in the era of Nazi totalitarian rule, “Viva” became the whole of German spiritual life. Since 1933, every corner of the Third Reich, whether in public or in the most intimate private communication space, will see the most exaggerated performance form of Germany: two legs close together, stand upright, palm down, right arm inclined, raised to the top of the eyebrow, accompanied by this rather funny action, Will hear the uniform cry of “Hi, Hitler”.

this article was originally published in the fifth issue of the book house in 2009. The original title was “from ‘Imperial greetings’ to the language of the Nazi Empire”

. This article is reproduced on the cultural and historical channel for the purpose of information dissemination only. It does not mean to agree with its views and positions.

Hi, Hitler!

a joke once spread in Nazi Germany:

one day, Tennessee and sell were walking in the field. Tennes stepped on a pile of pig manure carelessly and nearly fell. Before he could stand still, he immediately stretched out his right hand and shouted, “Hi, Hitler!” Sal asked with concern, “are you okay? There’s no one else here.” Tennessee replied solemnly, “I follow the rules! Don’t the rules say: if you enter a shop, you must call Hitler long live?”

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no one will forget that in the era of Nazi totalitarian rule, “long live Hitler” became the whole of German spiritual life. Since 1933, every corner of the Third Reich, whether in public or in the most intimate private communication space, will see the most exaggerated performance form of Germany: two legs close together, stand upright, palm down, right arm inclined, raised to the top of the eyebrow, accompanied by this rather funny action, Will hear the uniform cry of “Hi, Hitler”. Even in people’s letters to and from each other and on the payroll, they will take “greetings to Hitler, long live Hitler” as a greeting, and then sign their names.

people may remember that at the opening ceremony of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, when the officials and athletes of the British and French sports delegations entered the stadium, they even straightened their right arms and saluted Hitler on the podium. In 1935, Hitler’s greetings were prominently listed in the legend of “greetings” and ranked first.

during the Nazi rule, Hitler’s greetings dominated the communication between people. When shoppers enter the store, they hear the service greeting: “Hi, Hitler! What can I do for you?” The answer must also be serious and meticulous, “Hi, Hitler! I want to buy shirts.” At that time, “bread baking molds were made into the shape of Nazi symbols; when visiting, guests would choose vases with the words’ long live Hitler ‘as gifts; even the elastic rubber toys received by the children also extended their arms to salute Hitler; portraits of Hitler taken by photographer Hoffman were hung everywhere in the guest rooms of every family”. No field can escape this madness of leader worship. Enamel signs with the words “long live Hitler from Germany” are filled with squares, streets, telephone poles and street lamp posts in major German cities; Even kindergartens and schools have become training centers for practicing Hitler’s greetings. Scholar Zhao Yiheng described in the article “the hand that held the hand of the head of state”. Hitler’s admirers seriously said: “Congratulations, you just shook a hand, this hand once held a hand, and this hand once held the hand of the head of state.” Today, it seems that the affectation of confession was a feeling of pride and glory at that time. It really came from the bottom of the hearts of ordinary Germans.

this article was originally published in the fifth issue of the book house in 2009. It was originally titled “from ‘Imperial greetings’ to the language of the Nazi Empire”

. This article is reprinted on the cultural and historical channel. This article is only for the purpose of information dissemination and does not mean to agree with its views and positions.

Hi, Hitler!

a joke once spread in Nazi Germany:

one day, Tennessee and sell were walking in the field. Tennes stepped on a pile of pig manure carelessly and nearly fell. Before he could stand still, he immediately stretched out his right hand and shouted, “Hi, Hitler!” Sal asked with concern, “are you okay? There’s no one else here.” Tennessee replied solemnly, “I follow the rules! Don’t the rules say: if you enter a shop, you must call Hitler long live?”

