Lecture 1 geography of the Middle East and the evolution of ancient history 1.

Physical geography of the middle east the Middle East includes 18 countries in West Asia and North Africa, namely Egypt, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, Kuwait, Jordan, Turkey, Iran Afghanistan and Cyprus.

In addition, the 1974 edition of the new British encyclopedia pointed out that the “ancient Near East” included southeast Europe (i.e. Greece) and Sudan in modern western historiography.

The Middle East is geographically important, known as the “land of three continents and five seas”.

The region is the junction of the three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa.

It is surrounded by international sea areas such as the Black Sea, Mediterranean, red sea, Arabian Sea, Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf.

These sea areas greatly facilitate the connection between the Middle East and the rest of the world.

The Bosporus Strait, Dardanelle Strait, Suez Canal, Mande Strait and Hormuz Strait connecting the above sea areas are important international waterways.

Therefore, the Middle East has become a link and crossroads between the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, the East and the West.

The terrain of the Middle East is mainly plateau, including the Arab plateau, Iranian Plateau, Anatolia plateau, etc.

At the same time, there are plains distributed along the coast, but the area of the plains is narrow, while the area of the desert is vast, and the oasis is suitable for human habitation.

There are few rivers in this area, which is unfavorable for shipping, but the vast desert provides a way for caravan trade using camels.

There are some proper terms describing different regions in the Middle East: “crescent zone” (also known as “crescent fertile land”) includes the northeast of Iraq, the southeast edge of Turkey, the north and west of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and the west of Jordan.

This zone is more fertile due to its rich water resources.

“Levant” refers to the east coast of the Mediterranean, especially Syria and Lebanon.

“Mashriq” (Arabic “East”) refers to Egypt, Sudan and Arab countries to the East.

The climate in the Middle East is hot, dry and rainless all year round.

The precipitation is concentrated in winter and water resources are scarce, but there are still sufficient water sources in a few areas.

From the perspective of climate, the Middle East can be divided into the following types of regions: (1) tropical arid and semi-arid climate regions, including most of the Arabian Peninsula, southern Egypt and southern Mesopotamia plain.

The temperature is warm in winter and hot in summer, the annual temperature difference is small and the precipitation is rare.

(2) Subtropical arid and semi-arid climate areas, including the Iranian Plateau and the northern Mesopotamia plain, have mild winter, hot summer and scarce precipitation.

(3) Mediterranean climate zone, including the south of lesser Asia, the coast of Egypt and the east coast of the Mediterranean, is hot and rainy in summer, mild and humid in winter and has more annual precipitation.

(4) Temperate continental semi-arid climate areas, including Anatolia plateau and Armenia plateau, are cold in winter and hot in summer with less precipitation.

The cultivated land resources in the Middle East are also relatively scarce.

The proportion of cultivated land in the total land area of the Arabian Peninsula is less than 1%, and that of most other countries is between 2%. 6%. The higher countries are Israel 12.

2%, Syria 21.

0%, Lebanon 23.

1%, Turkey 26.

6% and Cyprus 27.6%. Most countries in the Middle East have relatively single mineral resources.

For example, the Gulf countries are famous for their rich oil and gas resources.

According to the proved oil reserves, the Middle East was 95.

9 billion tons in January 1996, accounting for 69.

8% of the world’s total reserves.

Most of the 17 countries in the Middle East have oil reserves, and the oil producing countries are mainly the eight Gulf countries, namely Saudi Arabia, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain and Qatar.

Saudi Arabia, Iraq, UAE, Kuwait and Iran rank first, second, third, fourth and fifth in the world respectively.

Important minerals in other countries include iron and phosphate in Egypt and Syria, potassium salt in Israel, lapis lazuli and natural gas in Afghanistan.

In addition, wood and stone materials are also very scarce in many places.

However, Iran and Turkey have a variety of minerals.

The former has oil, natural gas, iron, lead, copper and zinc, while the latter has the highest reserves of chromium, mercury, antimony, boron and barite in the world, and is rich in coal, iron, copper, manganese and other resources.

The Middle East is rich in biological resources, which created favorable conditions for the birth of early civilization.

For example, southwest Asia has prototype wild wheat, red wheat, barley (they are distributed in the crescent zone), as well as wild plant varieties such as peas and lentils.

