Indian civilization India is a South Asian country.
It is named after the Sanskrit name of the Indus River “religiosity” or its variant “Xingdu”.
The Indus River Basin is one of the birthplaces of ancient human civilization.
Around 2500 BC, farmers with advanced technology from the Far West migrated to the fertile Indus River Basin, where they built canals, and the tribes along the river gradually developed into cities.
Around 1500 BC, Aryans in southern Russia invaded here and became the main residents of ancient India.
The largest urban site in the Indus River Basin is haraba, so it is also called “haraba culture” in this period.
The cradle of Indian civilization Ganges, the cradle of Indian civilization.
The Indian people respectfully call it “holy river” and “mother of India”.
In Indian mythology, the Ganges was originally a goddess, himawat.
Hindus regard the Ganges as a holy river and believe that bathing in the holy water of the Ganges can purify sin.
The Ganges River Basin breeds the nation of India, the land of the moon.
Around 2500 B.C., the slave state established by the original Indian resident darapitam began to emerge in the Indus River Basin.
In the middle of 2000 BC, a nomadic tribe belonging to the Indo European language family (i.e. Aryans) went south from the Central Asian plateau.
They conquered Indian residents and established slavery countries in the Indus River Basin and Ganges River Basin.
Around 1000 BC, some tribes of Indian Aryans began to transition to the state.
In the 6th century BC, there were more than 20 small countries in India’s Ganges River Basin, Indus River Basin and South India.
This was the “era” in Indian history, also known as the era of nations.
By the early 6th century BC, it was said that 16 countries had been formed in India.
After a long period of merger war, to the 4th century BC.
A unified country centered on Mogadishu was established in the Ganges River Basin in the south.
During this period, the Indus River Basin in northwest India was invaded by the Persian Empire.
Caste system in ancient India in ancient India, primitive religious worship prevailed, especially the worship of cattle.
War is often called “longing for cattle”.
For this reason, grand religious ceremonies were held, which are very complex and mysterious.
Therefore, the status of monks has been greatly improved.
Thus, a group of monks with priests as their profession was formed, that is, the Brahman caste.
Later, these Brahmans, who were in charge of religious power and advised warriors, enjoyed a lot of wealth and power and became the first caste.
Chadili are military nobles such as kings, warriors and officials.
They are inferior to Brahmans.
They are the second caste: free people engaged in agriculture, commerce and handicrafts.
They belong to the third caste, barkha.
The fourth caste is called sudara.
They are the conquered aborigines, poor, bankrupt and landless people, many of whom are slaves.
Obviously, the first and second castes are the ruling class, and the third and fourth castes are the ruled class.
In order to make the Aryans always superior to the conquered darapitam, the Brahman deprived the sudra of the qualification to participate in the “SATRA”.
“SATRA” is a religious rebirth ceremony.
Therefore, the top three Aryans are called “rebirth clan”, while the sudra is called “lifetime clan”.
In addition to these four castes.
Children born between indigenous minorities and different castes are regarded as the fifth kind of people, namely “Dalits”.
They are the lowest level.
Caste system is a unique hierarchical system based on class in Indian society.
India has experienced several different social forms since ancient times, but the caste system has continued under the protection of religion and law, and has developed in different historical stages.
The existence of caste system has seriously hindered the social and economic development of India, and has not been completely eliminated until today.
The ancient Indian calendar was about 1000 BC.
With the development of irrigated agriculture, India has a fairly accurate calendar.
There are sporadic records in early Vedas, such as the record of thirteen months in Rigveda.
The Sanskrit of partridge divides a year into six seasons: spring, heat, rain, autumn, cold and winter.
Another method is to divide a year into three seasons: winter, summer and rain.
According to the Sanskrit of aidaro, a year is 360 days, twelve months, and a month is 30 days.
But in fact, the moon runs less than 30 days a week, so some months are actually less than 30 days.
Indians call it a date of disappearance.
About five dates disappear in a year, but it is still customarily called 360 days a year.
There are many other calendar systems in ancient India, which are very inconsistent with each other.
The difference between the expected end month and the new end month in the Indian calendar.
The final moon is a month from the full moon to the next full moon: the new moon is a month from the new moon to the next new moon.
The two calendars coexist, and the former is more popular.
The name of Indian month is named after the star where the moon is full.
The length of the year is determined by observing the sunrise of the star.
Vedic branch excerpts – astronomy has invented to adjust the relationship between year, month and day with harmonic period.
A cycle of five years, 1.
830 days and 62 new moons.
There are two leap months in a cycle.
A new moon is 29516 days, and a year is 366 days.
This crude calendar was used until about the first century A.D. Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, whose original name was Gautama Siddhartha, was the founder of Buddhism.
His mother, Queen moye, was pregnant when she was nearly fifty.
According to Indian custom, she should go back to her mother’s house to give birth.
As a result, she passed through Lumbini and gave birth to Gautama Siddhartha while enjoying the cool under the tree.
Seven days after the birth of Gautama Siddhartha, his mother died, and his father king Jingfan handed Sakyamuni over to Princess mahapokoboti, Queen moye’s sister, who took good care of him.
Gave meticulous care.
At the age of 16, he married the princess of the city of Kali, yelundara, and later had a son, Rahula.
At the age of 29, he gave up the comfortable life in the palace and went out to seek Tao.
At first, Sakyamuni asked some famous Brahman scholars for advice.
Later, according to them, he became an ascetic monk and practiced hard for six years.
Due to overwork and malnutrition, he even fainted to the ground.
When he woke up, he realized that hard practice could not bring any results.
He walked slowly into the nerian Chan River, washed the accumulated dirt on his body for many years with the river, and then ate the milk porridge given to him by the shepherd girl shansheng, until his physical strength recovered.
He left the nerian Chan River and prepared to go to bornanas.
On the way, Sakyamuni came to a place called Gaye, where he lookedTo a bodhi tree.
So he sat under the tree to meditate, hoping to get the ultimate way to relieve the suffering of life, and vowed to “not get Buddhism and Taoism, not afford this seat”.
After 49 days of meditation, he finally realized and founded the basic teachings of Buddhism.
The basic doctrine of Buddhism Sakyamuni’s thinking under the bodhi tree constitutes the most basic doctrine of Buddhism with the theory of four truths as the core.
The four truths, namely, the four truths of bitter truths (all life is bitter), gathering truths (the cause of suffering), eliminating truths (fully understanding the cause of suffering and reaching the state of “Nirvana”) and Tao truths (the way to achieve “Nirvana” through cultivation).
People eventually become Arhats (meaning “not born”) through practice, confusion and nirvana, and no longer fall into the reincarnation of human life.
In addition, Buddhism requires its disciples to abide by the “five commandments” for life: no killing, no stealing, no prostitution, no nonsense and no drinking.
Men who practice at home are called “bhikkhu” and women are called “Bhikkhuni”.
They must shave their hair and wear monk robes to completely separate from their family life: men who practice at home are called “wubosoka” and women are called “wubosoka”.
Monks form a community called “Sangha”.
Those who join the club can only live by giving alms and cannot own private property.
Every Buddhist has the obligation to preach.