculture. By 8000 years ago, the temperature rose sharply to the highest level, and continued until about 3000 years ago. Among them, the Yellow River Basin is affected by the northward wind from the equatorial northwest. About 8000 to 3000 years ago, the annual average temperature is 3-5 ℃ higher than now. ⑧ Mr. Zhu Sizhen, a famous meteorologist in China, also pointed out that in the first two thousand years of the past five thousand years, that is, from Yangshao culture to Anyang Yin Ruins, the annual average temperature for most of the time was about 2 ℃ higher than now, and the temperature in January was 3-5 ℃ higher than now. ⑨ According to sporopollen analysis, in 7500-5000 years ago, China’s rainfall is also 600 mm more than it is now. ⑩ This shows that in ancient times, Songluo area also had the climate characteristics of being much warmer and wetter than this world.

from the perspective of hydrogeology, Songluo area flows through Iraq, Luo, river, Ji, Ru and Ying. Yishui, also known as Yihe River, is the main tributary of Luoshui. It originates from Xionger mountain, flows through today’s Luanchuan, Song County, Yichuan and Luoyang, and injects Luoshui into Yanshi; Luoshui, also known as Luoshui, originates from zuoling mountain in Shaanxi, passes through Luonan in Shaanxi, Lushi, Luoning and Yiyang in Henan, enters Luoyang and Yanshi, gathers Jianshui, Lihe and Yihe, and then flows into Gongyi City and flows into the Yellow River. It is also recorded in historical records Xia Benji: “daoluo has a natural ear. The Northeast will meet in streams and Li, the East will meet in Iraq, and the northeast people will meet in rivers.” The river is the Yellow River, here refers to the middle reaches of the Yellow River; Jishui, also known as ■ water, “Xia Benji”: “Tao ■ water, flows to the East as Jishui, and people live in the river.” It originates from Wangwu mountain and flows into the Yellow River. Its old road goes beyond the Yellow River to the south, flows to Shandong in the East, and runs parallel to the Yellow River; Ru River originates from the South Waifang mountain of Song County, Henan Province, flows through Ruyang and Ruzhou in the northeast, Jiaxian and Xiangcheng in the southeast, and joins Shahe (ancient Yin water), so it is called Shahe, and flows to Yinghe in the East through Jiacheng and Shangshui; Yinghe river originates in the southwest of Dengfeng County, Henan Province; In the southeast, it flows through Yuzhou, Linying, Xihua and Shangshui to Zhoukou Town, with Jialu River in the north and Shahe River in the south. In addition to the six large rivers and their tributaries, they are also dotted with large and small lakes and pools, such as Yingze and Putian Ze, which constitute a dotted and crisscross hydrological landscape, and the valleys and platforms close to the river; It has become an ideal place for early humans to live.

the soil in Songluo area belongs to brown soil cinnamon soil (commonly known as loess). The loess layer is generally more than ten meters thick,

. Moreover, the loess layer in this area belongs to clayey loess, that is, fine loess. The content of fine sand is less than 15% and the content of clay is more than 25%, which are conducive to the emergence and development of primitive agriculture. In particular, after years of cultivation, it is formed into loam (by the river) and black ridge soil (on the tableland). The parent material is fertile and the vertical joints are developed, which is conducive to the generation of capillarity. It can bring the fertility and water of the lower layer to the surface. It has “natural fertilizer effect”, high fertility and loose soil, which is conducive to reclamation and trial planting with stone shovel, wood Lei and other primitive agricultural production tools, It is also conducive to excavating wells and canals for farmland irrigation. From the perspective of paleobiogeography, at that time, it was the transition zone between forest and forest grassland, which was at the edge of subtropical forest. Therefore, there was the coexistence of warm and humid plants and cold and drought tolerant plants. There are abundant subtropical plant and animal species here. According to the forest distribution map of the middle reaches of the Yellow River during the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of the Western Zhou Dynasty, which was researched and drawn by Mr. Shi Nianhai, the foresters measured and calculated. The results showed that the Yin Ruins were close to the Loess Plateau, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, the adjacent Qinyang basin andIn the middle and lower reaches of Luohe River and other places, the forest coverage rate is 53%. However, this era is still more than a thousand years away from the Xia Dynasty. I believe that the forest coverage will be higher at that time. Among the animals, muntjacs and wild boars haunt the forest, deer and rabbits chase on the grassland, and cattle and goats can be grazed; The lake can be used for the activities and survival of aquatic and wet loving animals such as elk, Swertia, raccoon dog, crane, turtle, turtle, crocodile, fish, mussel and snail. ” At the same time, it is also a place for the breeding and rest of subtropical animals and elephants. Since ancient times, Henan Province has been known as the “Central Plains region”.