Wild animals available for domestication include sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, etc.

From the perspective of geographical location, the Middle East is of great significance in the process of ancient civilization exchanges in the world.

The Middle East is the first region in the world where agricultural civilization was born.

It is roughly at the same latitude as other ancient agricultural civilizations in Eurasia, such as China, India, Greece, North Africa, etc.

the silk road connects all these civilizations, and the Middle East is in the center of this trade route and plays an extremely important intermediary role.

In the north of this region, there is a vast Eurasian inland grassland where nomads live, while the agricultural civilization area in the South has become the object of their harassment.

The conflict between nomadic civilization and agricultural civilization has become the most important contradiction affecting the ancient world, and the Middle East is the typical area most affected.

Of course, this impact has also caused the diversity of civilizations and accelerated the speed of change.

However, what many scholars fail to notice is that the Middle East itself is also facing the impact of nomads from the south, such as the Arabian Peninsula.

Moreover, the nomads in the Eurasian inland grassland belong to grassland nomadic tribes, while the nomads in the Middle East belong to desert nomadic tribes.

The two sides differ in the scope of long-distance travel, the degree of tribal conflict and hierarchy, but finally met and created new brilliance on the stage of the evolution of civilization in the Middle East (Turks, Mongols and Ottomans from Central Asia).

Generally speaking, the regions with the most frequent exchanges with the Middle East are the surrounding Mediterranean region, North Africa, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia.

In the Middle East, the famous British scholar Toynbee believes that Syria and the Wuhu River yaosha River Basin (including Afghanistan and Hezhong) and their adjacent areas are the two birthplaces of the world’s high-level religions (the three monotheistic religions and Mahayana Buddhism), because they are important “traffic roundabouts”.

Therefore, the important world historical significance of the Middle East is highlighted. II. The ancient Middle East: the origin and development of multi civilization (from ancient times to the early 7th century) the history of the ancient Middle East is the history of the origin of multi civilization, the evolution and development from city states to empires and then to great empires, and laying the foundation for the circle of civilization in the Middle East.

First of all, a brief analysis of several factors affecting the development of ancient civilization in the Middle East.

First, as the main road of land and sea transportation of the three continents, the necessary place of the Silk Road, and the local developed civilization, the Middle East has always been a place where ethnic invasion and migration occur frequently.

It is a typical area of the conflict between agricultural civilization and nomadic civilization.

In addition, in order to control trade routes and prevent foreign invasion, the original countries have also made efforts to expand the army and even use troops abroad, so wars are frequent.

Second, the single production has made developed regional trade and international trade a prominent feature of the history of the Middle East.

Trade has promoted the exchanges between different nationalities and the formation and development of civilizations.

The main commodities exported from the Middle East include grain, wool, food, handicrafts, etc.

the main commodities imported include obsidian, gem, semi gem, flint, wood, metal, stone, mineral pigment, asphalt, etc.

Chinese American archaeologist Zhang Guangzhi pointed out: “people in the Near East, such as the Sumerians.

Basically all their necessities come from trade exchange.

” Third, there is multiculturalism in the Middle East.

From the perspective of language and nationality, the nationalities that created the ancient civilization in the Middle East are mainly divided into three categories.

(1) Semitic (Semitic), including akkads, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Jews, Arabs, Canaanites, Arameans, etc.

(2) People who speak Indo European languages, including Hittites, Hyksos, Persians, Parthians, Cypriots, etc.

(3) Other ethnic groups, including ancient Egyptians and Sumerians, of which the ancient Egyptians were formed by the integration of Semitic and Han (Han mith).

Among the above three groups, the Semitic nationality is obviously the largest ethnic group in the ancient Middle East and the most populous and influential group in the Middle East today (including Arabs and Jews).

However, the civilization of the Middle East is not equal to the Semitic civilization, but the great integration of multiple civilizations.

The Middle East also has cultural exchanges with Greece and Rome.

The ancient civilization exchanges in the Middle East can be divided into the following three stages.

The first stage is the period when the two civilization centers shine from east to West (from ancient times to the establishment of the twelfth Dynasty of Egypt in about 2000 BC).

