there is a Russian proverb: “sleep with a black blind bear”. This is probably similar to our “accompanying a king like a tiger”. The last few years of Khrushchev’s work with him were like walking on thin ice and facing an abyss. In the new “Great Purge” of

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, Khrushchev kept his promise.

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within 24 hours after Stalin’s death, all members of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, main members of the Council of ministers and some members of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet Union immediately held a meeting in the Kremlin. This is, of course, an important meeting for the redistribution of power. The new presidium is composed of 10 people, including malinkov, belia, Molotov, Voroshilov and Khrushchev. Malinkov was elected chairman of the Council of Ministers; Voroshilov served as chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet; The Ministry of the interior and the Ministry of national security merged, and belia became the Minister of this powerful Ministry. On belia’s proposal, Khrushchev was dismissed as the first Secretary of the Moscow municipal and State Party committees on the grounds that he could concentrate on doing a good job in the work of the Central Committee. It is worth noting that at this meeting, Khrushchev was elected director of Stalin’s funeral Committee.

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and “three headed politics” have emerged: Khrushchev, malinkov and belia have inherited the three power pillars that Stalin once monopolized: Khrushchev party, malinkov government and belia KGB. In the subsequent power struggle, how did Khrushchev gather the strength of everyone to cut off belia; How to smash malinkov, Kaganovich and Molotov’s “three person anti Party group” with the help of turning the crisis into safety; It is well known how the rabbit died and the dog cooked the “cup of wine to release the military power” and relieved Zhukov of his post as Minister of national defense. It was through this relentless struggle that Khrushchev consolidated his authority.

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deserve attention. When Khrushchev won an absolute victory and beat Ma, Ka and Mo into an “anti Party group”, kaganovic and others knew what the “anti Party group” meant for their lives. Stalin had been personally involved in the practices of anti party elements. Now they have come to this end, and their fear can be imagined. Two days after the plenary session of the CPC Central Committee was closed, Khrushchev received a phone call from Kaganovich asking for forgiveness. “Comrade Khrushchev, I have known you for many years. I beg you not to let those people deal with me in the way they treated people under Stalin’s leadership.”. Khrushchev replied, “you measure others by your own yardstick. But you are wrong. We firmly abide by and will follow the principles of Marxism. If you can work honestly like all the Soviets, you will get a job and you can work and live at ease.”

Khrushchev kept his promise. None of the members of the “anti party clique” was expelled from the party, let alone executed, and all arranged work. This is much more enlightened than the treatment of “anti party groups” in Stalin’s era. After all, Khrushchev promoted the process of social civilization in the Soviet Union.

Tito: “the problem lies in the system”

Tito for Khrushchev’s ruling period, He once said: “the problem lies in the system. Since Khrushchev did not change Stalin’s basic system, personality worship still wandered around the Soviet political arena like a ghost, and the struggle for power has never stopped after that.”

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these events in the Soviet Union, “theoretical, institutional and historical and cultural factors may be more decisive”, without overemphasizing the role of Stalin’s personal factors. Chen Duxiu said in a letter to his friends in his later years: “in Soviet Russia after October, it was clearly the dictatorship that produced Stalin, not the dictatorship with Stalin”. That kind of view that “Stalin’s personal mind is particularly bad, which is completely the opinion of idealists”. Chen Duxiu pointedly reiterated the principle of Marxism: system determines man.

Armenian actor sakiyan talked about a detail of Stalin’s “tiger death does not defeat power”:

once, when filming in the Moscow film studio, the fire brigade came to check, saying that the layout of the power lines in the studio violated the safety regulations. The factory director and the production director took turns to explain that the lieutenant and the fire chief were unmoved. At this time, “Comrade Stalin” (the actor who plays Stalin – the author’s note) came slowly with a pipe: “Comrade lieutenant, don’t hinder our work. You are wasting precious imported film. Stop unnecessary inspection and go back to business immediately!” When the lieutenant saw this, he turned pale and muttered, “yes, comrade Stalin, please forgive me…

the influence behind a powerful figure will form an enduring strong magnetic field. People trapped in it can’t help but “people push and don’t go, and ghosts urge them to run away”.

in its original meaning, Khrushchev was trying to change the current situation of Stalin’s formation. In his book “inside story of Khrushchev’s downfall and his later life”, his son Sergei recorded such a thing:

there was a gust of wind in the Soviet Union: cities, streets and towns were named after individuals. Needless to say, Leningrad, Stalingrad, dzerzhinsky square and so on, even molotovsk, Voroshilovgrad and kirowabad are constantly pouring out. After Khrushchev came to power, he made a resolution that cities should not be named after living political activists in the future. In the summer of 1962, Khrushchev inspected the klemenchut hydropower station built not long ago. With the construction of hydropower stations, a new type of city has developed around. When Khrushchev’s motorcade approached the city, we saw that the road sign beside the road actually wrote in Ukrainian: “Khrushchev city”. At the welcoming ceremony, Khrushchev expressed his gratitude at the beginning, saying that he was very happy that the city was named after him and thanked him for giving him such a high honor. Khrushchev changed his face when the city’s leaders thought they had a plan and were secretly happyPeople, we must choose a young person. In Khrushchev’s words, the people in the presidium are all “grandfathers”. When people reach the age of 60, they don’t want to do things in the future. It’s time to embrace their grandchildren. This successor should understand not only the economy, but also national defense, but also the ideological field – more importantly, he must be “reliable”.

