Germany’s aggressive expedition
in the Second World War as a world people’s war against fascism, the second world war is a war with the largest scale, the most serious harm, the longest duration, the most participating countries and the widest scope, which has had a very huge and far-reaching impact on the human world. Among the three fascist countries that launched the war, Germany became the “axis” of the fascist axis. World War II spread to Eurasia and Africa by a series of long-range aggression and expansion of German fascists.
after World War I, the group of allies defeated the group of allies. After the war, the emperor of the German Empire abdicated, Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles, and the Weimar Republic was established. The Treaty of Versailles imposed extremely harsh economic and military sanctions on Germany. The German empire lost 13% of its territory and 12% of its population. Germany was disarmed, the national defense force was controlled below 100000, and was not allowed to have an air force. The harsh and even excessive punishment measures made Germany generally have strong resistance and aversion to the Treaty of Versailles, and triggered a strong national revenge among ordinary people. On the other hand, the weakness of Weimar Republic in the face of domestic and foreign aggression provides an opportunity for the rise of extreme right-wing forces in Germany.
the German National Socialist Workers’ Party (hereinafter referred to as the Nazi party) led by Adolf claimed that the root of Germany’s plight was the harsh terms imposed on Germany after the war, the cowardly Weimar Republic and the Jews who were alleged to hold the national economic lifeline. In 1933, the Nazi Party had become the largest party in Congress. On August 2, 1934, the president, marshal Hindenburg, died. Hitler succeeded the president in accordance with the Constitution and became the only head of state with real power in the Third Reich. From 1936 to 1937, he successively signed the anti communist international agreement with Japan and Italy, forming the fascist axis; In the same year, he violated the Treaty of Versailles and drove into the Rhine demilitarized zone. This series of actions increased Hitler’s appetite, eventually led to the German raid on Poland and announced the outbreak of World War II.
(1) expedition to Eastern Europe: Germany raided Poland
. On March 21, 1939, Germany issued an ultimatum to Poland, asking Poland to cede Danzig region and give Germany the right to build roads and railways in Polish corridors, which was rejected by Poland. On March 23, Britain and France formed a military alliance to ensure Poland’s security. After Poland allied with Britain and France under the threat of German attack, the general command also formulated a combat plan against Germany code named “western plan”, but it was much inferior to the German army in terms of number and equipment. In order to avoid fighting on the eastern and Western fronts, the German army signed the Soviet German non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union on August 23 and reached a secret agreement on jointly dividing Poland.
at 4:45 on September 1, 1939, German airmen, under the cover of the sky and with the support of more than 2300 aircraft, carried out “Blitzkrieg” raids on Polish airports, transportation hubs and railways, announcing the full outbreak of World War II. In the face of the German raid, the Polish army was caught off guard. 500 first-line aircraft were blown up at the airport, the transportation hub and command center were damaged, and the troops fell into chaos. At this time, the German army took advantage of the situation to break through the Polish defense line. At 10:00 on the same day, Hitler announced to Congress that the German army had invaded Poland and Germany entered a state of war. At 9 a.m. on September 3, Britain issued an ultimatum to Germany, asking Germany to provide a truce guarantee before 11 a.m., otherwise it would declare war on Germany. In the afternoon, France issued a similar ultimatum. Germany ignored. The Polish government repeatedly asked the allies for immediate military support. However, although Britain and France formally declared war on Germany on September 3, in fact, they did not give Poland any substantive assistance. The Allied Command, which has advantages in both military strength and weapons, did not take firm action. The British and French troops have always responded passively, violating the promises made by the two governments to Poland and ignoring their own strategic interests. Behind this practice is the desire to lead the war of German aggression eastward to the Soviet Union. The German army continued to advance rapidly into Poland and attacked Warsaw from the East and south. On September 15, the German army occupied Lublin and approached Brest. On September 16, the German army formed a siege of the main force of the Polish army. On the same day, the Polish government withdrew to Romania. On the pretext that the Polish government no longer existed, the Soviet Union brazenly tore up the Soviet Polish non aggression treaty and sent troops to Poland. On September 18, the German and Soviet armies met in Brest Litovsk. On the 19th, 190000 people of the Polish Army surrendered to the Soviet army. On September 25, the German army began shelling the periphery of Warsaw; On the 26th, the German Air Force bombed Warsaw. On the 27th, the Warsaw garrison stopped resistance and officially signed the letter of surrender on the 28th. On the other hand, after the Polish government fled, the Polish patriots continued to struggle with the aggressors, but only occupied some isolated resistance strongholds. On October 6, the German combat operation in Poland ended. The battle of
in Poland made Polish residents suffer great sacrifices. The death toll in Warsaw alone reached nearly 250000, tens of thousands of innocent citizens were injured, and about 10000 poles were shot and killed in the German massacre. During the war, the German army successfully implemented the “Blitzkrieg” for the first time, which showed the power of the tank corps to carry out large-scale, deep and rapid assault under the coordination of the aviation corps.