Historically, there are several centers of ancient civilizations in the Middle East, which are brilliant, complement each other and influence each other.

Among them, the earliest and most important centers of civilization are the two river basins and Egypt.

The two river basins have formed the world’s earliest cities, characters and civilizations.

It originated in Sumer in the south, which laid the basic characteristics of the ancient civilization of the two river basins before Hellenization.

In 2371 BC, Sumer unified Akkad in the north.

Although ancient Egyptian civilization originated late, the development of centralized countries was faster than that of the two rivers due to the geographical system of the Nile basin.

About 3000 BC, upper and lower Egypt were unified.

Since then, the fourth dynasty (2650-2500 BC) began the construction of pyramids.

The second stage is the period when the two civilizations spread and other civilizations Rose (about 2000-550 BC, the Persian Empire was established).

The establishment of the twelfth Dynasty in Egypt marked the restoration of political stability and economic prosperity in Egypt, and the two river basins also entered the era of political empire.

The characteristics of this stage are as follows: first, the two civilization centers continue to develop under the condition of foreign invasion.

During this period, both the two river basins and Egypt suffered foreign invasion, but the new rulers were eventually assimilated.

The two civilizations have entered the peak period of development.

Second, the spread of central civilization and the rise of local civilization.

In the surrounding areas of the two civilization centers (mainly West Asia), a series of distinctive local civilizations have sprung up, such as Phoenicia, Canaan, Judea, elan, hurit, Hittite, Arabia and so on.

These civilizations trade and communicate with the two centers, sometimes even under the political rule of the latter, so they absorb a large number of their advanced culture.

In terms of religion, the shrines of the hurit people in Syria include the gods EA, Anu and enril in the two river basins, and take nipur and Eli, the religious centers of the two rivers, as their religious holy places.

The hulit people also spread the religious culture of the two rivers to heti, the close neighbor of Xiaoya.

The Hittites also revered Ishtar on both rivers, and its epic “kisgimos” imitated the epic of Gilgamesh.

The Canaanites worship Baal, the God of the storm, and astat, the goddess of love, that is, Tammuz and Ishtar of Sumer.

The situation in Phoenicia is similar.

In addition, the pagoda temples in Lianghe are also widely imitated by all ethnic groups in West Asia.

In terms of language, Sumerian cuneiform has had a significant impact on neighboring countries, including Hittite, elan, hurit and even Crete cuneiform.

At the same time, Akkadian became the common language in the Middle East, while Egyptian papyrus became the main writing material in the Mediterranean region.

In addition, some local civilizations also influence each other.

For example, the religion of the hurit absorbed the religious factors of Canaan and Syria, while the early religion of the Jews also absorbed the religious factors of Canaan.

Third, develop and innovate in integration.

Local civilizations outside the two centers not only thrive, but also a small number of civilizations excel on the basis of integrating various civilizations, creating new forms of civilization of great significance.

In the Levant region along the Mediterranean (greater Syria), a “Gold Coast” for civilization development has been formed, and to the East is the “golden waterway” of the two rivers, which are connected and become the main artery of civilization innovation and communication.

The innovation of greater Syria is mainly in language and religion.

At this stage, it is mainly language.

Under the influence of Egyptian characters, primitive Canaanite characters were produced in Canaan in the 17th century BC and Sinai in the 15th century BC.

In the 14th-13th century BC, the bibulet and Ugarte letters influenced by Sinai and Lianghe cuneiform were produced in Phoenicia, which are the earliest letters in the world.

The Bible alphabet is easy to write and suitable for commercial bookkeeping.

The Phoenician alphabet became the originator of the world alphabet, which derived the Hebrew alphabet, the Aramaic alphabet and the Greek alphabet.

From the original Canaanite script, the original Arabic alphabet was developed.

In addition, Arabic has gradually replaced Akkadian as the common language in Western Asia.

Fourth, the extensive establishment of a centralized empire.

After experiencing the prosperity of the Middle Kingdom, Egypt entered its heyday, the New Kingdom, and occupied Syria for the first time.

The two river basins have successively established a unified ancient river systemBabylon, Assyria, New Babylon and other empires expanded their territory to Syria, Phoenicia, Eastern Asia Minor, Western Persia and the South Caucasus.

At the same time, great powers such as MIDI, heti and hurit Mitani were formed.

