At the end of the cold war, the confrontation between the two superpowers and the two military blocs disappeared, and the world began to enter the post Cold War period with peace and development as the main trend.

However, against the background of the overall easing of the international situation, some new problems, new situations and new trends have emerged, which have a new impact on the international situation and pose new challenges to the development of human society.

Terrorism and the war on terrorism, nuclear strategic security, environment and sustainable development, as well as regional conflicts caused by territorial disputes, are world hot issues that have emerged after the cold war and become a common concern.

The development trend and solution of these issues will have a far-reaching impact on the development of international politics and economy and human society itself.

Since the end of the cold war, terrorism has become an important factor in the instability of the world situation and poses a great threat to international security.

According to preliminary statistics, from 1990 to the “9 / 11” incident, terrorists carried out more than 100 assassinations, dozens of terrorist bombings occurred around the world, hundreds of people were killed and thousands were injured, and international terrorism became increasingly rampant, The “9.

11″ terrorist attack in the United States in 2001 shows that terrorism has constituted an extremely serious global threat. I. concept and classification of terrorism (I) terrorist activities and terrorist activities refer to destructive acts that can cause fear.

It is the product of human conflict.

Generally speaking, there are six common forms of modern terrorist activities: assassination, hostage taking, explosion, vehicle hijacking, armed attack and biochemical attack.

According to the purpose of terrorist activities, there are two types: political and non political.

If the behavior of the actor is out of some anti social psychology and aimed at personal revenge, extortion or revenge, it is a non political behavior.

Such behavior is a general criminal offence.

On the contrary, if the target of the actor is a national government, or a race, a nation, or a sect, and the purpose is to force the injured to do what they would not have done, such as changing their political attitude or domestic and foreign policies, this behavior is a political behavior.

For example, the terrorist activities carried out by the Northern Ireland Republican Army in Britain are typical political acts.

The Hamas bombing in Israel and the massacre of foreign tourists by Islamic fundamentalist extremists in North Africa are also typical political acts, because their purpose is to force the relevant governments to change their policies.

In the “9 / 11” incident in 2001, although the terrorists did not disclose their political purpose afterwards, it is clear that the terrorists targeted the United States, because the world trade center in New York is the symbol of the U.S. capitalist economy, the Pentagon is the symbol of the U.S. military power, and the white house is the symbol of U.S. politics.

Therefore, this is a typical political behavior.

Terrorism is a kind of political terrorist activity.

It is an organized act of violence or threat of violence against unarmed persons based on political purposes.

The purpose is to put certain objects into terrorism by special means and force them to do things they would not have done.

It has two essential characteristics: (1) using special means of violence different from war.

(2) The actor has a certain political purpose.

(II) types of terrorism terrorism can be divided into two categories from the nature of its actors, namely, governmental acts and non-governmental acts.

Government action refers to a government’s response to other countries by organizing, supporting and financing terrorist activities.

Non governmental acts mainly refer to terrorist acts taken by interest groups.

Most terrorist phenomena belong to such non-governmental acts.

Non governmental terrorism can be divided into two categories: international terrorism and domestic terrorism.

International terrorist activities are the cross-border export of violent acts.

For example, the attacks launched by Islamic fundamentalists targeting the United States, Israel and other countries are mostly transnational acts.

Domestic terrorism is an act confined to its own borders.

The bombing of the federal government building in Oklahoma City in the United States in 1995, the subway gas incident in Tokyo, Japan, and the explosion in Atlanta Olympic Park during the 26th Olympic Games are typical domestic terrorist activities, and the actors have no relationship with foreign countries.

Of course, there are many acts that appear to be domestic terrorism, but actually have an international background, such as the transnational transportation of weapons and personnel and foreign financial support.

As a large category, terrorism of non-governmental acts is extremely complex.

Since the end of the cold war, the more active and influential are as follows: 1 “National” terrorism.

This kind of terrorism is mainly composed of extreme nationalists, autonomy and separatists.

The main goal of its movement is to achieve separation or autonomy, such as the Tamil Tigers, the Kurdish workers’ party, the Republican Army of Northern Ireland, the separatist forces in Chechnya, Russia and so on.2. Religious terrorism.

