While the United States carried out the Gilbert battle in the central Pacific and seriously damaged the Japanese Navy, great changes also took place in the European battlefield – the Soviet Red army defeated the German army in the battle of grad.

The significance of this victory is not trivial.

It led to two major events that shocked the world.

First, the Italian incident.

On the eve of the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, the president personally wrote to Mussolini, the founder of Italian fascism, imploring the Italian prime minister to come out and appeal for peace in Europe.

Mussolini not only did not reply to Roosevelt’s letter, but also arrogantly approved a few words on the letter: “polio”.

In fact, Mussolini is a big straw bag.

He stabbed France with a dagger in his back when the army went straight to France, and he never won a battle.

If there have never been victorious generals in the world, but there are defeated generals, it is Mussolini.

Stalingrad’s thunder made some insiders of Mussolini’s team see that Hitler could no longer control the war.

They asked Mussolini to get rid of Hitler and find another way out.

Among those who advocated changing horses were Mussolini’s son-in-law, then Italian foreign minister ziano.

In February 1943, Mussolini dismissed ziano from his post as foreign minister and eliminated some of the defeatists he identified in an attempt to strengthen the wartime system through national mobilization.

But the people are going to act.

On March 5, under the leadership of the Italian Communist Party, the workers of the aircraft manufacturing plant in northern Italy held an anti hunger and anti war strike.

The wave of strikes spread rapidly to all major cities in Italy.

The workers even openly put forward the slogan of Mussolini’s resignation.

On July 10, British and American troops landed in Sicily, and the war finally burned to Italy.

The morale of the Italian army has wavered, and Rome has been devastated by the British and American air force.

On July 14, Mussolini convened the Supreme Council of the fascist party.

Mussolini first discovered that he had become a target of public criticism at the meeting.

By 19 votes to 8, the meeting decided to restore the constitutional monarchy and return the command of the army to the king.

Mussolini also believed that the resolution was only a resolution, and he was still him.

Unexpectedly, on the night of July 25, the king summoned Mussolini at the Imperial Palace and said impolitely to the dictator who had been rampant in Italy for 20 years: “my dear leader, it will not do any good to go on like this.

Italy has disintegrated and the soldiers are unwilling to fight any more.

At present, you are a hated person in Italy, and I must arrest you.

” Without waiting for Mussolini to explain, the king’s guard took him up, loaded him into an ambulance and drove directly to the prison.

Mussolini’s downfall made the whole country applaud, and soon a new government headed by Marshal Badoglio was established, and the fascist party also announced its dissolution.

The new government signed a letter of surrender to the British and American Coalition forces on the island of Malta on September 29 and declared war on Germany at the same time.

Second, it has led to a new joint action between the United States and Britain – opening up a second battlefield.

First of all, facts have proved that the German army can be defeated, and more than half of its power has gone, and the allied countries are much safer to land in Europe.

Secondly, if Britain and the United States don’t do it again, they will not be able to explain to the people all over the world, and they will lose their voice in the future peace conference.

Therefore, Roosevelt and repeatedly asked Stalin to hold a meeting of the big three.

On November 28, 1943, on the evening of the day when the U.S. army occupied Tarawa island in the Gilbert battle, the heads of the allies – U.S. President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers Joseph Stalin had dinner at the Soviet embassy in Tehran, Iran.

During the dinner, they discussed the world’s most tragic modernization war.

On the first day of the meeting, Roosevelt was elected the first speaker of the first meeting.

He said: “We are glad to see that the Russians, the British and the Americans are gathered together as a family member for the first time.

Our only purpose is to win the war.

There is no fixed agenda for this meeting in advance.

Anyone can discuss any issue he wants to discuss freely, and can not discuss any issue he doesn’t want to discuss at the same time.

On the basis of friendship, everyone can speak freely without restraint.

” The topic of the “big three” quickly shifted from their current military actions to the post-war political structure, and had a heated exchange of views.

They chose this topic with confidence, because Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin all knew that world peace would be decided by them, not by the Germans and the Japanese.

By the end of 1943, the allies of the anti axis alliance had sent away the darkness of failure and ushered in the dawn of victory at different times and in different ways.

They agreed to open a second battlefield in northern France in May 1944.

After the meeting, Roosevelt concluded that the pace of the Pacific war must be accelerated to quickly open up a second battlefield.

So at the end of 1943, the U.S. military drew up a battle plan to advance into the Pacific Ocean and occupy the Marshall Islands and Mariana Islands.

