On May 9, 1940, kaitel, chief of staff of the unified command of the German defense forces, issued an order to attack Western Europe: “the head of state and supreme commander of the defense forces decided to launch an attack at dawn on May 10.
The code name of the attack is’ danze ‘or’ Augsburg ‘.
” At 13:30 p.m. that day, all the German troops were on standby, accompanied by Keitel, Yodel and other personnel of the command department, left Finken Kruger and took a special train to the “Eagle’s nest” base camp near muenshtlefel.
That night, in order to make excuses, Germany sent planes to carry out a terrorist attack on Freiburg, a university city in Germany, just as it did before the attack on Poland.
A women’s boarding middle school and a hospital were blown up, killing and wounding hundreds of people.
The German command counter falsely accused Belgium and the Netherlands of the attack, so it launched an attack on the two neutral countries in the early morning of May 10.
Only after the German army crossed the border did the Netherlands and Belgium receive a German note with the same content.
The note accused the two countries of violating the Chinese legislation, making terrorist attacks against Germany by repairing fortifications and deploying troops, and claimed that the German government was unwilling to wait for the attack of Britain and France and could not allow the two countries to take military action against Germany through Belgium and the Netherlands.
On May 10, the Dutch and Belgian envoys in Berlin tried to send a note protesting the German invasion to the German Ministry of foreign affairs, but it was rejected.
Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands issued a statement on the same day, “protesting angrily against this unprecedented act of treachery and undermining all legitimate relations between civilized countries.
” After being invaded by the German army, the Netherlands and Belgium quickly asked Britain and France for help.
General gammerlin of the French army ordered the British and French allied forces to move to Belgium immediately according to the “d” plan.
Among them, the seventh group army of the French army entered the area near Antwerp and continued to advance to Breda, the Netherlands.
In the early morning of May 10, the German army launched an attack on the Netherlands from the ground and air at the same time.
The main force of the 18th group army of the German army, led by the ninth armored division, carried out a main assault towards the mouth of the MAS River, and a force carried out an auxiliary assault towards Amsterdam, quickly occupied the northeast provinces of the Netherlands, broke through the Pell line on the same day, forcing the Dutch army to retreat to the Dutch fortress.
Later, the German army launched an attack on the dam between the Xude sea and the North Sea to open up the road to Amsterdam, but failed.
On the same day, about 4000 German airborne troops were airborne in batches near the Hague, Rotterdam and murdike.
After landing, the German army occupied three airports near the Hague and then attacked the Hague, but was repulsed by the Dutch army.
Another force unexpectedly attacked and occupied the MAS River Bridge in murdike region and the Val River Bridge in Dordrecht region, and broke into the “Dutch fortress” from the south, which separated the deployment of the Dutch army.
The Dutch army failed to fight back many times.
At the request of the Netherlands, the seventh group army of the French army advanced day and night along the English Channel and arrived at Tilburg on the afternoon of May 11.
Later, due to lack of air force support and obstruction by the German army, it withdrew to Breda.
The Dutch army asked the group army to counterattack the German army who occupied the MAS River Bridge, but the French army refused.
In this way, the ninth German armored division successfully passed through the Maas River and val river bridges and approached Rotterdam.
Before that, several bridges on the lake river near Rotterdam were also occupied by German Paratroopers, but the Dutch army organized defense on the north side of the bridge and delayed the German attack.
On the evening of May 12, Dutch commander-in-chief winkleman informed the queen of the Netherlands and cabinet ministers that there was no hope of resisting the German attack.
On May 13, Queen Wilhelmina and several cabinet ministers boarded a British destroyer and fled to London.
Before leaving, the queen authorized general winkelman as plenipotentiary to declare surrender at an appropriate time.
On the morning of the 14th, Hitler issued instruction 11: in the north wing, the resistance of the Dutch army was stronger than originally thought.
Political and military reasons require that this resistance be smashed in the short term.
The task of the army is to jointly attack from the South and East with sufficient troops and quickly destroy the “Dutch fortress”.
To this end, Hitler transferred some aviation troops from Belgium to strengthen the attack on the Netherlands.
According to Hitler’s instructions, the German army adjusted its deployment and threatened with force to force the defenders in Rotterdam to surrender, claiming that if they did not surrender, the German army would bomb the city.
In order to preserve strength and protect the city from bombing, the Dutch army decided to stop resistance.
Just then, the German bombing of Rotterdam began, and the city became a sea of fire.
In the face of the indiscriminate bombing of the German air force and the attack of ground forces, the Rotterdam defenders surrendered.
On the evening of May 14, general winkelman, the commander-in-chief of the Dutch army, ordered the whole army to lay down their weapons.
