Section I the course of ancient Egyptian dance the world’s human civilization originated between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River in 4000 BC.
Then came the Nile basin, the Indus River Basin and the Yellow River Basin.
Indian civilization and Chinese civilization are indigenous civilizations developed independently.
Later, Mesopotamian civilization and ancient Egyptian civilization were divided into various regions of Europe and Asia and became the basis of modern civilization and civilization in the eastern Mediterranean.
It affected the rise of Greek civilization and Jewish civilization and laid a deep foundation for early Christian art. I. Sumerian religious music and dance before the discovery of ancient Egyptian music and dance relics, the Sumerian writing board found in Mesopotamia was engraved with the image of playing bow harp.
It is considered to be the earliest musical relic in the world.
It is an object of the first stage of the early Sumerian Dynasty and may be a product of three or four thousand BC.
A talc vase produced in bismaya before 2650 BC also has images of two people playing harps.
It is equivalent to the product of the third stage of the early Dynasty.
The British Museum also contains the “Queen puabi’s piano” excavated from the Royal Tomb of ur.
From the triangular shape of the piano, 11 strings and the expanded shape of the resonance box, the piano unearthed from the Royal Tomb of ur has made a lot of progress than before.
There are many animal images in the shape of the lyre resonance box unearthed in Sumer: The image of the bull’s body was changed by the figure of the bull’s lyre, but it was still the resonance of the bull’s legs on the ground.
No doubt, it was decorated by the bull’s lyre.
Later, it still had the resonance of the bull’s legs People’s’ flag ‘.
We can see this kind of piano from a mosaic describing the victory banquet, and we can also see the authentic musical instruments excavated from King ur’s cemetery in the British Museum and the University Museum in Philadelphia.
The soundbox of an instrument hidden in Philadelphia depicts a squatting donkey playing another such lyre, which is held by a bear as an animal musician in other Sumerian art, while another small animal sits on the bear’s feet, beats the tambourine and shakes the tambourine.
” From this description, the shape of Sumerian musical instruments was already very exquisite as early as 2600 BC.
From the perspective of the exquisite animal modeling of musical instruments, the Sumerian music performance before 2600 BC still has a strong totem flavor.
Music is closely related to religion and still has not got rid of the traces of life in the primitive hunting stage.
In ancient times, music and dance were not separated, and dance was a time-space art.
In the primitive society without advanced audio and video recording equipment, dance was people dancing, and when people were not there, dance also disappeared.
Unlike music, it has a physical legacy for future generations to study.
To understand dance, we can only infer it with the help of the musical instruments left over from ancient society.
Therefore, judging from the musical instruments unearthed in Sumeria, Sumeria already had an exquisite religious totem dance accompanied by string instruments as early as 2600 BC. II. Babylonian music and dance after 2370 BC, the Sumerians were attacked by the Semitic akkads, who settled in Mesopotamia for a long time and established the Babylonian Dynasty.
The ancient Sumerian harp changed greatly during this period: “The harp is no longer bow shaped.
The neck is almost at right angles to the resonance box.
The player presses the harp vertically against his body and plays with his hand or with a pick horizontally.
A Larsa relief found in Lagash depicts a large drum with feet, much like a modern timpani.
The player hits the surface with his fists and another sitting person is beating it With cymbals.
” The musical instruments of Babylonian period have been greatly developed than those of Sumerian period.
Therefore, it can be imagined that its dance art is no longer a simple physical movement of pausing and howling, hand in hand around the stump The dance has been accompanied by musical instruments, and its forms are more complex, diverse, exquisite and meticulous.
It is an ornamental dance with certain aesthetic value. III. music and dance in the kingdoms of ancient Egypt.
The music and dance civilization of ancient Egypt was slightly later than that of Mesopotamia.
Ancient Egyptian music and dance influenced ancient Greek Dance civilization.
It can also be said that it had an indelible impact on ancient Greece, Rome and even the eastern world.
Lionel Carson, an American ancient Egyptian scholar, said in ancient Egypt: “A thousand years before the Minoans on Crete built the palace in Nosas, and hundreds of years before the Israelites followed Moses out of slavery, ancient Egypt was a big country.
Ancient Egypt flourished when the tribal peoples on the Italian peninsula were still grassing on the Tiber River.
The Greek Romans looked at ancient Egypt a little like it two thousand years ago Modern people have become obsessed with the ruins of Greece and Rome.
” Ancient Egyptian civilization is like a distant and shining star.
People evaluate the value of ancient Egyptian civilization by virtue of hundreds of pyramids standing on the Bank of the Nile.
More than 2000 BC, ancient Egyptians have been able to accurately calculate the bottom area of pyramids by using mathematics and mechanics, and learned to use lubricating oil to pull boulders.
These fully prove that ancient Egyptians have far more intelligence than other similar races in the world.
With such high scientific and technological ability, its music and dance culture can not stay in the primitive stage of ignorance.
Opening the history of ancient Egypt, we can see that ancient Egyptians had a brilliant music and dance culture.
The history of ancient Egypt can be roughly divided into ancient kingdom period, Middle Kingdom period and New Kingdom period.
The ancient kingdom period was about 2635 BC to 2155 BC.
