After the first World War, in order to prevent German invasion, France built a strong defense line in its northeast border area.
This defense line was named after the surname of French army minister a.l.r. magino, so it is called magino defense line.
The Maginot Line began to be built in 1929 and was basically completed in 1940.
The main body of the defense line is hundreds of kilometers, which is made of reinforced concrete and is very solid.
The data show that the top cover of the reinforced concrete fortification of the Maginot line is 3.
5 meters thick and the armored turret is 300 mm thick, which can resist two 420 mm shells that hit directly.
The whole project cost 5 billion francs and the earthwork volume reached 12 million cubic meters.
After taking office, he had a grudge against the Maginot defense line, so he ordered the German military department to design giant guns to attack this solid defense line when Germany and France go to war in the future.
Germany made huge guns as early as World War I, and once deterred Paris, France, the then ally.
Therefore, Hitler was ready to continue to use giant guns to blast through the Maginot line.
So, how powerful is this kind of cannon? Let’s start with World War I.
On the morning of March 21, 1918, Paris, as the rear area, was full of spring.
People breathed fresh air and began a new day.
Although France was still at war with Germany at this time, the citizens of Paris seemed very at ease, because the battlefield was still far away from this beautiful capital.
Suddenly, a shrill scream across the sky, followed by an earth shaking noise from the Bank of the Seine River.
Pedestrians in the street were overwhelmed by the sudden explosion.
After a short hesitation, people looked for air raid shelters everywhere, and the pot exploded in the street.
On the Bank of the beautiful Seine lies the of France.
His great achievements once won France the honor of ruling the European continent.
However, at this moment, the huge explosion has broken the tranquility of Napoleon’s sleeping place.
What weapon is so powerful? That evening, French radio broadcast the news that the enemy pilot successfully flew over the French German border from high altitude and attacked Paris.
Many bombs fell to the ground, causing many casualties.
However, Parisians do not believe what the radio said, because they neither saw the aircraft nor heard the roar of the aircraft.
Moreover, during the first World War, the bombs dropped by the aircraft generally did not produce such strong destructive power.
Just when people panicked, French agents found a German long-range artillery near the French German border and determined that the bombing was launched from here.
People are still skeptical about the news.
The citizens will not be interested in this kind of artillery, which can hit the target at the height of 100 kilometers per second.
If it comes to Paris at the same speed of 100 kilometers, it will not have the ability to hit the target at the same time.
If it comes to Paris at the same height of 100 kilometers, it will not be fired at the same time, Then lower the altitude into the troposphere and finally hit the target.
The whole flight process is similar to that of a ballistic missile.
Its theoretical maximum range is 120 kilometers, but in practical use, it has a range of 131 kilometers.
The German artillery position when shelling Paris was 120 kilometers away from the urban area of Paris.
This is the famous “Paris cannon”.
Practice has proved that dropping a shell in downtown Paris is equivalent to dropping hundreds of shells on the front line, because these huge explosions will seriously frustrate the fighting spirit of the French people – even the capital is not safe.
Where else is safe? At that time, German arms companies manufactured seven “Paris cannons”, but only three were used in combat.
By August 1918, the “Paris cannon” had fired 367 shells at Paris, but its accuracy seemed not very good.
The base of the “Paris cannon” is equipped with specially designed special wheels, so it can quickly transfer positions by using the railway system, which also makes the “Paris cannon” the first member of the train gun family to have ultra long-range strike firepower.
Despite the prestige of the “Paris cannon”, it still could not save the fate of Germany’s failure.
As the situation on the battlefield turned sharply downward, in order to prevent the “Paris cannon” from falling into the hands of the enemy, the German army not only destroyed its design drawings, but also dragged the three cannons back to the factory and put them into the furnace again.
As a result, although the “Paris cannon” is, it is only a flash in the pan, leaving only a few black-and-white photos and endless imagination to future generations.