The emergence of Empire itself is the product of social and economic development, the improvement of military technology and military organization and the further development of civilized exchanges, rather than relying solely on military conquest.

This laid the foundation for the later centralized system of the Persian Empire.

The third stage is the period of the intersection of the East and the West (the rise of Islam from about 550 BC to the early 7th century).

The characteristics of this stage are as follows: first, the centers of the two civilizations have declined, the marginal civilization has developed into a major civilization, and an unprecedented Empire has been established.

The Persian, Greek, Roman and Arab civilizations on the edge of the Middle East replaced Egypt and the two rivers civilization and established a great empire covering three continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, namely the Persian Empire, the Empire and other Hellenized empires, the Sassanian Empire, the Roman Empire and the Arab Empire.

The establishment of these great empires has greatly facilitated exchanges among regions and promoted the collision and integration of different cultures (including Indian civilization and Chinese civilization).

Second, significant changes have taken place in the form and content of cultural exchanges, from the spread of the two major civilization centers to various regions inside and outside the Middle East to two-way exchanges between different civilizations in the Middle East and with civilizations outside the region, and even the absorption of civilization centers is more than payment.

What is particularly important is that at this stage, the Western civilization represented by Greece and Rome began to communicate with the eastern civilization on a large scale through military conquest, that is, Hellenization.

The Hellenization in a broad sense should not be limited to the Alexander Empire and its successors Seleucid Empire and Ptolemy Empire, but should include the Parthian Empire and even the Roman Empire.

The characteristics of Hellenization period are as follows: (1) Hellenization is the blending of Greek culture and oriental culture.

Hellenization marks the full landing of eastern culture in Greece, such as Oriental astrology and religion.

At the same time, the east also introduced western culture on a large scale for the first time.

In West Asia, the main cultural forms at that time were Babylonian culture, Persian culture and Greek culture.

Its specific forms were divided into Greek style, Oriental style and the integration of East and West.

(2) cultural blending is the consequence of military conquest.

The spread of Greek culture in the Middle East is mandatory and shows the characteristics of alienation.

It mainly exists in Greek cities established in the East.

Its political, cultural and sports facilities are all Greek, and the residents are mainly Greeks.

(3) the regional center moves from the original center of civilization to the junction of Eurasia or emerging cities in other regions.

Thebes, Babylon and Athens were no longer the centers of the region.

The latter moved to emerging Greek cities located at the junction of Eurasia or other regions, such as Alexandria and Antioch on the middle of the earth coast, Seleucia and texiphon on the Tigris River.

Although these cities are located in ancient Egypt, Syria and two river basins, they are already Hellenistic cities and are located in regional transportation hubs.

By the time of the Sassanian Empire, Babylon had been reduced to ruins.

Akkadian was eventually abandoned in the first century BC.

(4) with the passage of time, Eastern and Western cultures have gradually moved from alienation to integration.

The middle and lower level officials, officers and judges of Hellenistic countries include a large number of locals, and the eastern cities still retain the status of autonomy.

More interestingly, the history of Babylon written by the Greek priest berothus in Babylon and the history of Egypt written by the Egyptian priest manito in Ptolemy completed the process of the unification of the Macedonian Greek rulers and the political tradition of the Near East.

In terms of language, the West Asian language absorbs some words of Greek, and the local people also use some Greek surnames.

Aramaic and Greek are the official languages.

Egyptian characters were transformed into Coptic because of the use of Greek letters.

In art, pure Oriental Art and Greek art gradually disappeared and replaced by integrated art.

But the Oriental style still maintains the dominant position.

In terms of ethnic composition, by the 1st century A.D., the Greeks in the Middle East increasingly intermarried with the locals, thus disappearing as a nation.

Queen cleopart, the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was a hybrid.

With the advancement of the Roman Empire to the Middle East, it occupied lesser Asia and Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and other regions, thus spreading the Roman culture to the region, especially the rule of the Byzantine Empire in lesser Asia and Syria for a long time.

In the East, the rise of Parthia, especially the Sassanian Empire, once again promoted the spread of Persian culture and became the mainstay against the Roman Empire.

The influence of Persian culture exceeded that of the earlier Persian Empire.