,

,

,

no one will forget that in the era of Nazi totalitarian rule, “long live Hitler” became the whole of German spiritual life. Since 1933, every corner of the Third Reich, whether in public or in the most intimate private communication space, will see the most exaggerated performance form of Germany: two legs close together, stand upright, palm down, right arm inclined, raised to the top of the eyebrow, accompanied by this rather funny action, Will hear the uniform cry of “Hi, Hitler”. Even in people’s letters to and from each other and on the payroll, they will take “greetings to Hitler, long live Hitler” as a greeting, and then sign their names.

people may remember that at the opening ceremony of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, when the officials and athletes of the British and French sports delegations entered the stadium, they even straightened their right arms and saluted Hitler on the podium. In 1935, Hitler’s greetings were prominently listed in the legend of “greetings” and ranked first.

during the Nazi rule, Hitler’s greetings dominated the communication between people. When shoppers enter the store, they hear the service greeting: “Hi, Hitler! What can I do for you?” The answer must also be serious and meticulous, “Hi, Hitler! I want to buy shirts.” At that time, “bread baking molds were made into the shape of Nazi symbols; when visiting, guests would choose vases with the words’ long live Hitler ‘as gifts; even the elastic rubber toys received by the children also extended their arms to salute Hitler; portraits of Hitler taken by photographer Hoffman were hung everywhere in the guest rooms of every family”. No field can escape this madness of leader worship. Enamel signs with the words “long live Hitler from Germany” are filled with squares, streets, telephone poles and street lamp posts in major German cities; Even kindergartens and schools have become training centers for practicing Hitler’s greetings. Scholar Zhao Yiheng described in the article “the hand that held the hand of the head of state”. Hitler’s admirers seriously said: “Congratulations, you just shook a hand, this hand once held a hand, and this hand once held the hand of the head of state.” Today, it seems that the affectation of confession was a feeling of pride and glory at that time. It really came from the bottom of the hearts of ordinary Germans.

personal worship of leaders, The Nazi organ newspaper People’s observer once commented: “Our task is to turn the noble greeting of Hitler… Into a kind of greeting full of faith of the German people… When we use German greetings to those who are not determined and try to maintain their good character, we must strictly supervise them so as not to cheat or lie to their face when using German greetings Hitler and Adolf always remind us of the task in our daily life. It is a form of practice of national socialism that each of us should practice. ” With such a measure, and raising whether to salute the Nazis to the height of “loyalty to the head of state”, no one can predict what will happen if they neglect to salute or fail to salute at all under the wolf like surveillance of the SS and the Gestapo. This fear of the uncertain future is enough to make people yield to the “German greetings” with fear. “That was probably 1934 or 1935,” ingelberg Schneider ruchov recalled. My father went to Charlottenburg to work. When he came to Berlin Avenue, today’s Otto sur Avenue, he stood on the sidewalk with others to cross the road. Then a group of Hitler Youth came in line. It was a group of children aged 15 to 17 Child, the first one is holding a flag. Before my father could react, he got a heavy slap in the face. The 17-year-old boy who hit him also slapped the passers-by around him and said fiercely, “a group of pigs. When he saw the flag, he didn’t salute in time.”

of course, this kind of “German greeting” will also produce ironic absurdity under the violence and terror. At that time, there was a juggler traubert pat from padborn in Germany. He domesticated a gorilla. In response to the government’s call, he trained gorillas to do Nazi rites. After being trained, the gorilla achieved immediate results. It not only imitated the salute of “Hi Hitler” vividly, but also enjoyed it. As long as someone came to the door, the gorilla immediately clumsily stretched out its right arm and always saluted the Nazis in an exemplary way. Especially when he saw the person in uniform, he couldn’t restrain his excitement. He stood at attention and saluted while shouting. Before long, someone tipped off this to the authorities, and a ban followed: orangutans must not be allowed to send “German greetings” to the head of state, or they will be killed. This is a big deal. If it involves the worship of the “head of state”, it is not a trifle. Such international jokes are absolutely not allowed. As a result, the juggler was recruited by the authorities on the charge of disrespect and sent to the cold Russian front. Finally, the absurd story ended with a tragic ending.

German sociologist Tilman allert’s book “German greetings – a history of a disastrous gesture” said that during the Nazi rule, Hitler’s greetings were an expression of loyalty, and its implementation and promotion most clearly illustrated the collective degradation of Germany. Indeed, “what kind of people are equipped with what kind of leaders”. Through Hitler’s greetings, a body posture that brought endless disaster, it is not difficult to see that autocracy is not just a person’s battle, but a group behavior. It can be said that Hitler’s greeting ceremony is an evil act forged by the Nazis in the name of collective will. When people voluntarily or forced to make unconditional obedience to the imperial head of state, it means the recognition of the Nazi system and the evolution of verbal commitments into the obligation of loyalty to Hitler’s regime. This recognition and loyalty to Fascism forces people to finally give up moral self-consideration and not only completely abandon personal dignity and value, It also gives away the rights of individual freedom and democracy. It can be said that Nazi rule was carried out in the fanatical cheers of the masses. When most Germans learned to obey unconditionally and abandoned all personal freedom and democratic rights, the unreasonable will of the masses dragged their nation and the whole world into the abyss of disaster.