Although there were no musical instruments and other relics to accompany the dance in this period, from the relief and painting of the ancient kingdom period, there were musical instruments very similar to the musical instruments of Mesopotamia at that time.
“In the reliefs of the tombs of sadi and mereluka in sacara, and in the paintings in the superstructure of the tomb of kayemanh in Giza, an arched harp called bint is depicted.
The style of this harp is similar to that of early Mesopotamian instruments.
It usually has five to seven strings, but it has a more advanced resonant cavity and sometimes decorates the eyes of Horus.
very long flutes usually do not There are finger holes.
When holding it, the player should keep the flute body inclined.
Shorter double tube according to laterThe specimen has only one reed, which was once called ‘double clarinet’.
There are also forked clappers and tambourines.
Musicians usually sit.
They have at least one harp, sometimes two, and a long flute – perhaps a sound pipe.
Each player faces a singer.
These singers put their left hand on their left ear and make some conventional gestures with each other.
These gestures may be used to help memory.
They are very similar to the gestures used by Copts in sacrament chanting today.
As some Mesopotamian pictures show, singers sometimes get stuck in their throats.
If someone dances, they clap their hands or use clappers made of wood or ivory.
But the dance seems very restrained.
” From this record, music and dance in the ancient kingdom have been very developed, including double clarinet playing instruments, fork shaped clappers, hand drums and harps.
In the performance, there are music, performing singing and dance performances limited by rhythm.
Such a highly developed music and dance civilization is unthinkable to the residents of areas with relatively late evolution.
The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt, about 2134 BC to 1650 BC.
At this time, some new musical instruments appeared, such as shoulder harp, barrel drum called “Taiben”, and new fork bell.
The handle of the fork bell was carved with the head of Hato, the goddess of love and joy In the Middle Kingdom, people played and danced with this kind of fork bell, which showed their worship of the goddess of fertility.
It has certain religious significance and profound meaning of praying for population reproduction.
The New Kingdom period of ancient Egypt was about 1550 BC to 1080 BC.
This period was a period of great development of various arts in ancient Egypt.
There were temples specializing in religious sacrifice places.
Due to extensive foreign exchanges and the influence of foreign culture, the culture and art of ancient Egypt had a new expansion.
For example, in addition to the original large bow harp, There were also more curved bow harps introduced from the outside, and the ryutcheon of Mesopotamia was also introduced into the new kingdom.
In the Metropolitan Museum of New York and the Cairo Museum, there are collections of musical instruments from the new kingdom of ancient Egypt.
At the end of 1166 BC, some musical instruments unearthed in the tomb of Latin America Seth III in bish, such as 11 harps and 13 harps, also showed the ancient Egyptians’ acceptance of foreign civilization in the new kingdom.
There is a mural in tomb 38 of Thebes, on which five musicians are playing harp, lute, castanet, double reed and curved arm Lille, indicating that the level of music performance in this period has been very high.
In the tomb of nahet, a young girl played two tubes held apart, but this instrument gradually disappeared in the new kingdom.
In the New Kingdom, music bands were mostly played by women, especially by women playing single oboes and oboes, and men mainly played trumpets.
This kind of shape can be seen on the reliefs and tomb murals unearthed in ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian music has reached a high level, and ancient Egyptian dance is no inferior.
In ancient Egypt, people think dance is joy.
In 3000 BC, ancient Egypt had a festival drama program of Abydos.
“In the middle of the second millennium, when King Tut Moses I recognized his daughter herzisuvit as his successor, the nobles went to congratulate, dance and have fun, and all the subjects danced and exulted.
A dance similar to spontaneous expression of joy was formed in Amana.
” In ancient Egypt, dance was not only performed by nobles, but also by farmers.
However, the contents of their dances were different.
Noble dances were mostly ceremonial dances, while farmers’ dances were mostly sacrificial dances around the harvest of crops.
For example, in the tomb of the fifth Dynasty of Giza in 2700 BC, there are collective dance shapes and funeral dances of farmers celebrating the harvest.
In addition, there are professional female dancers who perform for gods in temples.
The performance skills of female dancers are superb.
They “have soft steps, stretch their arms forward to make a long oblique square, or adopt the boldest acrobatic posture, arch their waist, support their hands on the ground, stand upside down or do straight inverted candle movements”, which shows that the dance of professional dancers is no longer a plain action of throwing feet and raising hands, but develops to artistic skills, Has a high level of technical performance.
The decline period of ancient Egypt was about after the 18th dynasty.
Due to some political reasons, the Greeks, Philistines and Mycenaeans began to harass the peaceful and quiet life of ancient Egypt.
Later, ancient Egypt was conquered by Assyrians in the seventh century BC, twice by Persians in the sixth century BC, and finally recovered by Greece and Macedonia in 332 BC.
Because of these factors, ancient Egypt was impacted by the cultures of different regions, and a large number of foreign cultural elements were integrated into the pure ancient Egyptian culture.
Later, it gradually combined with the culture of the eastern Mediterranean, and music and dance also had Mediterranean characteristics.
At the same time, the Mediterranean region also developed rapidly due to the influence of ancient Egyptian culture.