Third, the Middle East has entered the “axis era” and world religions have formed.

Karl Jaspers, a contemporary German philosopher, believes that the period between 800 and 200 BC is the “axis era” of human civilization.

During this period, major ideological innovations appeared in all civilizations: Ancient Greek literature and philosophy, Israeli prophets, Zoroastrianism in Persia, Upanishads and Buddhism in India, Chinese and so on.

These thoughts assimilated and accepted the ancient high culture and spread to the surrounding areas.

They marked that human beings began to realize their overall existence and limitations, created the basic categories that people are still thinking about, and contributed to the germination of world religions.

The Persian Empire was undoubtedly an important period for the spread of Zoroastrianism, and Judaism also experienced new development at this time.

It can be seen that the Middle East occupies two major innovations in the axis civilization and overlaps geographically with the other two innovations (Greece and India).

Persia has become the world’s four major civilization centers alongside Greece, India and China.

Of course, the middle east civilization finally took shape after the rise of Islamic civilization.

The Hellenistic period is also a period of great religious turbulence and integration.

For example, the worship of Serapis was founded in the Ptolemaic dynasty, which integrates the factors of Egypt and Greece.

Mithraism, which originated in Persia, was also introduced into Rome in the 1st century BC and spread throughout the Roman Empire in the 1st century AD.

In Greece, the period of classical culture came to an end, with the emergence of theories advocating embracing the world (such as stoicism) and pessimism.

Before Hellenization began, monotheism began to take shape, that is, Judaism.

After entering the Hellenistic period, a variety of dualistic religions appeared in Persia and the two river basins, such as Gnosticism and Manichaeism, and the Zoroastrianism that had long been formed was further improved.

In absorbing various religions and ideas from the East and the westBoth Christianity and Islam were formed in the “cultural mixture” of Syria and Greece.

Islam eventually became the cultural carrier of civilization in the Middle East, while the scope of Christianity in the Middle East narrowed sharply.

In addition to the inherent culture of the nation, the Arabs absorbed the factors of Persia, Byzantium, Greece, India and other cultures, created a brilliant Arab Islamic culture, and finally formed the middle east civilization circle on this basis, which far exceeded any empire in the past.

In the territory of the Arab Empire, the diversity of the Middle East culture is shown by the diversity under the control of unity.

The depth of its cultural integration is much higher than in the past, while maintaining the continuity of history.

As American scholar Lapidus said, “the Arab conquest in the 7th century and the subsequent Islamic era retained the continuity of the institutions in the Middle East.

” The three monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam all originated in greater Syria and its adjacent Hanzhi region, which once again proves the courage of greater Syria as the intersection center of civilizations.

The three monotheistic religions all regard Jerusalem in Palestine as their holy city, which is also rare in the world.

At the same time, the highly open Arab Empire has become a bridge for trade and cultural exchanges between the East and the West and preserved the treasures of human culture.

The second stage is the period of the formal division of the Islamic world and the in-depth development of Islamic Civilization (945-1299).

During this period, Arabs lost political power and Islamic civilization became more mature and diversified.

In 945, the Baiyi people belonging to the Persian branch and believing in Shia founded the Baiyi Dynasty.

The dynasty established its capital in Shiraz of Persia, and its rulers seized the political power of harifa of the Abbasid Dynasty.

The latter has since become the spiritual leader of the Islamic world, and its secular power is limited to Baghdad.

Thus, the Islamic world has two supreme centers: the political and military center controlled by the Bayi ruler of Persia (Tabriz) and the spiritual center controlled by the Abbasid Arab caliph of Iraq (Baghdad, which also holds the secular power of the city and its suburbs).

In addition, local dynasties also established their own political centers.

Cordoba and Cairo have become cultural centers in the Arab region.

From the 11th to the 13th century, European feudal lords, businessmen and the Catholic Church took advantage of the division of the Islamic world and successively organized eight crusades to the East.

In 1187, the Muslim army led by Saladin of Egypt wiped out the main force of the Crusades and recovered Jerusalem.

In the later eastward invasion, the Crusades even plundered Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and the Christians in the east also participated in the struggle against the Crusades.

After two centuries of wars, the Islamic Army uprooted the last Crusader stronghold in 1291.

