the cause of the Second Punic War was Hannibal’s attack on sagonto, an informal ally of Rome.
it can be said that Hannibal initiated the war on his own initiative.
here we have to talk about Hannibal and the system of Carthage. Carthage is a country established by the Phoenicians, a seafaring nation. The hometown of Phoenicia is north of today’s Jerusalem. The city of Carthage is located in Tunisia, now in North Africa.
it is said that Dido, the princess of Phoenicians, took people to Carthage to seek help from the local “King” in order to escape the pursuit of her brother (that’s what history books call) give me a place to live. The kings can only give her such a piece of cowhide.
the clever Dido cut the cowhide into a circle and formed a large piece of land, which became the prototype of Carthage.
Dido is a sad figure. He fell in love with Aeneas (the son of Aphrodite and the ancestor of the Romans) who fell here after the destruction of Troy, but Aeneas abandoned all the time and fled Carthage by night. Dido committed suicide in grief.
(it can be seen that the two families have hatred from ancient times). The Carthaginians inherited the navigation gene of their ancestors Phoenicians. Open sea commerce is the pillar of Carthaginian. Therefore, Carthaginian citizens do not have a strong concept of guarding the land and defending the country, which is just opposite to the Romans dominated by farming.
the state system of Carthage is an aristocratic oligarchy, with a Senate of 300 and two consuls similar to the Romans, but the consuls of Carthage have no military power. Because the Carthaginians are not proud of their country’s war, the army is dominated by mercenaries, and the combat method is still the classical Greek spear square array, with relatively poor combat effectiveness. However, the Carthaginian war elephant is still a force that can not be underestimated (the so-called war elephant is actually a forest elephant, which is smaller than the grassland elephant. The African grassland elephant is too wild to fight.) Carthage had the most powerful navy at that time. The Mediterranean islands were all Carthage territory except for the Greek ancient city of Syrah in the east of Sicily. Before the rise of the Romans, the carthages had been competing with the overseas immigrants of Greece and even had an alliance with the Romans.
and gradually declined after the Peloponnesian War in Greece. The rest of the western Mediterranean arena are Rome and Carthage, the rising sea overlord who just defeated the “great Greece”.
the cause of the first Punic War was accidental. A Syracuse rebel sent for help to Rome and Carthage at the same time.
the Romans ignored the Carthaginians, but immediately brought an army to kill the Guo State.
Rome was worried about Carthage’s complete occupation of Sicily, so it opened the curtain of the first Punic War in 23 years. The population of both sides was almost the same, but Carthage was much richer than Rome. The results were very strange: the powerful Carthage navy was lost to the newly established Roman Navy. During the period, the Roman Navy, which was not familiar with navigation, encountered two shipwrecks and was completely destroyed twice, The Romans rebuilt his Navy three times in a row, In the first Punic War, the Roman Navy lost 700 ships (more than the defeated Carthaginians), while the weak Carthaginian army was led by hamilka (Hannibal’s father) Occupied almost all Sicily, but had to retreat because the navy was defeated and lost supplies. Although Carthage was defeated in the first Punic War, it was not that Carthage lost a lot, but that Rome was too strong.
the next heavy blow to the Carthaginians was the “mercenary war”, a war ignored by most people. Because they couldn’t get the agreed wage, Carthaginian mercenaries broke out a big riot, which swept the whole Carthaginian. Almost all cities except the capital fell. (it can be seen how serious it is to default on the wages of migrant workers…) Rome took advantage of the fire and occupied Sardinia and Corsica, asking for an additional compensation of 1200 rand (equivalent to Rome’s fiscal revenue for a year), while Carthage was really at a disadvantage in terms of strength.
hamilka fled Spain because of internal discord with Carthage, which is equivalent to Gaul conquest. Generally, hamilka conquered southern Spain. Unfortunately, he was seriously injured and died in a small battle. It is said that he took his three sons and vowed to be enemies with Rome all his life before his death. At this time, the Mediterranean can only accommodate one overlord, Once the two giants are handed over, there will be no retreat. Carthage, a commercial country that has lost its sea power, has lost its sea power. If it cannot defeat Rome, it means that the trade route has been eroded by Roman merchant ships. If the first Punic War is only a military defeat of the Navy, the loss of Sardinia, Corsica and sea power means the shaking of the national foundation.
time dragged on. After Rome, the expansion was faster and faster, and the strength comparison was even more disparity. It’s better to give it a go.
Hannibal’s dilemma is like the battle of the Prime Minister of Shu Han against Wei hundreds of years later. Although there is little vitality, if there is no war, the enemy Yu Qiang and I Yu weak will be followed by the content of the Second Punic War. I think everyone is familiar with Hannibal’s expedition, so I won’t repeat it one by one. As for other Carthaginians will launch an attack on Rome without Hannibal. The loss of
control of the sea was a disaster to a country with marine trade as its pillar. As for whether the Romans would take the initiative to attack Carthage, I personally felt that the Romans were still dominated by agriculture and Commerce had not yet developed.
but North Africa is also a rich place. The Romans have always been jealous of Carthage’s wealth. Therefore, aggression is inevitable, but the time may not be so fast.
PS: the added point is that the so-called “Hannibal only knew how to win the war but didn’t know how to use the victory” is sheer nonsense. Hannibal didn’t attack Rome after canny because Hannibal was short of expeditionary troopsSiege equipment, but also did not have the patience to siege the city for a long time. A Carthaginian in sagonto surrounded the city for nine months, not to mention Rome with better city defense.
and Hannibal’s strategic intention is not to destroy many Romans, because he knows that the resilience of Romans is difficult to be defeated in a short time. Hannibal has always wanted to divide the Allied city states of Romans and make Rome fight alone.
but the bad thing is that Carthage has always been very harsh on his allies, often not as allies but as servants. Therefore, during Hannibal’s ten years in Rome, few Roman allied city states betrayed Rome and took refuge in Carthage. Hannibal could do nothing about it.