By 1938, the US Air Force had begun to take shape, but the United States did not feel tranquil because of the addition of this military shield, because the world shock provoked by Adolf, a German war madman, had spread to the United States.
Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in the family of a small Austrian Customs Clerk on the German Austrian border.
His father instilled in his son the idea of becoming a small official when he grew up.
Unexpectedly, the son was firmly opposed to his father’s wishes.
He said he wanted to be an artist and applied to the Academy of fine arts, but he failed, so he wandered in Vienna for five years.
In the past five years, he was forced to find a job and make a living.
He began to work as a small worker and later as a small painter.
Recalling this life, he said: this city can only cause unpleasant memories in my heart.
Hunger is my faithful companion.
It is inseparable from me.
I have a long struggle with it.
Hitler left Vienna for Germany in 1913.
When the war broke out the following year, the tramp finally found the opportunity to join the German army.
In October 1918, when the British attacked the area near Cologne, Hitler was infected with mustard gas and became blind.
At this time, he thought hard that his personal failure seemed inseparable from the suffering of the whole Germanic nation.
In his view, the failure of Germany is difficult to understand according to the usual reason.
But he thought there must be a major and vicious conspiracy.
His patriotism and jealousy of the rich and upper class merged into hatred.
When he lifted the gauze from his eyes and left the hospital, he saw a more tragic scene than he had imagined.
He believed that the Jews, the rich and the Bolsheviks had brought down Germany.
He believed that he had the responsibility to save Germany from this disaster.
He wanted to avenge Germany and lead the nation he determined to be the master to its doomed destiny.
With this in mind, Hitler joined the National Socialist Party.
In 1924, he took part in the riots in Munich.
As a result, he was arrested and sentenced to 13 months’ imprisonment.
He finished his Bible, my struggle, in prison.
Its main purpose is: the combat effectiveness of a race depends on its purity.
Therefore, external di à N pollution must be eliminated.
Because the Jewish race spreads all over the world, it must be pacifist and internationalist.
Pacifism is a Heinous Sin, because it means the surrender of races in the competition for survival If the Germanic race can unite in time, it will be the master of the earth.
The world has now begun this great upheaval.
And the new Germanic country must make our race ready to fight for the last and greatest decisive battle on earth.
After Hitler was released from prison, he immediately resumed the activities of his National Socialist Party and gradually won the leadership of the party.
In the general election in April 1932, Hitler won 13418547 votes, second only to Hindenburg’s 19359983 votes.
By January 30, 1933, Hindenburg finally appointed Hitler as prime minister.
In less than a month, Hitler created a parliamentary arson case and suppressed the German Communist Party.
Shortly after that, the German Socialist Party was suppressed.
And declared that the National Socialist Party is the only political party in Germany.
Thus, the fascist one party system was established in Germany.
On June 1937, Hitler’s troops suddenly entered the border of Rhine law.
He began to take expansionist steps to realize the great ideal in my struggle.
On March 12, 1938, Hitler’s army occupied Austria.
Later, Hitler threatened to seize the German speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia.
This action was like a stone thrown into a spider’s web, causing a multilateral shock.
On September 15, British Prime Minister Chamberlain flew to Germany to meet Hitler in person.
He learned that Germany would never give up unless the Czech Republic immediately gave up the Sudetenland region.
Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Edward dalaidi gave in and agreed that Czechoslovakia must obey the German head of state.
Czechoslovak leaders had no choice but to surrender.
Then Chamberlain begged Hitler, daladi and Mussolini to meet him and find a solution.
Hitler accepted the proposal.
The four leaders met in Munich on September 29 and quickly worked out a plan to dismember the Czechoslovak Republic.
The occupation of Austria and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia have made Americans very worried and angry.
At this time, the first thought is the old American tradition of “neutrality”.
He wanted to repeal or amend the 1937 Chinese legislation.
According to the president’s will, Secretary of state hull kept consulting with the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Ki Pittman, to urge him to take the lead in abolishing the arms embargo, so as not to stimulate Hitler to embark on the road of war.
However, pitman reminded him that the bill to abolish the arms embargo would not pass.
Given the urgency of the situation, the president and the Secretary of state had to abandon this struggle for the time being and concentrate on striving for a stronger defense bill.
Just when the president and the Secretary of state had no clue about the defense bill, the international situation suddenly deteriorated.
On March 15, 1939, Hitler sent troops into Prague and gained control of the rest of the Czech Republic.
The dictator cynically tore up the agreement that was almost wet in ink.
Hitler’s treacherous behavior forced Chamberlain to abandon the appeasement policy and immediately began to negotiate and sign treaties with other countries to ensure the independence and territorial integrity of those countries considered to be the countries that Germany would enter – Poland, Romania, Greece and Turkey.
After Britain, Hitler also expressed his attitude towards Hitler’s entry.
