The ancestors of Czechoslovaks once established the ancient kingdom of Bohemia, which was annexed by the Habsburg empire in the 16th century, and Czechoslovakia regained its independence in 1918.
There are developed military industries, hundreds of thousands of well-equipped and well-trained troops, and strong fortifications known as the “Czech Maginot Line” to resist the invasion of foreign enemies.
In 1925, Czechoslovakia and France signed the alliance treaty.
In 1935, it signed the mutual assistance treaty with the Soviet Union.
France and Germany have been enemies for generations, and the Soviet Union wants to die.
As an ally of France, a democratic country protected by the Soviet Union, and a product of the peace treaty deeply hated by the Germans after the first World War, Nazi Germany and nature cannot tolerate Czechoslovakia.
More importantly, Czechoslovakia is located in Central Europe and has an important strategic position geographically.
It is a major obstacle for Hitler to invade and expand eastward and solve Germany’s “living space”.
Therefore, after Germany annexed Austria, Czechoslovakia naturally became the next prey.
One of the important reasons why Nazi Germany immediately targeted Czechoslovakia after annexing Austria was the inaction of Britain and France at that time.
On March 17, 1938, British Prime Minister Chamberlain rejected the Soviet Union’s proposal to hold a “four Nation Conference” to discuss the issue of stopping further German aggression.
Naturally, Hitler no longer paid attention to France.
In fact, as early as June 24, 1937, von blomburg presided over the formulation of the “Green Plan” for invading Czechoslovakia according to Hitler’s order.
On November 5 of the same year, Hitler explained this plan in detail.
He asked the senior German generals to “carry out a lightning speed” and “raid on the Czechs”, and determined that the possible time for the implementation of this plan was 1938.
Shortly after Germany conquered Austria, that is, on April 21, 1938, Hitler summoned Keitel to discuss how to modify the “Green Plan” according to the current situation, and immediately launched various preparations.
The Germans in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia became the pawns of Nazi Germany’s aggression against Czechoslovakia.
In October 1933, the Sudeten Germans established the “Sudeten German motherland front” headed by Conrad Henley, and changed its name to the “Sudeten German Party” in 1935.
Hitler secretly provided weapons and funds for the party.
By the time of the German Austrian merger, the party had become the “fifth column” in Czechoslovakia and was ready to carry out Hitler’s orders at any time.
On March 28, 1938, Henlein went to Berlin to accept Hitler’s order.
Hitler instructed him to make unacceptable demands to the Czech government.
On April 24, at the Congress of the Sudetenland German Party held in Carlsbad, Henlein put forward the program of complete “autonomy” of the Sudetenland region, calling for the release of imprisoned Nazi political prisoners.
Enjoy the full freedom to publicize national socialism.
Compensation for economic losses since 1919.
Change the foreign policy of Czechoslovakia and the French Soviet Union against Germany.
Obviously, Czechoslovakia will no longer be an independent country if the requirements of Sudetenland Germany to join the party are met.
The Benes government agreed to release political prisoners, but refused to implement the requirements of “autonomy” of Sudeten region.
On May 9, Henlein announced that the negotiations between his party and the Czech government had broken down.
In mid May, Henlein elements began to distribute military advice letters in the country to advise the people to give up resistance.
The Sudeten German Party also announced that the municipal government election scheduled for May 22 is a referendum on the integration of Sudeten District into Germany.
On May 16, Hitler asked the unified command of the national defense army, “once mobilized”, how many divisions in the Czech front “can advance within 12 hours at any time”? On May 17, he was eager to learn about the fortifications in the Czech Republic.
On May 20, Keitel submitted a new draft under the “Green Plan” to Hitler.
At the same time, the German press reported the mobilization of the German army.
On this urgent occasion, on the afternoon of May 20, under the auspices of President Benes, the Czech cabinet held an emergency meeting, which decided to immediately implement partial mobilization, and the army entered the border fortification.
At that time, European countries also expressed their positions one after another.
France reiterates its commitment to aid Czechoslovakia immediately.
The Soviet Union said that it was ready to provide assistance if the Czech government asked.
Through its ambassador to Germany and foreign minister, Britain has repeatedly pointed out the seriousness of the situation to Germany, warning that it is difficult to predict whether Britain will stay out of the war in Europe.
There were no reports on the German government’s attempt to ease the tension on the Czech border in Berlin on May 23.
On May 26, Hitler ordered Henlein to resume negotiations with Benes.
On May 28, Hitler, who felt greatly insulted, announced a major decision to senior officers of the national defense force at the prime minister’s office, saying that he would “completely solve the Sudetenland problem” and “erase Czechoslovakia from the map”.
Since then, Nazi Germany began to be busy formulating the final plan of Czechoslovakia.
By the end of the summer of this year, all preparations for the invasion of the Czech Republic had been fully completed.
On September 3, Hitler studied various arrangements for invading the Czech Republic with the chief of staff of the general command Keitel and the commander in chief of the army blaucci in berghoff, and decided that all field troops would enter positions along the German Czech border on September 28.
In these months, Hitler felt very happy because he received a lot of good news.
On June 8, German ambassador to the Soviet Union Schulenburg reported to Berlin that the Soviet Union was unlikely to send troops to assist Czechoslovakia.
German ambassador to Poland von mouch kept reporting to Berlin that Poland was not only unwilling to let the Soviets pretend to aid Czech Republic with troops and aircraft, but also coveted Czech territory.
On August 3, Chamberlain sent a member of the house of Commons, rensieman, to Czech Republic to “investigate” and act as a “mediator” of the Sudetenland German crisis.
In fact, his real mission was to pave the way for the transfer of Sudeten to the Germans.
Hitler also did not forget to work on Hungary, which had a territorial dispute with Czechoslovakia.
On August 23, when Hitler received Hungarian Regent holti and members of the Hungarian government, he provoked them with ulterior motives and said, “anyone who wants to sit at the table must at least help the kitchen.
” In the face of internal and external difficulties,.