This is a faction with religion as its ideology, such as terrorism under the banner of Islamic fundamentalism.

Its main purpose is to transform the existing Muslim countries with violence and combat the western society with jihad.3. Neo fascist terrorism, also known as racial terrorism.

This faction pursues reactionary racism, which is characterized by xenophobia and xenophobia.

Its targets are mainly foreign workers, blacks and other non white people.

Now some “skinheads” in European countries and far right militia organizations in the United States belong to this category.4. Underworld terrorism.

This is terrorism committed by international criminal groups, such as violent criminal activities with political purposes carried out by international drug trafficking groups and Italian mafia.

Generally speaking, the main purpose of terrorist activities carried out by these organizations is to force the government to change its policy of combating crime.5. Revolutionary terrorism.

It mainly refers to the terrorist factions under the banner of “revolution” that were active in the 1970s and 1980s, such as the Red Army in Japan, the red brigade in Italy and the guerrillas represented by Peru’s “glorious road” in Latin America.

After the 1990s, most of these terrorist organizations have disappeared.

Second, the causes of terrorism.

Terrorist activities in today’s world are both political and non political.

Terrorist activities as a kind of human conflictTerrorist activities were born under such circumstances.

The rapid development of society makes some people lose their psychological balance.

The sublation and renewal of traditional values lead to a belief crisis.

In addition, many factors, such as the imbalance of social norms, unfair distribution, the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the disorder of moral standards, make cults widely spread all over the world and constitute a global problem. 5. Hegemonism, Neo interventionism and the support and encouragement of various external forces have led to more rampant terrorist activities.

In contemporary international politics, some major powers often interfere in the internal affairs of other countries under the pretext of human rights in order to achieve their strategic goal of dominating the world.

Their approach is: first, take advantage of the ethnic and religious contradictions existing in a country to foster a force that opposes the existing government and obeys its own orders in its country, publicly or secretly provide funds and weapons to make it capable of confronting the government, and then take advantage of the opportunity of armed conflict and bloodshed in its country to intervene in the affairs of the country in the name of safeguarding human rights.

This is the so-called new interventionism.

Because this interventionism takes advantage of national separatism, supports violent activities, and even directly supports terrorist groups, its direct consequence is to lead to the rise and rampancy of terrorist activities. III. main characteristics of contemporary terrorist activities from the development trend of global terrorist activities at the turn of the century, this phenomenon will still exist for a long time in the future.

The reason is that the root causes of this human conflict still exist, and various ethnic, racial, religious and social contradictions have not been reasonably solved.

Facing the current situation and characteristics of terrorist activities, it is certain that the development momentum of global terrorist activities is still spreading, and the future situation of international anti-terrorism struggle will also be very severe.

(I) traditional terrorist activities with hijacking, explosion and assassination as the main means are still frequent, with wide scope and strong continuity.

In recent years, large-scale aircraft hijacking and hostage taking incidents have occurred frequently all over the world.

On January 24, 2000, the Burmese “LRA”, led by a pair of 12-year-old twin brothers, rushed into a hospital in Thailand and took 200 medical and nursing personnel and 600 patients hostage.

Since March 20, 2000, the Abu Sayyaf armed forces in the Philippines have successively created a number of kidnappings, including teachers and students in the country, foreign tourists in Malaysia and Chinese engineers and technicians.

At the turn of the century, the representative terrorist events such as bomb explosion and assassination mainly include the suicide bombing in front of the prime minister’s office of Sri Lanka.

A bomb exploded on a passenger train in the southern Indian city of Hyderabad.

A serious explosion occurred in Srinagar, the capital of Indian controlled Kashmir.

On August 7, 1998, the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were attacked by car bombs almost at the same time, 224 people were killed and thousands were injured.

On October 12, 2000, the USS Cole, a missile destroyer belonging to the Fifth Fleet of the US Navy, collided with a rubber boat filled with high explosives and exploded violently while refueling in the port of Aden, Yemen, killing 17 US sailors on board.

That night, the British Embassy in Yemen also exploded.

There is evidence that these terrorist incidents were committed by terrorist organizations controlled by bin Laden.