At 11 a.m. the next day, he signed the unconditional surrender as the Plenipotentiary of the Dutch government.
In just five days, the Netherlands was occupied by the German army.
At 5:30 on May 10, the German army launched a surprise attack on Belgium.
At 8:30, the German ambassador to Belgium sent a note to the foreign ministry, claiming that the German government was “forced” to use force to “guarantee” their neutrality before the Western powers invaded Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
The German government suggested that Belgium should consider its own interests and stop all resistance.
Germany will ensure Belgium’s territorial integrity in Europe and colonies, otherwise Belgium will lose its independence.
The Belgian government strongly protested against Germany’s war threat and aggression and was determined to defend its own country.
Like the invasion of the Netherlands, the German attack on Belgium also used ground air coordination.
The sixth group army quickly broke through the Belgian border and crossed the Maas River and the southern section of the Albert canal to the west, creating the illusion that this is the main attack direction of the German army.
At the same time, German airborne troops quietly landed near the Albert canal.
Before the soldiers pressed the button to blow up the bridge, they seized three bridges on the canal.
The fortification of Eben EMAR fortress is built on the mountain and consists of a rotating turret equipped with two 120mm cannons, two turrets equipped with two 75mm cannons, four dark turrets, 12 firing positions of 60mm anti tank guns and a large number of machine gun bunkers.
The fort, observation post and machine gun fire point on the ground are made of concrete, and the dark fort and rotating turret are armored structures.
There are a series of reinforced concrete traffic trenches under the ground, in which grain and ammunition for 30 days are stored.
The fort is guarded by 1200 people and monitors all bridges on the MAS River and Albert canal near Maastricht.
CompareThe army believes that it is stronger than any fortification on the magino line or the zigfi line and can be held for a long time.
However, the course of the war was much more than the army had expected.
In the early morning of the 10th, 75 German airborne soldiers under the command of a staff sergeant and after simulation training quietly landed on the top of the fortress by 9 gliders, and easily conquered this fortification, which is known as the most difficult fortification in Europe.
The fall of Eben EMAR fortress indicates the complete collapse of the defense line of Albert canal – MAS river.
On May 12, the Belgian army had to retreat to the Collins Holt waffle line.
The 16th armored army of the sixth group army of the German army stormed in the direction of geonblue north of the Maas river.
The British and French allied forces mistakenly thought that the main attack direction of the German army was on the Deere River defense line from Antwerp to NAMUR, moved to the Deere River defense position according to the predetermined “d” plan, and cooperated with the Belgian army withdrawn from the first defense line to stick to the Collins Holt waffle defense line.
On May 13, the vanguard armored unit of the first group army of the French army met with the 16th armored army of the German army in jounblue, launching the first large-scale tank battle of the Second World War.
On May 15, the Allied follow-up troops occupied the defensive position between zhianbulu and wafur, blocking the German army in lefen and zhianbulu.
In the Aden mountains in the southeast of Belgium, the German group a army group, which was responsible for the main attack task, smashed the resistance of the Belgian border defense forces at the Derby border, pushed forward quickly, repulsed the French cavalry division covering the main force of the second and ninth group armies of the French Army, and went out to the Maas river before May 12.
The Anglo French allied forces realized that the main force of the German army was concentrated on the front line from Namur, Belgium to satang, France, and the main direction of attack was satang.
After crossing the Maas River, the German army pushed rapidly towards the Somme estuary, and the British and French coalition forces in Belgium may be surrounded by the German army from the south at any time.
On the morning of May 15, the news of the Dutch surrender reached Belgium.
At 17 p.m., the commander-in-chief of the coalition forces, gammerlin, ordered the British and French coalition forces to withdraw quickly from Belgium.
On May 16, the British and French allied forces began to withdraw from Belgium.
In this case, the Belgian army had to abandon the existing position of Antwerp Namur line and retreat to the position not prepared in the rear.
Soon, the new defense line of the Belgian army was broken through by the German army.
On May 17, the German army occupied Brussels.
However, the Belgian army did not lay down its arms, but fought and retreated, trying to create conditions for general Wei Gang, the new commander-in-chief of the British French coalition, to carry out his counter offensive plan from north to south in northern France and southern Belgium through echelon defense.
However, under the strong offensive of the German army, Wei Gang’s plan was difficult to realize and the Bijun army was in trouble.
On May 26, the king of Belgium asked the British army to counterattack the German flank in order to reduce the pressure on the Belgian army.
At this time, Lord Goth was preparing to retreat to Dunkirk and could not meet this demand.
On May 27, the resistance of the Belgian army began to disintegrate.
King Leopold III accepted the German demand for unconditional surrender and ordered the Belgian army to lay down its arms and surrender to the German army at 4 a.m. the next day.