By the end of 1944, the Soviet army had driven the German army out of the territory of the Soviet Union and entered the German territory in the East Prussia region, liberating part of Poland and some Southeast European countries.
British and American troops are advancing on Germany’s western border.
Berlin was in danger.
On the afternoon of April 22, 1945, the imperial chancellery held its last battle conference Keitel, Yodel, Borman and Krebs attended the meeting.
At the meeting, Yodel proposed to withdraw all troops from the Western Front battlefield to guard Berlin, and Hitler agreed.
According to this proposal, the 12th group army guarding the Elbe defense line will be ordered to return to Potsdam and Berlin to meet the German 9th field group army breaking through the southeast of Berlin.
In order to prevent the Soviet Ukrainian first front army from attacking Berlin, the German command carried out anti assault from the georgitz region to the rear of the front army assault group.
After the German army concentrated its forces, it carried out an assault on the left wing of the Soviet 52nd army and the second group army of the Polish army.
It wedged into the Soviet defense area for 20 kilometers on April 23, but by the evening of April 24, the advance of the fascist German army was stopped.
On April 24, the 8th group army of the first front army of Belarus and the 1st tank group army of the first front army of Belarus joined forces with the 3rd tank group army and the 28th group army of the first front army of Ukraine in the southeast of Berlin, and closed the siege in the west of the city the next day.
The fifth group army of the guards joined forces with the first group army of the US Army in the TOL highland area on the river bank of Yibei.
Thus, by the evening of April 25, the 500000 German army group in Berlin had been surrounded and divided into two parts: Frankfurt Gubin group and urban group in the southeast of Berlin, thus creating conditions for the total annihilation of the German army group.
In view of the successful maneuver of encircling the German Berlin group by the first front army of Belarus and the first front army of Ukraine, the second front army of Belarus no longer has to detour to Berlin from the north.
Therefore, on April 23, the base camp of the Soviet supreme command ordered it to carry out the initial plan of the campaign, that is, to develop the offensive to the West and northwest, and to carry out a circuitous assault on stedin from the West with some troops.
The attack of the main force of the second front army of Belarus began on April 20.
After the front army forcibly crossed the Oder River, it broke through the main defense zone of the German army and pushed forward 20 km to 25 km at the dusk of April 25, which restrained the German tank group army from carrying out counter assault from the north to the Soviet Army encircling Berlin.
In view of the Frankfurt Gubin German army group trying to break through the siege to the West and join the 12th group army, the commander of the first front army of Ukraine ordered a part of the 28th group army and the third group army of the guards to turn to defense.
These troops prepared three defense zones on the route that the German army might break through, laid mines and built solid fortifications, while the other group armies carried out centripetal raids to eliminate the besieged German army group.
The German army used the dense forest to concentrate five divisions in the narrow area, putting together a large military advantage.
On the morning of April 26, the German army carried out an assault on the joint of the 28th Soviet army and the third group army of the guards, breaking through the hastily constructed defense.
The Soviet tanks and infantry regiments fought back continuously with the support of aviation, dividing and annihilating the invading German army.
Part of the forces of the 4th group army and the 13th group army of guard tanks also successfully smashed the assault carried out by the 12th group army of the German army in response to the Frankfurt group.
From April 26 to 28, the group armies of the first front army of Belarus kept tightening the siege, and the German army was threatened with total annihilation.
In the early morning of April 29, after paying a heavy price, the German army broke through the main defense zone of the Soviet army from the junction of the two front armies.
In the afternoon of the same day, nearly 45000 German troops broke through the line of defense in the defense area of the third infantry army of the 28th group army, opened a corridor about 2000 meters wide, and retreated to lukenwald through the corridor.
At the same time, the German 12th group army also launched an impact on this aspect from the west, resulting in a dangerous situation in which the two German groups may meet.
But before nightfall, the Soviet army finally blocked the advance of the German army with resolute action, and divided and surrounded the German army in three independent regions.
On April 30, the fighting intensified.
The German army continued to break through at all costs and pushed 10 kilometers westward in one day.
At dusk, most of the breakthrough troops were wiped out.
However, another group of about 20000 German soldiers finally broke through at the junction of the Soviet 13th group army and the guards 4th tank group army on the night of April 30, and went out to Belize, only three or four thousand meters away from the German 12th group army.
With the support of the second group army of the air force, the two front armies of the Soviet army carried out a resolute assault and eliminated the Frankfurt Gubin German army group at the dusk of May 1, resulting in the collapse of all hopes of the German command for the liberation of Berlin.
The Soviet army captured 120000 German officers and soldiers, and seized more than 300 tanks and heavy artillery, more than 1500 artillery, more than 17000 cars and other military materials.
60000 Germans were killed.
Only a few sporadic German troops fled West into the forest.
Some of the undefeated troops of the 12th German army fled to the other side of the Elbe River through the bridge built by the US Army, where they surrendered to the US Army.
In the direction of Dresden, the German command did not give up its attempt to break through the Soviet defense line in the bauzen area and detour back to the rear of the assault group of the first front army of Ukraine.
After adjusting the deployment, he launched an attack with the strength of four divisions on the morning of April 26, but suffered heavy losses and failed to achieve the expected purpose.
The German attack was blocked by the Soviet army.
The fierce battle between the two sides lasted until April 30.
The German army in this direction was unable to launch another attack and was forced to turn to the defensive.
