Section 3 hell on earth – Auschwitz concentration camp

guide reading

a train gasped and stopped at the fork of the road. Many hands stretched out from the window nailed with barbed wire. From the carriage came a hoarse Scream: “water, water, for God’s sake, give us some water to drink!” Others shook their watches and gold necklaces to show that they were willing to exchange them for water, but no one paid attention to them. In front of the train is a tall walled building, with a spire tower in the middle. The forks of the railway converge and pass through the gate under the tower. The tower is inlaid with a huge clock, searchlights on both sides, and a large slogan “labor sets you free” is written on the wall. On both sides of the railway are buildings separated by electric grids. The people in the car did not know that this was the end of their journey – Auschwitz concentration camp.

people held in Auschwitz concentration camp

disaster history

headed for the dead train

as soon as the train stopped, a group of Ukrainian guards in black military uniforms ran up and opened the doors of each carriage. At this time, the horn on the platform issued a stern and urgent command in German: “Jews, come out! Come out! Come on! Come on! Come on!” As soon as the door opened, thirsty people jumped down from the carriage more than 1 meter high, lying on the ground, whether clean or not, sipping water. A small man was busy helping his relatives jump down. The guard still didn’t think people were moving too slowly. He rushed into the car and pushed and pushed people down. When he saw the boxes and baggage, he threw them out without saying anything. When he saw anyone hesitating at the door, he kicked them down. The carriage soon became empty. Only an old man with white beard leaned against the corner and did not move, watching the guards wantonly. When the guard saw that someone didn’t get up, he came and kicked. Seeing that he didn’t move, he whipped on his face, and the blood flowed down the old man’s forehead. The old man suddenly issued a string of curses in a language that the guard didn’t understand, which stunned the guard. At this time, a SS officer walked into the carriage, took off the guard and walked to the old man. With a sneer, he pulled out his pistol and fired a shot at the old man’s forehead.

female prisoners in Auschwitz concentration camp

in the fierce scolding and kicking of the guards, people quickly gathered in front of each carriage. The women hugged their children in horror and didn’t know what was going to happen. At this time, some SS doctors in white coats appeared in the crowd. They looked at the people in front of them coldly, waved their hands to the left or right without saying a word, and the Ukrainian guards immediately pushed the people to the left or right. People don’t know what they want to do, but the people assigned to the left are younger, and the people on the right are all old and weak women and children. After all the people were divided, a SS officer picked up the microphone and asked people to leave all their luggage on the platform. He said that someone would take them to the dormitory later. If you don’t feel at ease, you can write your name on the box with chalk. Then the guards gathered the left and right groups in front of each carriage, formed two teams and rushed into Auschwitz concentration camp.

this is a scene that has happened at Auschwitz station every day since the autumn of 1941, sometimes several times a day. Many people feel relieved when they see the slogan “labor makes you free” on the wall, because it’s just labor inside. Even if it’s hard, it’s much better to be afraid all day long than outside. Few people doubt what the camp is doing. They can only smell a strong stench in the air. Experienced people smell that it is the smell of burning corpses. They also saw five or six large chimneys in the camp spewing thick smoke into the air. But there was no room for them to think more. The guards had driven them into the gate of the camp. As everyone knows, this step marks the end of their life journey. That gate is the famous “gate of death”. Another whistling whistle came from the distance, and another “death train” came!

the place of death

there is a small town about 257 kilometers southwest of Warsaw, the capital of Poland. It is called Auschwitz. There are more than 12000 people here. Before the Second World War, few people knew its existence except Poland, because the geographical environment here was very bad. It is located at the bottom of the flat basin, surrounded by some stagnant pools. It is damp, smelly and even has many infectious diseases. It is not surprising that no one lives in this misty swamp surrounding Auschwitz, just as someone once said: “death guards there, there has been no one for a thousand years.”

if the God of death had guarded here for 1000 years, he would not have wasted his efforts, because here the Germans set up the “Auschwitz concentration camp”, where 10000 people used to pass through the gas chamber every day, and according to the calculation of the concentration camp officer, at least 3 million people were executed by this and other methods.

during the Second World War, Nazi Germany adopted the policy of “ethnic cleansing” and “genocide”, and Auschwitz concentration camp is the largest place to implement this policy, where fascists committed inhuman atrocities.

Auschwitz concentration camp was only an old barracks of the Polish army at first. Later, in order to detain Polish officials and anti German fighters, it was changed into a concentration camp and “transformed” them in the attached labor camp. On March 1, 1941, Himmler, leader of the Nazi German SS, inspected the camp and decided to expand it, which led to the “hell” in the complete sense. It was mainly used to kill Jews, and its detainees carried out extremely rigorous work, collective execution and human experiments.

due to historical reasons, Jews have been seriously discriminated against and persecuted in Europe. They have used Europe’s long-term anti Semitic sentiment to incite and push it to extremesAdvocating that “the Germanic people are the best nation in the world, while the Jews are the worst nation in the world”. On January 20, 1942, Nazi Germany held the wanhu conference and adopted the “final solution to the Jewish problem”, which decided to systematically massacre Jews through concentration camps. After the expansion of

,

,

and

, the total area of Auschwitz concentration camp has reached 15.5 square kilometers, swallowing all seven nearby villages. It has become a complete and large-scale konzeen (German transliteration, meaning multiple enterprise groups), consisting of 33 concentration camps. The whole camp is divided into three regions:

,

,

,

Auschwitz I – main camp. It is the administrative organ of Konzern, the Gestapo center, and the military economic enterprises serving the German army are located here.