Khrushchev set his eyes on Xie Lieping. Xie Lieping met several conditions: he was born in the Communist Youth League, served as the first Secretary of the Communist Youth League for many years, and had leadership experience as a top leader; He is the youngest member of the current presidium; After working in the central government for a period of time, I am also familiar with the leaders of various central departments. However, he was not familiar with economic work, so Khrushchev proposed to let Xie Lieping go to Leningrad to be the Secretary of the State Party Committee for a period of time. There was the largest party organization in the Soviet Union and modern industry. After training in such a place, he could return to the important post of the Central Committee. To Khrushchev’s surprise, Xie Lieping refused the appointment – he thought it was a demotion and Khrushchev was looking for an excuse to exclude himself. Xie Lieping’s performance made Khrushchev suddenly realize that Xie Lieping did not regard himself as Khrushchev’s person.

later, Khrushchev also thought of Nikolai victorovich Podgorny. Podgorne is smart and experienced, understands economy and can work with people modestly. However, Khrushchev felt that his vision was not broad enough, and the work assigned to him after being transferred to the Central Committee was not handled satisfactorily.

later, Khrushchev also considered Brezhnev – he is undoubtedly the best candidate in terms of experience and qualifications. However, Khrushchev also believed that Brezhnev “could not adhere to his own policy and was too vulnerable to the influence of others and his emotions”. Before the war, when Brezhnev was appointed secretary of the Party committee of a state, the locals gave him the nickname “Ballerina”, saying that he was always spinning like a top, like the “woman who jumped around” in his pen. Of course, such a person can’t be put in the top position.

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may be used as a kind of “investigation”. Khrushchev put Brezhnev and Podgorny in the Secretariat at the same time and divided the power to two “second secretaries”, which probably has the meaning of “two peaches kill three scholars” in the Chinese allusion. Khrushchev obviously learned important political skills from Stalin.

Khrushchev had other considerations. It was this choice and abandonment that made everyone who came into Khrushchev’s sight suffer from ups and downs. There was a saying in the Kremlin: “Khrushchev is not terrible. The terrible thing is that he took a fancy to you.” With the standard of “successor”, any defect is placed under the magnifying glass. In this way, he pushed his original allies into the opposition camp and personally created the basis of the “court coup” in 1964.

reviews the process of Khrushchev’s selection of successors, leaving people with meaningful historical thinking. This is probably the difference between democratic election and “imperial decision”.

farewell to the “swan song” in the political arena “

in fact, before the” court coup “, Khrushchev was not unaware of it. Sergei got information from the captain of Ignatov’s guard and told his father:

his father was lost in thought.

“no, it’s incredible… Brezhnev, podgorne and sherepin are not the same people at all. It’s impossible.” He said thoughtfully, “it’s possible that Ignatov is very dissatisfied, and this man is not good. But what does he have in common with others?”

… My father continued yesterday’s topic, He said bluntly, “it seems that what you said is nonsense. When I came out of the Council of ministers with Michael Yang and podgorne, I said what you said yesterday in a few words, and podgorne mocked me.” thanks to your imagination, Nikita sergeyevich! “That’s his original words.”

Khrushchev’s credulity and podgornei’s cunning constitute another story of “Khrushchev sleeping beside us”.

in fact, Khrushchev was full of contradictions and pain. If you don’t believe it, with the gathering of information from all aspects, things become nose and eye, and a conspiracy is obviously brewing; But if you believe, Khrushchev’s spirit is facing collapse: Because so many people attacked and opposed him, almost all former supporters have become opponents. These people were promoted by Khrushchev after smashing the first court coup at the plenary session of the Central Committee in 1957. If you don’t trust them, who else can you trust in the Soviet Union?

even when the crisis came and Khrushchev was recalled to the Kremlin from his resort, he said to Michael young: “if they really want me to hand over power, I’m not ready to make any resistance.”

before finally signing the “retirement statement”, Khrushchev made his last speech at the central presidium. He said, “I understand. This is my last political speech. How to say it, it’s called a farewell song.” This “farewell song” from the political arena is thought-provoking:

we are all trained by the party, including myself. It is all its credit and the credit of the party that we can have today’s political status. I have the same political and ideological foundation as you. I can’t fight you. I am willing to give way, I will not struggle… I will only say one thing. My main shortcomings and shortcomings are kindness and credulity. Perhaps there is another point, that is, I can’t find my own shortcomings. But even you, all of you here today, have never openly and honestly pointed out any of my shortcomings. You always follow my voice and support all my suggestions. You also lack principle and courage. You accuse me ofAt that time, I also served as the first Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and chairman of the Council of ministers, but let me objectively say that I did not strive for such a concurrent post. In retrospect, the problem was decided collectively, and many of us, including Brezhnev, insisted that I serve concurrently. Maybe my mistake is that I didn’t object to this decision, but you all said that it must be done in order to benefit your career. Now you accuse me of holding two positions.

at that time, all the opposition could not believe that people with Khrushchev’s personality would submit to the “forced Palace” and give up. I thought he would do something unexpected, but he didn’t.

Khrushchev finally wrote a “successor song” different from dictator Stalin with his unique “farewell song” in the political arena. With the ups and downs of his own power field, he completed the return of a leader from God to man.