On 17 March, Acting Secretary of state Sumner wells, speaking on behalf of the president, condemned Germany’s “unscrupulous illegal acts” and “tyranny”.
On the same day, the president decided not to recognize the demise of Czechoslovakia and continued to deal with the Czechoslovak minister in Washington.
In addition to this tough talk, the U.S. government has also taken stronger action to amend China’s legislation.
To win Senator Pittman’s support, Roosevelt and hull accepted a compromise he proposed on March 20.
The case extended the duration of the purchase and transportation clause to expand military transportation, including weapons, ammunition and other military raw materials.
The president also tried to bet all his prestige on the complete abolition of the arms embargo, but to no avail.
On May 19, Roosevelt summoned the leader of the house of representatives to the White House and claimed that abolishing the arms embargo could prevent warMoreover, in the event of war, it will inevitably reduce the chances of victory of the axis powers.
However, it was opposed by Congress, which identified it as “neutral”.
Then, the president invited the leaders of the Senate to the White House to discuss the situation in Europe frankly.
All but one of the Senators present thought it impossible to amend the legislation.
Vice president Ghana said to Roosevelt, “well, President, let’s admit the facts.
You don’t have enough supporters, that’s all.
” In response, Roosevelt accused that the Senate would have to bear the responsibility of refusing to take action to protect national security.
At the second round of discussions between the US president and Congress on whether to abolish the “neutrality” policy, the changes in the world situation are dizzying.
One of the great changes: the heads of government of Britain and France abandoned the appeasement policy and called on the Kremlin to sign a covenant to curb Nazism.
The request of the Soviets was to ensure the security of the whole Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, and to recognize the Soviet Union’s right to occupy the vast area from Finland to Bulgaria under certain circumstances.
Great change 2: during the negotiations between Chamberlain and daladi without formally signing a contract with the Soviet Union, he and his new foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov also explored the possibility of signing an agreement with Germany.
Hitler was happy to make temporary concessions to prevent the Soviet Union from uniting with his enemies in the West.
The result of the negotiation was the Soviet German non aggression treaty signed in Moscow on August 23, 1939.
The only published provision was that the Soviet Union and Germany would not attack each other.
The secret clause stipulates that the territory of Eastern Europe will be adjusted finally, with the Soviet Union annexing Finland, Estonia, Latvia, eastern Poland and the province of Sarabia in Romania, while Germany can annexe Lithuania and western Poland.
In this regard, Chamberlain warned that if Germany attacked Poland, Britain would rush to help immediately.
However, he still proposed to discuss the Polish issue.
Hitler ignored Chamberlain’s suggestion.
Within days of Chamberlain’s warning, Hitler sent troops into Poland.
Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
The third great change: in November and December 1939, in order to protect the northern border of the Soviet Union and prevent possible German attacks, the Soviet Union invaded Finland and ignited the war in Europe.
The fourth great change: Although the United States still implemented the neutral plan, the war developed in the opposite direction to the wishes of the United States.
By April 1940, Hitler commanded to enter Denmark and Norway.
On May 10, German aircraft and armored divisions flashed into Belgium, the Netherlands and northern France.
These great changes caused panic in the United States.
Therefore, the President issued a formal declaration of neutrality on September 5, 1939 and implemented legislation.
But he did not ask the people to be as impartial in thought as in action, as Wilson did in 1914.
The situation at this time was different from that at that time, because before the French were able to launch an offensive on the western front, the German army had invaded Poland, and the Soviets united with the Germans to annex Poland.
In the following months, the Germans gathered offensive forces and prepared to launch an offensive on the western front, while the British and French stood still.
At that time, Germany was like a lion without intervention.
Therefore, except for a few diehard isolationists, all Americans realize that a Germany that completely controls Europe will pose a terrible threat to their peace and security.
Especially after Hitler conquered Iceland and Greenland’s home country Denmark, he may get stuck in these two places that control the route from the United States to Britain.
A disaster that seemed impossible before is coming.
Under the impact of Nazi forces, France and its frustrated army trembled and scattered.
The British Expeditionary Force was driven to Dunkirk and forced to make an almost impossible retreat.
Amid the outcry, although the United States has long hung up the sign of neutrality, its military preparations have never stopped for a moment.
Shortly after the occupation of Denmark, the US Army Department held a “defense inspection day” exercise, claiming that it was the second exercise planned under the 1920 Defense Act.
The US military’s ability to organize joint land, sea and air military exercises within a few days is mainly due to the fact that the US military’s preparation work has not stopped since the Wilson period after the first World War.
When Roosevelt arrived, the United States was convinced that after Germany annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia, Nazi Germany became the biggest threat to European and American democracy, Japan would be the biggest enemy of the United States in the Far East Pacific region, and a world-wide war was coming.
Therefore, we should make early preparations and lay a good foundation.