Auschwitz II, officially known as Birkenau. Its main task is to carry out mass slaughter in the gas chamber.

Auschwitz III, also known as Buna, is a large enterprise building and producing artificial rubber and gasoline. Slave factories such as

,

,

and

quickly produced huge economic benefits and handed in nearly 13 million marks of profits to the SS after only eight or nine months of operation.

“secret of Birkenau

in 1945, after the end of the Second World War, hundreds of thousands or even millions of people around the world were asking,” where are our father, mother, sisters, wives, children, husbands and brothers? ” All they know is that in 1942, 1943 and 1944, their relatives were sent to the East and somewhere in Poland. Some people finally learned the last news of their relatives from the “Birkenau labor camp”.

the incinerator in Auschwitz concentration camp

the people who got off the “death train” were divided into two teams. The strong and skilled were taken to one place to work, while the rest of the old, weak, sick and disabled were taken outside several houses. All the people were ordered to take off their clothes behind the short fence wall. There was a note of “disinfection room” at the door of the house. The guards explained that they did so to eliminate insects for them. These people were pushed into the house after being stripped, but these “bath disinfection rooms” are actually poison gas rooms. More than 2000 people rushed into the 210 square meter room. After the door was closed, hydrogen cyanide gas began to be sprayed into the room from the shower nozzle. People will be poisoned in 15 to 20 minutes. The guards opened the door, pulled out the body, removed gold teeth, jewelry and artificial limbs, shaved their hair and sold it to German capitalists to weave blankets, peeled off the tattoo’s skin to make a lampshade, then sent the body to the incinerator next to the gas chamber for incineration, and sold the ashes to the farm for fertilizer. Sometimes when the incinerator is not enough, the bodies are piled up in the open space and burned. Firewood was piled among the dead bodies. When there were about 100 bodies in the pit, the firewood was lit. When the fire came up, more dead bodies were piled up. When it rains, the grease accumulated at the bottom of the pit will be poured on the fire with a bucket to keep it from going out. In these cases, it takes six or seven hours to burn a pit full of corpses, so the smell of burning human flesh permeates the concentration camp all day.

in 1944, the whole Auschwitz concentration camp burned an average of 6000 bodies every day, and the gold teeth and gold jewelry picked up every day weighed up to 8kg. Some data show that during the three and a half years of existence of this concentration camp, 1.1-1.5 million people were killed, 90% of them Jews, as well as many Gypsies and people of other nationalities. According to other data, the number of people killed is estimated to be 3.5 million to 4 million. From 1942 to 1943, nearly 20000 kilograms of cyanide poison were used in the concentration camp.

there is also a so-called “hospital” in the northeast corner of the concentration camp. Here, Hitler’s SS doctors used prisoners to do various “medical experiments”. For example, resuscitation of prisoners after freezing, convenient sterilization, the “experiment” of poisons and new drugs, and the “experiment” of comparative study on the vivisection of twin children. Another task of the “hospital” is to constantly select the weak and sick from the prisoners and send them to the gas chamber to eliminate and supervise the killing process in the gas chamber.

there is also a “death wall” in the concentration camp. In August 1940, fascists began shooting political prisoners and other prisoners in front of the wall, which was riddled with bullet holes. It is said that more than 20000 people were killed here.

in January 1945, the Soviet army attacked Poland, and the Nazi bandits fled in a hurry. According to Himmler’s order to eliminate criminal evidence, they blew up the poison gas chamber and body incinerator, and escorted the prisoners still available for slavery to Germany. Most of the other prisoners were killed. On January 27, 1945, when the Soviet Army liberated the main camp, about 7000 kilograms of hair, more than 13000 human hair blankets, 350000 men’s suits, 840000 women’s clothes, more than 30000 pairs of men’s shoes and more than 5000 pairs of women’s shoes were still stored in the warehouse before they could be transported back to Germany.

repent of sins

after the end of the Second World War, the Polish parliament passed legislation to change the concentration camp into a national museum to commemorate the Nazi Holocaust in 1947, as a historical witness of the heinous crimes committed during the rule of Nazi Germany in the Second World War. For more than half a century, a large number of people from all over the world have visited and meditated here every day.

after the war, the German government deeply confessed the crimes committed by the Nazis. They dared to face up to history and sincerely accept the lessons of history. Later, the German government also passed relevant laws to carry out fair history education among citizens, especially among teenagers, and tried its best to oppose the concealment and beautification of Nazi history. On December 7, 1970, the then German Chancellor Brandt knelt down in front of the monument to Jewish martyrs in Warsaw, Poland, and asked for forgiveness. On January 27, 1995, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp, former German President Herzog once again apologized to the Polish people in front of the “death wall” of the concentration camp.

in 1979, UNESCO will host the Olympic Games