It is beneficial for
middle school students to study the Gulag islands, which is the case in contemporary times. Because today, a considerable number of Russian teenagers believe that they do more good than bad.
in July in Guangzhou, there were rare sudden changes in sunny and overcast weather and uncertain wind and rain. I think of the poem of Shuangzhao building for no reason. It is said that “when worries surge to the pillow, the heart light and shadow can’t sleep. The dream dragon fights in the dark and yellow land, sitting in the dawn chicken chirping in the stormy sky… The suburbs are still young, and G poison mountains and rivers are also poor!” (sleepless) Mr. Yu Yingshi said that he would bring the poet back to the world of poetry, which is true in terms of poetry, but how can the worries of mountains and rivers in the shadow of heart light and lamp just whisper in the world of poetry!
about the Gulag islands, in addition to “description” and “disclosure”, there are obviously many problems worthy of in-depth study. It is said that the international research on Solzhenitsyn has become a special knowledge, and the research on the Gulag islands should be its core part. In my impression, “the Gulag islands” for everyone to read (edited by Yu Yizhong, mass publishing house, may 2013) is the first research collection on the Gulag islands published on the mainland, including official critical articles of the Soviet Union and letters from readers at that time, as well as later interpretation articles of Russian scholars and non-governmental people and papers of western scholars, There are also articles by five Chinese scholars. Interestingly, we can see that even when the Soviet Union officially launched the campaign of criticizing Solzhenitsyn in 1974, 170 of the 335 reader letters received by the editorial office of literary daily were letters defending Solzhenitsyn and raising various questions, and some dared to condemn the critics for “throwing dirty water on people without conscience”, Condemning that kind of “universal terror” is very different from our past “ten thousand guns” style literary criticism movement. In 1989, after Moscow’s new world magazine published the main chapters of the Gulag islands, readers received letters expressing “shock, joy, sadness and sometimes anger”. Some readers also put forward corrections to the omissions and mistakes in many details in the book; Of course, some people still curse Solzhenitsyn as “the most vicious slander”, while more readers express their inquiry into the truth of history and their condemnation of crimes against humanity. According to the editorial office, these letters “bear witness to the eternal memory of the terrible Gulag era in the hearts of the people and the ongoing trial of the creators of that era in social consciousness and conscience” (P. 17). It explains the meaning of the letter very accurately and powerfully. Therefore, it is thought that the research value of “letters from the masses” as a kind of historical data may also need to be further excavated.
in the research monograph, we can choose some points from the questions raised by critics to think about.
first, about “Prosecution” and “trial”. Joseph brotsky’s “the geography of evil: The Gulag islands and others” (written in 1977) begins with the view that, due to personal limitations, “all attempts to make an artistic or documentary description of crimes committed on a national scale are doomed to failure” (P. 41). But even so, as long as the individual morality has not been paralyzed, there are always people who have to risk collecting testimony. The ancient book is the material and action of prosecution. With regard to prosecution and trial, Martin Maria made it very clear in “war on two fronts: Solzhenitsyn and the Gulag islands”: “Solzhenitsyn’s book has become a unique Nuremberg trial of this system for Russia and the west”; “Solzhenitsyn had to assume the role of main prosecutor by himself, because the Soviet citizens who were forced to be silent could not do it, while the Western intellectuals did not want to do it because they were unknown, blind or timid. Therefore, the Gulag islands” Its highest significance is that it puts this system, not just concentration camps, under the trial of the humiliating hell that finally threw Nazism into the universe It is the first file to liquidate… All acts. ” (pp. 143-144) as for Ronald Veron, the title of his article is “literature as a litigation procedure: The Gulag islands”, which holds that for Soviet readers, the ancient is “a thoughtful complaint against the state”. In terms of the structure and style of his works, he believes that the ancient is a “unique modern court speech” (pp. 175-176). The author discusses the similar patterns from ancient Greek orators to literary works in the 19th century, and analyzes in more detail the similar litigation speech structure, all testimony statements, refutation to the defense, persuasion to jurors and other written materials in ancient. What should shock us again is these sentences that may have been read but will be easily let go in the ancient book: “it is not so much they who are judged as their crimes. Try to make each of them at least say out loud, ‘yes, I was an executioner and murderer.'” “In the 20th century, we can’t distinguish between what should be tried atrocities and what should not be turned over for decades!” (P. 177) finally, the author concludes, “the Gulag islands is considered ‘the greatest and most powerful independent complaint against the political system of our time’.” (page 196) we should remind ourselves again that we should get rid of the literary metaphor of “accusation” in the sense of judicial trial, and firmly restore the so-called “error” to a historical crime that must be tried.
second, thinking about the scale, magnitude, source and historical relationship of evil. Martin Mariah pointed out that the historical analysis of ancient involves many aspects of Soviet life and has the characteristics of diachronic investigation. Therefore, “we are presented with the history of prison, the history of punishment theory, the history of political proceedings, the formation history of ‘law’, the production and expansion history of labor camp system, the development history of Exile System” and so on, To sum up, “the first important question is how Solzhenitsyn views the scale of evil” (P. 146). “This is the main reason for his argument with the western left. However, no one has refuted the facts he listed so far.” (ibid.) as for the connection with Russian history, solzen