From April to June 1940, the German army swept through northern and Western Europe, forcing the British army to withdraw from the European continent.

Since then, Germany has controlled Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France and other countries across the sea from Britain.

Britain faces a serious threat of direct German invasion.

But the British government did not give in.

After the surrender of France, Britain took a series of major measures to strengthen its defense capability.

On June 24, 1940, he called Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King and said that he would not hold any peace talks with him.

At the end of June, Churchill rejected the proposal of the Pope and the king of Sweden for German British reconciliation.

For Hitler’s “call for peace” on July 19, British Foreign Secretary Halifax flatly rejected it by radio on July 22.

After Hitler’s appeal for peace was rejected by Britain.

But separated by the English channel, the battle against Britain will be different from the previous battle.

Reidel, commander in chief of the German Navy, believes that due to the limited strength of the German Navy and the lack of sufficient time and material basis, landing operations in Britain will be very difficult.

As early as May 21, 1940, as soon as the German army entered the side of the English channel, he discussed with Hitler the “possibility of landing in Britain in the future”.

He pointed out: “the absolute condition for the success of the attack on Britain is to obtain air supremacy.

If you order the invasion of Britain, you must have a detailed plan and never act rashly.

” On June 30, Alfred Yodel, director of the command Bureau of the German national defense force, pointed out in the memorandum of continuing operations against Britain that only when “it is necessary to carry out a fatal attack on Britain, whose military economy has been paralyzed and almost unable to carry out air combat”, can it land on Britain.

At the same time, he stressed that “nevertheless, we should make very careful preparations for landing”.

Three steps should be taken in the concrete implementation: strengthening the attack of the German air force and Navy on British ships, warehouses, factories and the Royal Air Force.

Terrorist bombing of residential areas.

Land and occupy Britain.

Among them, the operation against the British air force should be given the highest priority.

Hitler agreed with Yodel’s analysis.

On July 2, the German command issued the first instruction on continuing the war against Britain.

The directive stresses that if air superiority can be achieved and other necessary conditions are met, the German army may land in Britain, and the preparations must begin immediately.

On July 11, German Navy commander-in-chief Reidel again advised Hitler that Germany could use submarines to blockade Britain, use the air force to attack the British naval convoy, and violently bomb major British cities, forcing Britain to seek peace, but not in favor of landing operations.

He suggested that Hitler take the landing “as the last move to force Britain to beg for peace”, and the landing could not be implemented until the German Air Force eliminated the British air force and drove all British navies out of the Strait area.

On July 16, 1940, Hitler officially issued the “No.

16 directive” on the preparation for landing operations against Britain.

Its action code is “sea lion”.

The directive said: in view of Britain’s expression that it is still unprepared to compromise despite its military despair, I have decided to prepare for landing operations against Britain.

If necessary, implement it immediately.

The purpose of this operation is to eliminate the British mainland as a base for continuing operations against Germany and occupy it if necessary.

Although Hitler issued instruction No.

16, he was not sure whether he could land successfully.

On July 31, during his talks with the heads of the three armed forces, Hitler held consultations on the timing of the invasion, sea tide, weather and visibility, as well as the concentration of ships.

In terms of the timing of the invasion, one view is that landing in 1940 is possible, but it cannot be prepared before September 15.

Randall believes that the best time for landing should be in May or June.

Therefore, the landing will be postponed to 1941.

However, Hitler believed that delaying the landing would give Britain breathing time and restore the vitality of the British army, so he insisted on landing in 1940.

However, Hitler promised that if the German air force could not completely destroy the British naval and air force, the landing could be postponed until May 1941.

There were three German Air Force units participating in the air raid on Britain.

The commander of the second air force is Albert kesselin.

The headquarters is located near Brussels, Belgium, and is responsible for attacking the vast areas of southeast Britain, including London.

The commander of the third air force is Hugo speller.

The headquarters is located in the suburb of Paris and is responsible for attacking the southwest of Britain.