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half a century has passed. When people continue to reflect on why fascism can run rampant for a while and do everything, and Hitler and Nazism can dominate Europe violently and wantonly, they have to pay attention to the nuances that bring endless disasters and dominate human communication And spread the heavy threat of Hitler’s greetings through severe sanctions. How did it come into being? How is it spread? When people face mandatory greeting orders, what choices do they make? What is the cultural root of this phenomenon?

in the philosophy of fascism, violence has always played a central role. If violence is not used, fascism cannot obtain power, and even if it takes power, it cannot maintain it. Mussolini has a famous saying: “the socialists ask what our program is? Our program isSmash the heads of the socialists. ” We might as well follow this idea to analyze how the German Nazis used violence and terror to promote the “party culture” and enslave the people.

the language of the Nazi Empire

is the external expression of human thought. In the words of linguists, “language is the material shell of thought” and one of the most important communication tools and ways of existence of mankind. People always express, explain and exchange their thoughts through a certain language environment. Older people will never forget that in that very era, most Chinese people were used to explaining everything around them in an official language, including China’s past and present. For example, when it comes to China’s history, we will unconsciously divide China’s society into “primitive society”, “slave society”, “feudal society” and “semi feudal and semi colonial society” on a fixed scale; When it comes to the relationship between people, we will also use an almost paranoid hostile standard to divide society into five categories: red five categories, puppies, revolutionary comrades, class enemies, proletarian comrades in arms, rich people against bad right; If you want to attack someone with old ideas, you will say that he is very “feudal”; If you don’t like the intercourse between the opposite sex, you will say “there is a problem of life style”. These languages can be blurted out without thinking. As for terms such as “rightists”, “gangsters”, “capitalist gangsters”, “smelly old nine”, “children who can be educated”, “private criticism”, “revolution in the depths of the soul” and so on, I’m afraid only Chinese people living in that special era can understand. These languages, which were considered to be the most revolutionary at that time, deeply penetrated into everyone’s consciousness and became a group of labels added by people’s subjective consciousness to the objective world. It seems that only by relying on such labels can people see the external world with different images and sort out the general outline of their own mind. In other words, it is by relying on them, Only in the consciousness of people at that time can the objective “real life” be constructed.

language itself is a cultural phenomenon. As a culture, it usually includes two parts: internal values; Explicit and implicit behavior and thinking patterns. Therefore, the language of the Third Reich under Hitler’s rule is essentially the Nazi “party culture”, which is a way of thinking, discourse system and behavior model based on the values of fascism. It contains not only the fascist culture forcibly constructed and instilled by the Nazis, but also the variant culture that the people had to accept and use in order to survive and protect themselves under the rule of violence and lies of Hitler’s regime. Victor Klemperer, a German philologist, pointed out: “Nazism enters people’s flesh and blood through some individual words, phrases and language forms imposed by millions of repetitions and accepted mechanically and unconsciously.”

after the Nazis seized power, Hitler correctly analyzed the reasons for the failure of German official propaganda in the past: that is, the power authorities underestimated the importance of public opinion propaganda and failed to realize that effective propaganda is not only the people’s cognition of the legitimacy of the power of the ruler, but also the ruling authorities controlling the political situation, guiding the people A means of eliminating hostile forces. As Hitler imagined, Nazi propaganda was to put forward some points to the masses and repeat them endlessly. Hitler and his assistant Goebbels believe that the people are slow and lazy, and their memory is fragile. They only respond to the simplest ideas repeated thousands of times. Therefore, people are “feminine” in activities and thinking, which is driven by emotion rather than rationality. Trivial or cumbersome explanations have no place. Publicity must be positive or negative, either this or that, white or black, enemy or friend, right or wrong. Therefore, the ability to look at problems dialectically is the opposite of publicity.

we say that the terror of Sith propaganda is different from other autocracies because it establishes its own public opinion authority in the process of constantly creating and attacking hostile elements (those who do not cooperate with it will be eradicated as hostile forces). At the same time, it also has large-scale macro control and pervasive subtle penetration, and it skillfully and organically combines this control and penetration with violent terrorist means.