When he first formulated the central Pacific offensive plan, the general opposed it.

He pointed out that it was too expensive to seize the island with solid defense, and used the Japanese defense on Midway Island as an example to illustrate his point of view.

The bloody battle on Tarawa gave MacArthur the excuse he needed to give full play to his views.

He hoped that the Joint Chiefs of staff would instruct Nimitz to cancel his follow-up action in the central Pacific after seizing the Marshall Islands and let the 5th Fleet turn south to support his attack on Mindanao.

At this meeting, held from 28 to 29 January 1944, MacArthur’s representative easily persuaded the officials at the headquarters of the Pacific Action Committee that they were all opposed to the occupation of the Mariana Islands.

Nimitz accepted the suggestions of the participating officers and said that he would well ensure the implementation of these suggestions.

After the gathering of the “big three”, the United States implemented the plan of attacking the Marshall Islands without delay.

The plan initially required simultaneous attacks on the two Marshall Islands nearest to Pearl Harbor, Maloelap island and voje Island, as well as the Japanese headquarters on kwajalin island in the middle of the reef.

During the discussion, Holland Smith became cautious because of the heavy losses in the World War I in Tarawa.

He told Spruance and Turner that there were not enough backup forces to capture the three islands and reefs at the same time, and persuaded them to make a two-step proposal to Nimitz: first, capture Maloelap and vojeAnd then occupy Kwajalein island.

Nimitz made the opposite decision – to directly capture Kwajalein island through the two outer atolls.

Nimitz believes that the Japanese army has strengthened the defense of the two outer atolls in terms of personnel and materials in advance, while the defense of kwajalin island is relatively weak.

Of course, although there are about 8000 defenders on Kwajalein Island, 2200 of them have no combat training.

The officers who commanded the 5th Fleet to fight in the Gilbert Islands will still command this force to participate in the attack on the Marshall Islands.

On January 31, the U.S. military occupied the small islands close to Roy namore and Kwajalein islands, and deployed artillery on the upper part of the island to control the landing beach within its range.

During the day and night, the newly formed underwater blasting team reconnoitred the road leading to the beach.

In the early morning of the next day, that is, on February 1, after the final bombing of the target Island, the landing forces advanced to the designated beach.

The amphibious armored vehicle rushed to the beach together with the infantry landing craft and amphibious tanks.

As soon as the Marines landed, they quickly occupied the two Islands.

On the afternoon of the 2nd, it was announced that the two islands were all occupied.

The attack on Roy namore was carried out by major general Harry Smith’s newly formed 4th division of the southern Corps.

They had never fought a war and came directly from the United States without a proper opportunity to conduct landing exercises.

As a result, 196 people were killed and 550 injured.

The 7th infantry division of Major General Charles h.

Collett landed on Kwajalein island.

They faced a fairly strong garrison, and because they had selected the narrowest western end of the island as the landing point, they had to advance in a narrow area.

When they completely occupied the island in February, 177 people were killed and about 1000 injured.

Because the battle went smoothly, Spruance did not put the 10000 man land reserve into use, so he could seize the opportunity to step up the occupation of Eniwetok Atoll near the Mariana Islands, but Eniwetok Atoll was in an exposed position, only 1000 nautical miles away from the Mariana Islands and less than 600 miles away from bonape Island, Less than 700 nautical miles from Truk island.

Because of its strong and hard to break reputation, Truk island is compared to “Gibraltar in the Pacific Ocean”.

In order to avoid affecting the operations of Eniwetok, Mitchell drew three brigades from the 58th special task force to attack Truk island in the southwest.

Finally, at the cost of losing 25 aircraft and five aircraft carriers, Mitchell destroyed about 200 enemy aircraft with his ships and aircraft, and sank 15 warships, 19 transport ships and five oil tankers.

Then Mitchell led two brigades to the Mariana Islands.

However, they were discovered by the enemy when they were far away from the island.

They used anti-aircraft guns and gun aiming radar radio fuses to prevent enemy aircraft from attacking US warships.

Subsequently, the US military launched attacks on Saipan, Tinian and Guam, shooting down at least 150 enemy bombers.

At the same time, Smith’s forces have occupied three main islands of Eniwetok Atoll.

Mitchell, Smith, Turner and Spruance were each promoted one level because of their record in seizing the Marshall Islands.

Mitchell was also appointed commander of the Pacific fast aircraft carrier formation.