The commander of the fifth air force is general stompf.

The headquarters is located in Norway and is responsible for attacking the northeast of Britain.

The three air teams have a total of more than 3000 aircraft.

When the German army attacked France, Churchill had expected that once France was defeated, Germany would attack Britain and would first carry out air strikes on Britain.

To this end, when the French war was in full swing and urgently needed the support of the British air force, he insisted on retaining part of the fighter force in the British mainland in order to resist the air attack of the German army on the three British Islands, and established an air defense headquarters with fighter aviation as the main body under the air force headquarters, with fighter aviation commander Daudin as the commander-in-chief to uniformly command the fighter force, anti-aircraft artillery Radar unit, early warning and observation unit.

The main force of the British Army participating in the air attack against the German army is the fighter aviation, with a total of four aviation teams.

From July 10, the German air force launched scattered air strikes on Britain.

Its main targets were the British merchant fleet in the English Channel and the port between Dover and Plymouth, and lured the British air force to attack.

British ships and ports were badly damaged, but only a small number of fighter planes met the German army, which made the German army unable to achieve its goal.

As of August 12, the German army lost 286 aircraft and the British aircraft lost 150.

In order to create conditions for the final conquest of Britain, Hitler issued directive 17 on air and sea war against Britain on August 1.

The Directive requires that the German Air Force should defeat the British air force with all its strength as soon as possible.

The targets of the attack are, first of all, the enemy’s aviation forces and their ground facilities and logistics facilities, and then the enemy’s aviation armament industry, including the industry producing anti-aircraft weapons.

After obtaining temporary or partial air superiority, we should continue to carry out air strikes on enemy ports, especially on the reserves of means of production.

The air strike officially began on August 13.

British combat airports, supply facilities, radar warning stations and aircraft manufacturing plants were the main targets of German air strikes.

Where are the Germansfight.

Spitfire fighters fought German fighters, while hurricane aircraft searched for bombers.

Pursued by British “hurricane” fighters, German bombers had to drill into the clouds to avoid, or throw the bombs carelessly and flee in a hurry.

At 15 pm, the German army launched the second attack of the day.

This time, the German army did not use feint as usual to lure British fighters out of the scheduled airspace.

When the first German planes arrived over the English channel, the British 11th air force had ordered 12 squadrons to enter the scheduled airspace.

After the German aircraft crossed the British coast and entered the British mainland, the 11th aviation team sent seven more squadrons, the 12th aviation team also sent five more squadrons, and the 10th aviation team also sent a squadron from the West.

At this time, nearly 26 squadrons of the British Army met three German assault formations in the air.

The first German assault formation first fought with two squadrons of “Spitfire” fighters.

The second assault formation was besieged by a large number of “hurricane” fighters, who were forced to break through and drop bombs while retreating.

The third assault formation rushed straight to London and was surrounded by British fighter planes.

Some bombers withdrew from the battle and fled.

The remaining German bombers and their covered fighter planes fought with British fighter planes from the center of London to the outskirts of West London.

Then, 10 squadrons of the 11th air force and 5 squadrons of the 12th air force took part in the air battle.

This series of battles culminated in the day’s air battle.

56 German planes were destroyed by British planes and 4 were shot down by anti-aircraft guns.

British aircraft lost 26.

September 15 was designated as “war day of Britain”.

In January 1941, Hitler ordered: with the exception of a few long-term measures, all preparations for invading the British mainland were stopped.

In fact, it abandoned the “sea lion” plan to attack Britain from the sea.

In order to cover up the German attempt to attack the Soviet Union, the German bombing of British cities continued until May 1941.

On the night of May 16, 1941, the German army bombed Birmingham symbolically, and finally ended the nine month long strategic bombing of Britain.

The battle of Britain is over.

The battle of Britain shattered Hitler’s dream of landing in Britain, which was the first major victory of the anti Nazi German Alliance since the outbreak of World War II.