Now that Hitler wanted to remake the cannon, the Nazis immediately found Krupp Arsenal, the manufacturer who undertook the task of building the cannon, and ordered them to start the construction plan immediately.
Hitler even issued an order to German engineers to design a “super shell that can penetrate one meter thick steel, seven meters thick concrete and 30 meters deep soil”.
Since 1935, after seven years of efforts, another super giant gun was born.
It has a caliber of 800mm, which is enough to make a soldier squat in the gun barrel effortlessly.
In memory of Gustav Krupp, the founder of Krupp Arsenal, Hitler named the gun “Gustav”, while designer mula named the giant gun “Dora” in memory of his wife, and German soldiers like to call it “mostly pull” guns.
In the spring of 1942, the Dora cannon was to be tested.
Hitler and several senior generals arrived at the heavily guarded lugenwald shooting range in high spirits by train.
At noon, the first concrete sabotage bomb was launched, with a warhead of more than 3000 kg and a range of 26 kilometers.
In the afternoon, another grenade of more than 4000 kg was fired, with a range of 47 kilometers.
Hitler was very satisfied with the behemoth.
After acceptance, the cannon was purchased by the military at a high price of 7 million marks.
Although the price is high, it is definitely worth it.
This guy’s gun barrel is 32 meters long.
In combat, the gun is 53 meters long, 12 meters high and 1488 tons.
The shells are also surprisingly large.
The standard grenade pill weighs 4.
81 tons and the pill used to destroy the concrete shelter weighs 7.
It contains 200 kilograms of explosives.
Its power is enough to penetrate the 850 mm thick concrete wall 3 kilometers away.
Such a behemoth encountered great difficulties in assembly, transportation and shooting test.
As far as transportation is concerned, it is necessary to unload all parts and load them separately, and the artillery truck is connected with the two-story buildingThe room is quite.
The whole cannon and the required ammunition need 60 wagons.
Moreover, because the gun body is too wide, the railway with standard width cannot be transported, and special tracks need to be laid.
When testing the ballistic performance, the loader was not perfect, so a crane was used to lift the 4-ton shell to the rear of the gun body, and then a light tank pushed it into the gun chamber.
In order to transport the artillery to the test site, three giant transport trains with special structure were specially designed.
The bridges along the way could not bear such a heavy weight, so the train had to bypass a long curve.
After arriving at the position, first hoist the base with two giant cranes, and then install the gun rack, gun barrel and ammunition.
All the work can be completed only after a major general commands more than 1400 people to fight for three weeks.
In order to prevent Soviet aircraft bombing, anti-aircraft artillery forces and guard aircraft were deployed around the position, and a large number of infantry, patrol police and police dogs patrolled around 10 kilometers day and night.
Once the enemy planes are found to be bombing, the chemical soldiers will immediately set off a smoke screen for cover.
The total number of people participating in command, operation and security has reached more than 4000.
Hitler had high hopes for “Gustav cannon” and dreamed of using it to make war miracles, but it was of little use in the early stage of the war.
After the German flank surrounded the Maginot line, they soon forced France to surrender.
Hitler had hoped to use the “Gustav cannon” against the British army in the Strait of Gibraltar, but it was not used in the end.
It was not until June 1942 that the “Gustav cannon” found a place not to be “– when the German army attacked the Soviet city of Sevastopol, the” Gustav cannon “really exerted great power.
The Nazi engineer as like as two peas in the future created another identical clone gun.
However, it was not used much in combat.
It was destroyed by its own people on the way of the defeat of the German army.
Hitler obviously didn’t want it to fall into the hands of the Soviets.
In the Second World War, Germany’s super cannon, in addition to “Dora”, also has the famous Carl gun, which has a caliber of 600mm.
The cannon is carried by a body weighing 124 tons.
In order to facilitate transportation, the German army sometimes hangs “Carl” on two special locomotives as a railway.
The maximum speed is only 10 kilometers per hour.
Due to its earth shaking power when it is launched, the Carl cannon is also known as “Thor’s hammer”.