The success of capturing the Marshall Islands and coordinated operations dispelled admiral Nimitz’s doubts.

He knew that the Fifth Fleet could not only occupy the Mariana Islands, but also support MacArthur.

At this time, he received a letter from Admiral Kim asking him to capture Mariana.

After careful consideration, American strategists also believe that the capture of Mariana can cause the Japanese army to be uncertain about the next action of the US Army and deepen the panic of the Japanese, while the US Army has the initiative to choose the attack target.

On March 12, the US Joint Chiefs of staff issued a directive on the battle of Mariana, called “the battle of the grain collector”.

To carry out this campaign, Nimitz formed the “joint expeditionary force”, with lieutenant general Turner as the commander of the expeditionary force.

There are mainly the following three forces: one is the “northern landing assault formation” personally commanded by lieutenant general Turner, whose main targets are Saipan and Tinian.

The other is the “Southern landing commando” under the command of rear admiral Connolly.

The target is Guam.

The third is the “joint Expeditionary Force Reserve” commanded by rear admiral brandy.

Its mission is to wait for orders and move on standby to support landing operations.

In order to speed up the process of the Pacific War, Nimitz used one team to plan and train, and another team to fight.

The two teams were carried out alternately, and the interval between the two campaigns was reduced.

On June 6, 1944, when the Allied forces began the largest landing war in human history – the Normandy landing, on the central Pacific battlefield, Admiral Spruance commanded the prestigious 5th Fleet and set sail to the malaro base in the Marshall Islands with Mitchell’s huge 58th special mixed team as the pioneer.

Then, 535 combat ships and auxiliary ships carried four and a half reinforced divisions, a total of 12757 people and a large number of combat equipment, from all directions to the Mariana Islands.

At this moment, the Japanese base camp also smelled the fishy wind of a fierce war.

In terms of military strength and military potential, the United States has a strong advantage.

Under such circumstances, the only way to thwart the aggressive offensive of the US Navy and quickly change the war situation is to conduct a decisive battle at sea and launch a battle like pearl harbor to regain the sea power at one stroke.

Therefore, the Japanese army formulated the “a” battle plan.

On May 3, The commander of Japan’s joint fleet, senior general Toyota, received the operation order of the base camp “a” on the flagship “Da Yan” in Tokyo Bay: “Concentrate most of our decisive forces and prepare to annihilate the enemy’s fleet in one fell swoop at the front of the enemy’s main counter offensive, so as to defeat the enemy’s counter offensive attempt.

Quickly integrate our forces after the decisive battle and capture the main force of the enemy’s fleet in the waters from the Central Pacific to the Philippines and northern Australia after late May, in order to annihilate it.

” In order to implement the “a” battle plan, the first mobile force trained in Singapore at that time was ordered to assemble in tawaitaweibo in the southern Philippines before May 20 to complete operational preparations.

In late May, MacArthur’s troops landed on BIA island in the north of new guinea island.

The Japanese army first issued the order of “muddy operation” on June 3, and was forced to stop on June 13.

During this period, two attacks were defeated miserably.

In the Japanese NavyOn the occasion of the “muddy battle” on BIA Island, the main force of the US Navy suddenly appeared in the Mariana sea area.

From June 11 to 12, Mitchell’s 58th special task force dispatched 469 carrier based aircraft on the sea 170 nautical miles east of Guam and indiscriminately bombed Japanese bases and airports such as Saipan Island, Tinian Island, Guam and rota island.

As a result, “the Japanese base airmen suffered a very heavy blow and lost no less than 500 aircraft”.

The air raid gave Toyota a blow in the head and woke him up from his wishful dream.

In addition, on June 13, Mitchell sent seven new fast battleships to bomb Saipan and the nearby Tinian island.

Therefore, Toyota concluded that the target of the US military must be Mariana.

On the morning of June 15, Toyota General issued a decisive order to launch the “a” battle.

At almost the same time, Lieutenant General Smith commanded the second and fourth divisions of the US Marine Corps to land on Saipan at 8:30.

Because of the capture of the Mariana Islands, Saipan and Guam must be opened up as forward naval bases.

20000 US troops landed and fought a fierce battle with the Japanese army.

When the war situation reached the ears of Ozawa, the commander of the Japanese sub fleet on the way, he was burning with anxiety and led the fleet to the Saipan sea area.

At 18:35 on June 15, the US “flying fish” submarine sent an urgent telegram: a huge Japanese fleet was found near the benadino Strait in the Philippines.