In this way, through tenacious and active defense, the Soviet army not only smashed the German army’s attempt to detour back to the rear of the assault group of the first front army of Ukraine, but also occupied the landing sites along the Elbe River from Meisen to Lisa, which later became a favorable departure position for attacking Prague.
By this time, the battle in Berlin had reached a climax.
The besieged Berlin garrison had 300000 officers and soldiers, 3000 guns and 250 tanks.
Before the evening of April 25, the German army retreated to the whole urban area and suburbs of the capital, covering a total area of 325 square kilometers.
The eastern and southeastern suburbs of Berlin have the strongest defenses, and solid barricades are intertwined in the streets and alleys.
Everything, even the bombed houses, was used as fortifications.
Air defense shelter, subway station, tunnel and groundIn the war, the ninth group army of Jinwei fought on its left.
The 46th group army also renewed its attack north of Vienna.
At dusk, the tank troops advanced more than 50 kilometers, occupied the city of yaromezhce and approached ihrava.
The Ukrainian fourth front army continued to attack oromutz from May 6 to 7, and liberated the city on May 8.
The 60th, 38th, 1st and 18th group armies of the front army launched an attack on Prague.
On the morning of May 9, the Ukrainian Fourth Front Army met with the Ukrainian second front army.
The eighth and fifth group armies of the air force effectively cooperated with the offensive operations of the fourth and second front armies of Ukraine.
In order to support the Ukrainian second front army, the 17th group army of the aviation force of the Ukrainian third front army also entered the battle.
The left-wing troops advanced 40 kilometers, smashed the German resistance in the ludez region and entered the Czech Republic for combat.
The vanguard troops of the tank group army drove to a place 70 to 80 kilometers away from Prague.
The tanks of the U.S. Army captured the command system of the central guard group, and the tanks of the central guard group were paralyzed.
With the cooperation of the third tank group army and the second polish group army, the third and fifth group armies of the guards completely occupied Dresden at the dusk of May 8, and found and rescued a large number of art treasures in the nests of fascist bandits on the outskirts of the city.
The middle and left-wing forces of the Ukrainian first front army turned to pursue the fleeing enemy who began to retreat in the whole offensive zone.
The second group army of the air force dispatched 2800 sorties on May 8 alone, effectively supporting the combat operations of the ground offensive forces.
At dusk on May 8, the Soviet command urged the fascist German army to surrender unconditionally and ordered them to lay down their weapons before 23:00.
However, the central army group headquarters did not respond.
As the prisoners of the first German tank group army captured in the olomutz area later confirmed, although the German command announced the German surrender to the German army on that day, it immediately issued the instruction that the German army must hurry to withdraw westward in order to surrender to the US Army and refuse to surrender to the Soviet Army: we should continue to fight the Soviet army as much as possible, because only in this way, A large number of German troops can win time to break through to the West.
It can be seen that the German army will never automatically put down the butcher’s knife, and the situation in Prague is still extremely complex.
During the day of May 8, the German command unexpectedly proposed that the prerequisite for agreeing to disarm their troops was to allow them to withdraw westward without interference.
The Czech National Committee made the concession of losing principle due to the persistence of internal bourgeois representatives.
Moreover, the German army also pushed forward the unreasonable request that they hand over light weapons only when they reached the boundary with the US Army, and the Czech National Committee agreed again.
In the evening, some German troops began to withdraw westward, while the SS troops continued to brutally kill urban residents.
On the night of May 8, the third and fourth tank group armies of the Ukrainian first front army advanced 80 kilometers.
At dawn on May 9, its advance troops rushed into Prague from the middle of the March.
Then, the advance troops of the third group army and the 13th group army of the front army entered the city one after another.
On the same day, the rapid cluster of the second and fourth front armies of Ukraine and the advance detachment of the rapid cluster of the 38th group army of the Fourth Front Army of Ukraine also entered Prague.
The tank soldiers of the first brigade of Czech independent tank participated in the battle in the rapid cluster formation of the group army.
On May 9, the Soviet army completely liberated the capital of Czechoslovakia with the active support of the fighting teams in Prague where the uprising broke out.
On May 10, the Soviet army continued to attack rapidly in all directions.
The Ukrainian first front army advanced 40 kilometers in one day and captured about 80000 German soldiers.
272 German planes were seized at the airports of Dresden, strigo, gollitz and liberetz.
The first cavalry army of the guard joined the US Army in the kemnitz region and the first tank group army of the guard joined the US Army in the rokichani region.
The basic strength of the fourth tank group army of the guards advanced to the south of Prague, went out to the area of beneshov, and joined the sixth tank group army of the guards of the second front army of Ukraine.
The left wing of the Ukrainian second front army joined forces with US troops in Pisek region and Czech bujieyovice region in the development attack.
Except that several divisions of the Ostmark group army group operating on both wings of the group were able to escape to the U.S. combat area, the Soviet Army almost surrounded all German groups in Czech Republic.
The besieged German army was forced to surrender after breaking through the siege and fleeing West in despair.
From May 10 to 11, most of the German troops were captured.
While annihilating the besieged groups, the first and second front armies of Ukraine continued to advance westward before meeting with the third group army of the US Army.
On May 11, its troops joined forces with US troops in the karlovifali region and kratovi region of the first front army of Ukraine.
The battle of Prague was the last battle of the Soviet armed forces against Germany.
The first, fourth and second front armies of Ukraine captured about 860000 German officers and soldiers, including 60 generals.