Under Roosevelt’s repeated appeals, the US Congress passed the Vincent act to expand the Navy twice in 1933 and 1938, allocating a total of US $2 billion to build a huge Navy sufficient to deal with the German Italian Japanese joint fleet.
The construction of the army ended the wandering situation of 180000 people during Wilson and Harding.
By 1934, the general staff had reorganized the nominal active and reserve forces of the army into 22 divisions, including the regular army and the National Guard, and formed four field army groups.
On this basis, it is also hoped that national defense funds will be used to establish an “emergency strategic force” with 400000 troops, so that it can cope with real critical situations, especially the war against Japan.
Later, MacArthur’s successor Marlin clay completed MacArthur’s goal.
Congress began to pay for weekly drills for the National Guard, and legislation stipulated that the deployed National Guard units would not break the organizational system, requiring Guard officers to retain Federal Reserve Authority and apply the standards of the regular army to receive training allowance.
Under the Defense Act, the office of the assistant secretary of the army formed a planning staff to assess the relationship between the country’s industrial capabilities and the army’s projected wartime needs.
The staff team was helped by the newly-built Academy – the Army Institute of technology.
The faculty and students of the Academy conducted specific analysis of various industrial data, and established the Army Navy joint arms Committee in 1922 to study the industrial plan from the perspective of the relationship between the services.
The industry and trade community took the original research report of the army department very seriously.
About 14000 industry opinion seekers, many of whom were reserve officers or veterans during the mobilization of the first World War, provided them with information and suggestions.
After identification, the Department of the army put forward the first formal and all inclusive Industrial Mobilization Plan in 1930, so as to provide more centralized guidance for the wartime economy and even the wartime labor collection.
At that time, a war was also establishedThe Chinese Navy could not fight in the sea far away from its domestic bases, and the existing bases themselves were unable to meet the needs of the growing fleet.
Roosevelt had no right to approve the plan to expand or build 26 bases at a cost of 238 million US dollars, and determine 9 bases as bases of “direct strategic importance”, but there were good basic conditions.
Roosevelt was also very interested in air force construction.
After World War I, Mitchell’s proposal to promote air force construction became hot for a while, Roosevelt pushed air force construction to the second climax.
In the autumn of 1938, shortly after the Munich crisis, Roosevelt convened a special meeting of military advisers to study air force policy.
Like many Americans, Roosevelt believed that the Navy and air force were the best means to solve the country’s military problems.
At the end of the meeting, the president announced that the United States would allocate $500 million to increase the number of military aircraft by 10000.
The plan also includes building an aviation industry with an annual output of 24000 aircraft at a certain time in the future.
Although skeptics can’t help recalling Wilson’s romantic idea of “blocking out the sun” in 1917, even the number of planes is so similar.
At the insistence of President Roosevelt, the plan began to be implemented.
On the instructions of the president, the army staff and army aviation planners drew up a plan in time, but the president was reluctant to accept the plan because of its emphasis on the theory of “balanced development”.
However, the president partially accepted the proposal of the plan, and Congress passed the request compressed by Roosevelt three months later, providing us $300 million, bringing the total number of aviation aircraft to 5500, of which 3251 are new aircraft.
Congress also approved an increase of 3000 aviation pilots.
It is these foundations that enable the US military to quickly organize high-level military exercises when the war in Europe burns to their homes.
This can not say that Roosevelt’s “neutrality” is false, but that Roosevelt’s political vision and talent are true.
With these foundations, Roosevelt now made a difference under the declaration of “neutrality”: immediately declare that the country has entered a limited state of emergency.
The “National Federation committee” was established, under which there were Production Management Bureau and Material Management Bureau, which were responsible for wartime production and economic work.
On August 27, Congress authorized the president to call up National Guard reservists for active service, which is the first time in American history to implement the compulsory military service system in peacetime.
On September 16 of the same year, the draft and Training Act was promulgated.
The troops have also stepped up equipment upgrading.
The joint committee composed of the army and Navy put forward a secret report on the total demand for military production, namely the “victory plan”.
From January to August 1940, a total of US $7.
8 billion was added to the military expenditure three times, bringing the national defense expenditure in 1940 to US $13.
It is also planned to increase military spending to $50 billion by 1941.
Cooperating with the opposition parties and reducing congressional resistance, Roosevelt appointed Republicans Stimson and Knox as secretary of the army and Secretary of the Navy respectively, and established a bipartisan joint cabinet.
In addition, the government has also begun to formulate future combat plans, including the “Rainbow 5” plan to enter Europe.
Although Roosevelt made these preparations, the United States continued to adhere to its consistent position of unilateral action, neutrality and Western Hemisphere security.
Even when the army was rearming, it did not respond to the war on the two fronts, and the United States was still “a sleeping giant”.
When the expansionists in Germany and Japan plot, or the British and French governments decide to respond weakly to the invaders on the battlefield, the military force of the United States is still dreaming of not participating in the war.