At 19:45, the US submarine “Haima” found the Japanese battleship about 200 nautical miles east of the suligo Strait in the Philippines and headed north.

These information made Spruance anxious.

He had a premonition that an unprecedented naval battle was inevitable.

He immediately decided to cancel the original landing plan on the 18th and immediately issued the order to occupy Guam.

At the same time, he quickly transferred 8 cruisers and 21 destroyers from Turner to strengthen Mitchell’s 58th special task force formation.

Seven battleships, three cruisers and 14 destroyers were left to cover Saipan’s landing site.

At 14:15 on the 17th, Spruance gave Mitchell the battle plan: “Our aviation forces should first destroy the enemy’s aircraft carriers, and then attack the enemy’s battleships and cruisers to slow down or lose combat effectiveness.

Later, if the enemy continues to fight, the battleship formation should wipe out the enemy’s fleet with fleet action.

if the enemy retreats, sink the warships whose speed is injured or reduced.

In combat against the enemy, we must launch fierce attacks with all our strength to ensure total annihilation.

” At dusk on the 18th, the US fleet found the Japanese fleet in the theater waters.

Mitchell suggested moving westward at starry night in order to fight the Japanese ship in the early morning of the 19th.

However, after discussing with the staff, Spruance decided not to attack the Japanese fleet.

The order said that the main goal was to “capture, occupy and hold Saipan, Tinian and Guam”.

At this time, Ozawa had found out the situation of the US fleet.

At his command, the Japanese aircraft carrier sped against the wind, and the engines of the aircraft on the deck roared like thunder.

The time of the decisive battle came! From 8:30 to 11:00 sharp, Ozawa fleet dispatched more than 300 aircraft in four waves and carried out four air strikes against the US fleet.

Ozawa has shot four “sharp arrows” in a desperate attempt.

It can be said that the array is neat, powerful, unprecedented in scale and strong in military morale! The Japanese were intoxicated with the joy of the upcoming victory, and the heads of the Navy showed uncontrollable smiles on their faces.

A few hours later, the good news sank into the sea, and the officers all looked anxious.

At 12:30, several Japanese planes of the first attack wave flew back in confusion, which brought bad news to their comrades in arms eager for the news of victory.

It turned out that at 10 a.m. on the 19th, the radar of the US battleship searched for the incoming Japanese aircraft at a distance of 150 nautical miles.

Mitchell immediately ordered the attack, and more than 300 US carrier aircraft took off urgently to meet the enemy.

The fierce air battle immediately broke out in the air 90 nautical miles away from the US aircraft carrier group.

A US pilot said, “the Japanese plane fell like a leaf.

” At 10:57, the flagship of the 58th special task force, Lexington, announced that the Japanese aircraft fleet had been defeated, 43 Japanese aircraft had been shot down by us “evil women” fighters and ships, and the United States only lost a few aircraft.

Wave after wave, wave after wave.

30 minutes later, 128 Japanese aircraft of the larger second attack wave appeared between the broken clouds.

Lieutenant Colonel D.

McCampbell, commander of the flight brigade of the US aircraft carrier Essex, first led the aircraft into air combat.

He rushed into the Japanese aircraft group again and again, shooting down four Japanese aircraft with heavy artillery fire.

Other US Fighter team members were also unwilling to be outdone and risked their lives to participate in the attack.

During the fierce battle, 15 Japanese planes were shot and caught fire at the same time, and their wreckage fell into the sea like a burning torch.

Only 31 of the 128 Japanese aircraft of the second attack wave survived.

Then, of the 47 Japanese planes in the third attack wave, 27 were shot down.

82 Japanese aircraft in the fourth attack wave lost a total of 73.

In the fierce air battle, Spruance never relaxed his surveillance of the Japanese airports on Guam and rota island.

He sent shipborne aircraft to blow up the airport three times, making it unusable, and most of the Japanese aircraft parked at the airport were blown up.

The Mariana air sea battle lasted eight hours.

The U.S. military dispatched more than 300 fighters.

Only 23 were shot down and 6 were missing.

Japan has dispatched a total of 373 aircraft, and only more than 130 have fled the battlefield.

In addition, Guam’s shore based aircraft lost more than 50, plus the aircraft that sank with the Japanese aircraft carrier, a total of 315 Japanese aircraft were lost on June 19 alone.

Not only that, there was another wonderful scene in this battle.