The Crusader’s eastward invasion brought profound disasters to the Islamic world, but objectively it also promoted the exchanges between eastern and Western civilizations.

In 1055, the Seljuk Turks established the Seljuk Empire and replaced the Baiyi people.

Their monarch, Sudan, still recognized the Caliph’s spiritual leadership.

During this period, the Seljuk defeated the Byzantine Empire and entered lesser Asia and the Caucasus for the first time.

From then on, lesser Asia and the Caucasus began Turkization and Islamization.

But the Seljuk Empire soon fell apart.

In 1258, sun xuliewu led the Mongolian army to capture Baghdad, and the Abbasid Dynasty finally perished.

However, in 1260, the Mongolian army was defeated in Syria by the army of Mamluk, Egypt, and stopped the pace of westward advance.

The Mongols established the Ilkhanate in Persia and Iraq (the capital was malagai and Tabriz successively), but the rulers finally accepted Islam.

Although the Islamic world is divided and declining at this stage, Islamic civilization is still developing.

In the social and political field, urima, as a religious scholar, finally formed, thus establishing the triangular political system of Caliph Sudan urima in Islamic countries.

The laws and regulations of Sunni and Shia were further improved, and the Sunni School of religious law and religious education system finally took shape.

The rites and ordinances of Sufi mysticism have also become more perfect.

The combination of orthodoxy and folk Islam has become the organization mode of Islamic society.

Islamic doctrines, pedagogy, philosophy, history, science and technology have also made further development.

On the other hand, after the 10th century, with the formation of the four major Sunni schools of Sharia law and the loss of Arab political power, Sunni jurists began to systematically sort out the legal works of their predecessors, following the popular traditional concept, that is, the so-called “creation (iztihad) door closed”, which restrained the development of Sharia law, The law gradually loses its role in promoting social development.

The third stage was the reunification of the Islamic world (1299-1566), with the emergence of the Ottoman and Safavi empires (the Mughal Empire was also established in South Asia).

The Ottomans belong to the Turkic nomadic tribes in Central Asia, and later entered central Asia and attached to the Seljuk.

In 1299, the Ottomans announced the founding of the people’s Republic.

The Ottomans have strong religious enthusiasm and firm Jihad spirit, and have been successful in foreign wars.

They marched into the Balkans in the mid-14th century.

In 1453, Sultan Mohammed II captured Constantinople.

After that, the city became the capital of the Empire and changed its name to Istanbul.

By 1574, the Ottomans had conquered the Balkans, Egypt, Oman, Yemen and the entire Maghreb except Morocco, established a huge empire and unified the Islamic world to a great extent.

Moreover, with the help of the Empire, Islam spread to the Balkans and Cyprus.

The Ottomans established a strong guard army (ganeshari), with elite cavalry, artillery and Navy, so they were invincible in military affairs.

Due to its territory in the Balkans and the Black Sea and the strong military strength of the Empire, Ottoman had frequent war and diplomatic exchanges with the Habsburg dynasty of Austria, Russia, Poland and France, and became an important power participating in European affairs.

Politically, it is more centralized than the Arab Empire.

The Ottoman emperor held the positions of Sudan and Caliph at the same time, which restored the political and religious unity of the Caliph position in the Arab Empire to some extent.

Moreover, the government controlled urima, implemented the hierarchical system of religious courts and economic colleges, and the Grand Mufti appointed by the government became the leader of the religious community.

The government also provided donations to the Sufi order and influenced the army and Guilds through them.

In Eastern Persia, ilKhanChina split into several small countries in the mid-14th century.

Later, the Timur Empire and the two Turkmen dynasties of black sheep and white sheep ruled Persia successively.

In the late 15th century, the Safavi family in Persia rose.

In 1502, Ismail of the family destroyed the Aries Dynasty and established the Safavid Dynasty (1502-1722).

The new dynasty took Shia as the state religion, which laid the foundation of Persia as a Shia state.

The dynasty made its capital Tabriz (later moved to kazvin and Isfahan), began to transform the army with Western firearms, and waged a long war with Uzbek in the East and Ottoman in the West.

Among them, the war with Ottoman did not end until the middle of the 17th century.

The decline of the Ottoman Empire meant the end of the medieval period and the beginning of modern times.