(2) expedition to northern Europe: the battle of Denmark and Norway
in order to strengthen the northern defense line, ensure the safety of the first-line iron ore transportation in Sweden, and pose a threat of strategic siege to Britain from the East, the German Army decided to seize the Scandinavian base. At the same time, the significance of the Scandinavian campaign is that it is conducive to Germany’s planned war against the Soviet Union and control the export of the Baltic Sea. After occupying Poland, the German general command formulated a plan to capture Norway and Denmark, code named “Weser River exercise”, which planned to carry out sudden landing and airborne in Denmark and Norway at the same time. As both Denmark and Norway are neutral countries, their troops are small and face the German unificationLater, the occupation of Leningrad was regarded as one of the primary objectives of invading the Soviet Union. The German command believes that the capture of Leningrad is not only of great political and economic significance, but also of great strategic significance. On July 1, 1941, the German army officially launched an attack on Leningrad. On July 10, the German army launched an attack on the Soviet army in the southwest of Leningrad. Until the end of July, the German army paid the price of heavy losses. At the end of August, the German army changed its deployment, launched another attack on Leningrad along the Moscow Leningrad highway, captured liuban on August 25, occupied tosno on August 29, rose the Neva River on August 30, and cut off all railways connecting Leningrad with other places. After the German army captured the fortress of Biya on September 8, it began to blockade Leningrad, so that the city could only maintain external contact through water and air. At the same time, Hitler also ordered the brutal bombing and shelling of Leningrad, trying to trap the whole city with hunger. On September 9, the German army launched a new attack on Leningrad again, and conducted heavy shelling and air strikes before the attack. In an extremely urgent situation, the Military Commission of the front army under its leadership decided to hold Leningrad even if it was the last person. Since then, Leningrad’s defense has been rapidly strengthened, and the Soviet resistance to the German army has also been greatly enhanced. By the end of September, the front lines close to the southwest and south of Leningrad had stabilized, and the German plan to seize Leningrad at one stroke went bankrupt. In the following months, supplies were transported to Leningrad by water and air from all over the country, ensuring the supply of combat and daily necessities in the besieged city, and transporting out the city’s personnel, factory equipment and cultural treasures for protection. From January to April 1942, Leningrad front army and Volkhov front army tried to break through. Although the two campaigns failed to win or lift the urban blockade due to insufficient troops and command mistakes, they consumed the basic strength of the German army. In 1943, the two front armies of the Soviet army carried out opposite raids, and the blockade of Leningrad was gradually broken through. The German command’s plan to besiege and seize the city in the tight blockade failed. In the summer and autumn battle of 1943, the Leningrad front army and the Volkhov front army took positive action to break the German army’s attempt to go out of the coast of Ladoga lake again and blockade Leningrad again. The Soviet Army cleared the German army from the kirich landing site on the Bank of Volkhov and captured the German army’s solid defense hub siniavino, thus improving its battle situation. In the summer of 1944, Leningrad front army and Karelia front army defeated the German strategic group on the north wing of the Soviet German battlefield when the red flag Baltic Fleet, Ladoga Lake fleet and Onega Lake fleet participated in the war, which doomed Finland to withdraw from the war. The security of Leningrad was fully guaranteed, and Karelia Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic was largely liberated. The northern wing of the German strategic route was on the verge of complete collapse. The battle of Leningrad finally ended on August 10, 1944, which had a great impact on the combat operations in other parts of the Soviet German battlefield and contained all the heavy German and Finnish troops. On the day of celebrating the 250th anniversary of the founding of Leningrad, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the presidium of the Supreme Soviet Union and the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union wrote in their congratulatory message: “the isolated city was trapped and fought for 900 days, which was a legendary heroic achievement praised by people in those years and never forgotten by future generations” (Pravda on June 23, 1957).
(5) expedition to Russia: after the failure of the plan of the German army to occupy Petrograd in the battle of
in Moscow, the German army drew up a large-scale attack plan codenamed “typhoon” and prepared to attack Moscow. On November 7, 1941, when the German army was approaching Moscow, a military parade was held in red square, and the troops under review went directly to the front line. From November 15 to 18, the German army launched a fierce attack on Moscow. However, from the first few days, it encountered the tenacious resistance of the Soviet army. The slogan of the capital defenders was “although Russia is large, there is nowhere to retreat, and Moscow is behind!”. From the end of November to the beginning of December, the German army paid a heavy price for attacking Moscow and blocked its progress. After the tenacious defense and many counter raids of the Soviet army from the end of November to the beginning of December, the German attempt to attack Moscow finally went bankrupt. Although the Soviet army was in a state of crisis, it was strong and clear, which consumed the German army. From November 16 to December 15 alone, the German army killed and injured more than 155000 people near Moscow, lost about 800 tanks, 300 guns and nearly 1500 aircraft, and suffered a serious setback in morale. The conditions for the Soviet counterattack had been met. Stalin appointed lieutenant general huasilevsky as acting chief of general staff and worked out a counterattack plan. On December 5, 1941, the counter offensive plan was officially implemented. At this time, the German offensive ability was nearly exhausted, and the Soviet army won the initiative from the German army in the first few days. In early January 1942, the counter offensive in the western strategic direction was completed. The Soviet Army liberated more than 11000 residential areas from the invaders. The assault group attacking Moscow was defeated, which panicked the German army. Hitler demanded to stick to every residential area and not retreat until the last soldier and the last grenade. However, at the beginning of February, the German reinforcements from Western Europe and the northern wing of the central group army group carried out counter raids in the north of chengyukhnov and lejev respectively, encircling the Soviet troops attacking vyazima and olenino, and the situation of the Soviet Army deteriorated sharply. On April 20, the supreme command of the Soviet Army ordered the west to turn to the defense and withdraw the external combat troops, and the battle ended. Germany was defeated miserably for the first time in the Second World War. The victory of the Moscow battle was of great international significance. It made the anti fascist alliance more consolidated and the fascist state group weakened.
Germany’s aggressive expedition in World War II brought disastrous consequences to European countries, with people displaced, homes destroyed and casualties. The reason why the Allied forces retreated steadily in the situation of dominant political, economic and military forces was mainly due to the indecision of Britain, France and other Western powers in their attitude towards German Fascism, the fluke of “drawing the fire of war to the East”, the implementation of a palliative “appeasement policy” towards Germany, which expanded the ambitions of Nazi Germany again and again, and finally burned the fire of war all over the European continent