At about 8 a.m. on the 19th, the US submarine “dahuayu” accidentally found a coveted prey from the periscope – the Japanese new armored aircraft carrier “Dafeng”.

Gale is Ozawa’s flagship and a large aircraft carrier newly built by Japan.

Its standard displacement is 32000 tons, with a length of 253 meters and a width of 28 meters.

It carries about 100 aircraft.

The Japanese Navy touted it as “an unsinkable aircraft carrier”.

At that time, the Japanese planes were flying off the deck one by one to attack the US fleet.

Suddenly, the observation soldiers on the “gale” shouted in horror: “find the enemy submarine!” A periscope opened the “herringbone” wave tail on the sea, approached the “gale”, and lost no time to use a large fan firing angle, fired six torpedoes in a row, and then dived quickly.

The sixth torpedo finally hit the burning target of the gale accuratelyBunker.

The “gale” was heavily armored and thick.

At first, it didn’t feel much.

It could still continue sailing.

Later, it gradually tilted due to too much water.

Six hours after the thunderstorm, the “gale” suddenly had an earth shaking internal explosion.

At 1532 hours, the gale sank.

At the same time, the US submarine “Jiqi” is also chasing a big target – the large aircraft carrier “Xianghe”, which is full of war.

“Xianghe” is a “veteran” who participated in the naval battle of sneaking attack on Pearl Harbor.

The ship started construction in 1937 and launched in 1939.

It was commissioned in August 1941.

With a displacement of 25675 tons and 96 aircraft, it was one of the three largest aircraft carriers in Japan at that time.

When the US submarine “Jiqi” found the “Xianghe” in the periscope, it approached it from underwater to seize a favorable attack position.

The torpedo was secretly fired at the Xianghe.

Three torpedoes hit, huge explosions broke out one after another, the fire spread everywhere, the cabin was submerged, and the bow began to sink into the water.

At 15:01 on the 19th, the ship was also buried at the bottom of the Mariana sea.

Seeing the heavy losses of Japanese aircraft and ships, lieutenant general Jia Tian, the vanguard commander, suggested to Ozawa to retreat quickly.

Ozawa disagreed and insisted on replenishing fuel on the 20th to continue the operation.

Unexpectedly, it backfired.

On the afternoon of the 20th, there was chaos when the Japanese ships and oil tankers met.

In addition, the US fleet was approaching.

As a result, none of the Japanese ships could add enough fuel.

The two sides were deadlocked until the evening of the 20th.

Mitchell first issued an attack order.

Because the US aircraft had to travel more than 700 nautical miles, which was the limit of dive bombers and torpedo aircraft, the US flight formation went to war immediately, and dealt a heavy blow to the aircraft carrier of Ozawa formation in this attack, and the Japanese fleet lost another 65 aircraft.

The US plane had run out of fuel when it returned.

As a result, the aircraft fell into the sea one by one, crashed more than 80 and killed 49 people.

The loss was four times that of the air battle just ended.

Because the US ship was busy rescuing the wounded, it delayed a lot of time, and it was impossible to take further action against the Japanese ship.

The battle of Mariana is over.

This was a decisive battle between the largest aircraft carriers in the Pacific War.

Nine aircraft carriers in Japan were sunk, three others were injured, and the Japanese army lost more than 380 aircraft in total.

According to the communique issued by the Japanese base camp, the United States sank or seriously damaged 4-5 US aircraft carriers, 1 cruiser and shot down 160 US aircraft.

In fact, only 4 US ships were injured, none of them sank and 106 aircraft were lost.

After this war, the US Navy took control of the sea and air in Mariana.

Later, US ships, land-based aircraft and warships supported the US troops landing on Saipan.

On July 7, the US Army announced its occupation of Saipan.

Due to the tenacious resistance of the Japanese army, the battle of Saipan was costly.

Among the 67451 landing US troops, 3426 were killed and 13099 injured.

There were 32000 Japanese soldiers, 23811 buried bodies and 1780 captured by the US Army.

On the night of August 1, the US Army completely occupied Tinian island again.

On August 10, the US military announced its occupation of Guam.

In this way, a key link in Japan’s “absolute defense circle” was smashed.

Since then, the Allied forces have used this as a springboard for counterattack, and can arbitrarily choose the target of attack – the Philippines in the west, and Japan in the north.

The submarine base established here can enable B-29 long-range bombers to directly attack the Japanese mainland, posing a great threat to the Japanese archipelago.