during the period of the Weimar Republic, the Weimar constitution was a constitution to protect the capitalist system. It provides for certain civil rights, including the right to freedom of the press. The Constitution stipulates: “the people have the right to express their opinions freely in language, writing, printing and pictures within the scope of the law… No one shall obstruct or inspect.” This provides a relatively loose environment for the development of bourgeois newspaper industry. At that time, the German newspaper industry was unprecedentedly prosperous. In 1914, there were 2200 newspapers in the country, which rose to 4703 in 1932, with a total sales of 25 million copies, which was the peak in the history of German newspaper industry. Germany became the first country in Europe to have free press.

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precisely because of the most important civil rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of the press, it has laid the foundation for the prosperity and prosperity of Europe and objectively formed an important condition for the emergence of Marxism. It is precisely because Germany was the first country in Europe to have freedom of the press. Therefore, works criticizing capitalism and bourgeois countries and calling on the people to overthrow bourgeois rule, such as the Communist Manifesto of Marx and Engels, can be published, distributed and disseminated under the capitalist country system. If there is no freedom of the press, How can great Marxism be born?

reviewing the history of the Third Reich, we can clearly see that the Nazi autocratic regime exercised strict control over all fields of society, from politics, military, economy, culture to all other fields of social life, even all aspects of personal life, through various means. Before seizing power, the Nazi’s struggle strategy was to make every effort to make noise in order to attract public attention and votes. Once they have power, they will establish a monopoly on publicity and control of public opinionControl and eliminate all potential opponents. For Goebbels, as long as the Nazis were in power, they should spend most of their time and energy monitoring and guiding news and public opinion. In terms of culture, the Nazi regime attached great importance to the indoctrination and propaganda of ideology, but despised the cultural cause itself. After Hitler came to power, he immediately appointed Goebbels as the propaganda leader of the Nazi Party and set up the national education and propaganda department in his charge, but there was no department responsible for cultural undertakings. Hanjost, President of the German Theatre Association during the Nazi rule, once expressed the voice of the Nazi authorities towards culture through the protagonists in his works: “as soon as I hear the word ‘culture’, I want to take out my pistol immediately.”

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are precisely out of the attention paid to public opinion propaganda. The Nazi authorities began to promote the process of ideological “integration” before they could firmly sit on their throne. First of all, with the help of violence, the Nazis deprived their opponents of the right to speak through economic, administrative and other means, and even carried out assassinations in order to eliminate their opponents. The press was the most important tool of public opinion in the Nazi propaganda work. Soon after the Nazi government came to power, it strengthened its control over the press. On October 4, 1933, the Nazi authorities promulgated the press law, which stipulates that only Germans and Fascists of pure Germanic descent can obtain the qualification of editors and journalists, and the spouse must not be Jewish. For those newspapers, editors and journalists who are not the Nazi party or do not want to become the Nazi party, the Nazi authorities regard them as a thorn in the eye and a thorn in the flesh. Goebbels, the main newspaper of Germany, came first. Voss daily is a German liberal newspaper. It was founded in 1704. Frederick the great and the poet Lessing were its writers. At that time, the prestige and influence of Voss daily were comparable to that of the British times and the American New York Times. On the pretext that the owner of the publishing company, Ulstein, the investor of the newspaper, was Jewish, the Nazi authorities closed the newspaper, which had been in circulation for 230 years, on April 1, 1934. The Berlin daily, another world-famous liberal newspaper, was forced to close down at the end of 1936. Frankfurt daily, Germany’s third liberal newspaper, was forced to eliminate Jewish bosses, editors and journalists under the coercion of the Nazi authorities and continued to publish, but it only survived until 1943.

according to the provisions of the newspaper law of the Nazi authorities, editors of all kinds of newspapers must abide by the requirement that “there shall be nothing in the newspaper that misleads the masses, serves private interests, may weaken Germany’s external or internal strength, the common will of the German people, Germany’s national defense and its culture and economy… Or that is detrimental to Germany’s honor and dignity”. Therefore, what kind of news and comments should be written and what kind of reports should not be published. All newspapers and periodicals must accept the orders of the Nazi authorities. Therefore, the newspapers and periodicals in Germany will inevitably show the phenomenon of uniform public opinion and silence. Although the German traditional culture has the characteristics of superstitious authority and blind obedience, and the German nation is a nation under strict control and naturally used to obeying authority, it is tired of such monotonous and boring newspaper publicity over time, and the sales of newspapers have plummeted. Due to the loss of readers, many newspapers and periodicals can not continue to survive. In the first four years of the Third Reich, the number of newspapers fell to 2671, a decrease of nearly half.

