on January 18, 1871, the German Empire was established, which was the first time in history that there was only one Germany. The reason why this incident has had such a great impact is that the new Germany immediately has great power.
on January 18, 1871, the German Empire was announced to be established in the mirror Hall of Versailles Palace. Those in white are.
on January 18, 1871, leaders of 25 German states gathered in the mirror Hall of Versailles Palace to declare the establishment of the German Empire. For the first time in history, there was only one Germany. The reason why this incident has had such a great impact is that the new Germany immediately has great power. Even in today’s world, Germany, which was defeated in the two world wars, and a small Germany that has not been reunified for a long time, still has a strong position in Europe. What in this region, this nation and this new country can influence modern history to such an extent?
in the 20th century, many new countries appeared in Africa and Asia. Most of them began to become independent from their former colonial status. Despite their political independence, these countries are still very backward economically and need the help of other countries to survive. But this did not happen in the German Empire. Germany gathered the regions with the fastest economic development in Europe at that time; It has invented and applied the most advanced military technology and education system; The officials in the upper class can produce national leaders with good style; The defeat of Austria and France also ignited the German people’s supreme national pride and filled them with self-confidence and optimism. Therefore, from the date of its birth, the German Empire is enough to challenge those powers with a long history.
however, in less than 50 years, the German Empire disappeared. Germany’s pride, strength and prosperity were completely submerged after the war and the signing of peace treaties, and Germany was reduced to a second rate country. This article mainly focuses on the impact of the German Empire on the German people and the national strength of Europe, examines the reasons for the failure of such a powerful country in modern governance, and discusses the successor countries of the German Empire, Weimar Republic (1919-1933), Third Reich (1933-1945), East Germany and West Germany after World War II (1945-1990), And now the German Federal Republic.
what is the politics of the new empire like? Many new countries became independent after the national movement in the 20th century. But since then, most countries will experience turbulent times. During this period, they have been formulating the constitution, trying to find a balance between public interests and class interests. There are usually charismatic leaders, such as Fidel Castro, or radical factional fighting in Rwanda in the 1990s.
revolutionaries on the streets of Berlin during the 1848 revolution.
the 1848 revolution strengthened Germany’s power politics
. In fact, a great change also took place in Germany in 1848. At that time, middle-class liberals tried to use the Frankfurt national assembly to integrate multiple German states into a whole, with only one national legislature and an executive branch led by the king of Prussia. But the monarch refused to accept the imperial power granted by the poor, so he sent troops to demobilize parliament in 1849.
this great change not only ended in failure, but also made the rulers strengthen their rule. We need to note that these states have their own political structures and can make their own laws. Facing the threat of the 1848 revolution, in the 1850s, the monarchs of many states suppressed the trend of liberal modernization by issuing conservative constitutions. They restrict the submission of opinions by the legislature. The house of Lords adopts a hereditary or appointment system, and the house of Commons is elected from the rich, which is similar to Prussia. Prussia’s complex three class electoral system ensures that the wealthy upper class can control the electoral process.
similarly, the rulers of the German Confederation restricted the establishment of political organizations or public discussion of political issues, as well as the freedom of the press. If a newspaper criticizes the king or resists the government, the responsible editor will be arrested and imprisoned, all publications involved will be collected and destroyed, and the newspaper will be fined. Many laws were even enforced until 1918. In the face of such a situation, political activities naturally have to be more cautious.
the unification process of Germany
during the 1860s, the German states began to realize economic modernization. Railways have made transportation convenient, and thanks to the abundance of coal reserves in these areas, new industrial methods have emerged. Industrialists and businessmen called for economic union and an end to state regulations restricting trade and industry. Many people hope that Prussia can realize their wishes, because Prussia is the largest and most populous country in the German state. As the chairman of the German Confederation, Austria tried to resist this trend in northern Germany, but failed.
in 1866, the seven week Putin Austria war broke away from Austria’s nominal control. Prussia annexed some German states that supported Austria and led the states in the north of the United States in 1867 to establish the North German Confederation. This Confederation was established on the basis of the agreement and also provided a standard for the future empire. Although Bavaria and the kingdom of wuertenburg and the Principality of Baden did not join the Confederation, they still signed an alliance agreement to ensure that they would help resist if attacked. In the three-month war of 1870, the northern German Confederation and the Southern Alliance of Germany defeated France. The rulers of the German states met in the castle of Louis XIV in the palace of Versailles. These elites of the old forces demanded the establishment of a new state.
Otto von Bismarck
” the national political system founded by Bismarck “
Otto von Bismarck was a key figure in the process of German unification. Bismarck was a diplomat and later became the leader of the Prussian cabinet in 1862. He was also the main creator of the new constitution. It is necessary to note that they did not hold a constituent assembly. Bismarck’s constitution is essentially a treaty that guarantees the integrity of states. It is not surprising Surprisingly, the constitution has no bill of rights, and these liberal definitions apply only to independent countries.
the federal government is more like the United Nations than the United States of America. The federal government has a bicameral legislature. Reichstag, the house of Commons, contains 397 representatives elected by adult men, of whom 235 were elected by Prussia. The house of Lords is the Federal Council, the Bundesrat, which is composed of 58 representatives elected by each kingdom. These representatives can only operate under the guidance of their respective states. Prussia has 17 members who can veto proposals they don’t like.
the federal government has no cabinet, only the prime minister who reports to the emperor. Bismarck played such a role. As the leader of Prussia’s internal affairs and the foreign minister of Prussia, he eventually became the most powerful man in Prussia. All federal laws need to be approved by the German imperial Parliament and the federal Senate, and the prime minister and monarch also need to sign for approval. In fact, the Reich has little chance to invent and pass a bill by itself. Obviously, the system was created to retain the traditional power elite. Although the national government has strengthened the management of other policies, it is mainly responsible for foreign policy and military policy. Of course, the responsibility here emphasizes the executive power rather than the power of the legislature.
all imply that the traditional elite suspect that ordinary people may threaten national rule. Interestingly, Bismarck’s constitution tends to convince voters that the government is hostile and unresponsive. This was evident in the early years of the German Empire. The struggle against Roman Catholicism was launched in kumpurf’s political struggle against the Roman Catholic Church. In 1878, he urged the Reich parliament to outlaw the German Social Democratic Party and close the publishing house.