secondly, Hitler and Goebbels creatively combined the language of the Nazi party culture through Nazi aesthetics, Nazi linguistics and Nazi pedagogy, so as to form a discourse situation. Then, such discourse situation can guide, change and hint people’s thinking, so as to make the people accept fascism imperceptibly. The greatest creation of Nazi culture is to divide culture into “German culture” and “non German culture” according to the principle of racism. They strongly advocate and advocate the so-called “German culture” and strongly reject and slander the so-called “non German culture”. In fact, the “German culture” advocated by Hitler’s Nazi regime does not have a clear definition or a complete system. According to the remarks and explanations of Hitler, Goebbels and Nazi theorist Rosenberg, the so-called “German culture” mainly refers to the cultural achievements created by the Germans and the theories and works praising the superiority of Aryan or Germanic descent. Therefore, when referring to people in Nazi language, they always use collective names with individual faces removed, such as “people”, “enemy”, “German”, “Jewish”, “Jewish bastard”, “people” and “Germanic nation”. As far as the “people” often talked about by Hitler and Goebbels are concerned, it is not difficult to see the intention of this word after careful consideration. It lies not only in its innumerable number, but also in its moral and value color. Because in the mouth of the rulers, “the people” have great moral power and values. Whoever owns the people will occupy the commanding height of morality and “hold the people to make the world”. So who is this “people”? It seems that everyone knows, but no one can tell. Every “self” can think of himself as “the people”, but everyone can be called “the enemy of the people” at any time. It is precisely because the “people” have the commanding height of morality and moral legitimacy that everyone had to agree with it under the Nazi regime; And because of the integrity and collectivity of the word “people”, everyone thinks or hopes that they should belong to it. Therefore, the word “people” has a new meaning in the Nazi language, that is, the “people” not only does not include the “self”, but also wants to eliminate the “self”. In the Nazi culture, the existence of the human body – man itself has lost the legitimacy of survival with the indoctrination and strengthening of the language of the third empire. To borrow Goebbels’ own words: “in the Third Reich, no German felt that he was his own citizen.” It was precisely under the deception, confusion and threat of the Nazi government that almost all Germans, men, women and children, were transformed by the Nazi culture and produced a “perfect group consciousness”, which is exactly the ideal state pursued by totalitarian countries. “A characteristic of lies and terror. This evil propaganda is determined by the totalitarian nature, because under the conditions of constitutional government and free speech, the public has other sources of information and a variety of information to choose from and judge.

the essence of human beings lies in freedom, in the innovation of future life, and in joining the public sphere to feel the infinite possibility and unpredictability. Totalitarianism is hostile to the individuality of individuals and life. It uses unity, consistency and closeness to eliminate the diversity, openness and richness of life. It uses the so-called “inevitable law” of historical development to eliminate the unpredictability and uncontrollability of human action. In a word, it eliminates freedom.

after Hitler came to power, he gradually turned his propaganda into “power propaganda” and replaced it with indoctrination. “Not only must the state decide the ideological and spiritual development route, but also the state must lead and organize various professions”. Any citizen who disobeys Nazi propaganda will lose his job or go to prison. Arendt reveals the essence of this propaganda in his book the origin of Totalitarianism: “it is not only an integral part of ‘psychological warfare’, but also” ruling a group of completely silent residents. ” According to the theory of A.H. Maslow (1908 ~ 1970), between survival and rationality, survival is the first. The third empire perfectly combines lies and control, and the effect is very effective! This made the propaganda of Nazi “party culture” both terrorist, brazen and justifiable.

after World War II, some European philosophers turned to the study of German Nazi linguistics. The purpose is to explore how the empty language that once bewitched thousands of people caused ideological poverty and hysterical fanaticism by analyzing the grammar and entries of political language.

for today’s people, it is necessary to deeply dissect the once popular third imperial language, because as long as there is freedom to enslave people and totalitarian autocracy, there is bound to be the danger of using brainwashing language to control people’s thoughts, There is also the possibility of using lies and terror to lead people into self deception and self ignorance.