In view of the continuous terrorist activities, the US government was forced to order the temporary closure of US embassies in 21 countries.

On July 2, 2000, Russian Chechen rebels committed six suicide truck bombings in Argonne and other areas within 24 hours, killing 44 people and wounding 120 others.

Spain’s ETA advocates splitting the Basque region from Spain through violent struggle.

In the past 40 years, it has created more than 800 terrorist incidents such as assassinations and bombings, which have claimed thousands of lives.

It mostly targeted officials of the ruling party of the Spanish government and other politicians opposed to Basque independence.

Since the organization announced the abolition of the ceasefire agreement in December 1999, the organization has committed at least more than 30 terrorist activities in 2000.

On August 26, 2000, the New Zealand police announced that after careful reconnaissance, they had foiled a plot planned by Afghan refugees to destroy a nuclear reactor in Sydney, Australia, which is believed to be related to bin Laden.

On September 11, 2001, the world trade center in New York and the Pentagon were hit by civil aircraft hijacked by terrorists.

The two towers of the World Trade Center burst into flames after being hit and collapsed successively.

The White House and the State Department were also attacked by car bombs.

In this appalling terrorist incident, the unique thinking, careful preparation, strict organization, cruel means, heavy losses and far-reaching international influence of terrorists are unprecedented.

After a preliminary investigation, the United States believes that bin Laden is the biggest suspect in this incident.

In this terrorist incident, the death toll exceeded 3000.

A piece of rubble in Manhattan, New York, USA.

People all over the world witnessed the tragedy on television.

The terrorist incident at the beginning of the century not only shocked the US government and the public, but also made the people all over the world deeply realize that international terrorism will be the great enemy of world peace in the new century.

We must strengthen international cooperation and fight relentlessly against the increasingly rampant international terrorism.

Osama bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia in 1957.

His father is the richest builder in Saudi Arabia.

The property of the bin Laden family is estimated to be $5 billion, and $300 million belongs to bin Laden himself.

In his youth, bin Laden came into contact with a large number of Islamic classics when his father repaired the heavenly house of Mecca, the holy land of Islam, and began to become a fanatical Islamic fundamentalist.

After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, bin Laden went to Afghanistan to join the Islamic Jihad Organization.

In 1988, bin Laden established al IDA, the base of his Jihad Organization.

At that time, bin Laden received strong support from the US Central Intelligence Agency to help him train terrorists, provide funds and weapons.

After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Afghanistan, the fanatical followers of Islamic fundamentalism under Osama bin Laden began a worldwide “Jihad”.

In addition to continuously creating terrorist events, they also participated in the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the civil war in Kosovo, Yugoslavia and the civil war in Chechnya, Russia.

In 1996, bin Laden established a base camp in Afghanistan.

In February 1998, terrorist organizations in Arab countries were in bin Laden’s base campThe situation is serious.

Nowadays, the development of international underworld organizations is also very rapid, organized underground criminal activities are becoming more and more rampant, and are developing in the direction of internationalization.

Moreover, they are more and more inclined to achieve their own goals by means of terrorism, which poses a serious threat to modern society.

Some international drug trafficking groups, international arms smuggling groups, extreme right-wing organizations and underworld organizations have recruited a large number of terrorists as mercenaries, bodyguards and killer groups for them to carry out some assassinations, kidnappings, bombings and even massacre social attacks.

The two forces come together by coincidence, and “interdependence” forms an “integrated” criminal terrorist group “to jointly deal with the strong pressure of the international community.

In the 21st century, such “confluence” may be further strengthened.

Fourth, there will be more and more terrorist activities against the United States.

The frenzy of terrorism is hitting many countries in the world, and the United States is the first to bear the brunt and suffer the most.

According to the statistics of the CIA, there are more than 1000 major terrorist organizations in the world, with an increasing trend compared with the past.

According to the statistics of the U.S. Department of defense, in 1995, there were 440 terrorist incidents in the world, of which about 22.

5% were terrorist cases involving infringement of U.S. interests.

In 1996, there were 496 terrorist incidents in the world, of which about 24.

7% involved violations of the interests of the United States.

According to statistics, nearly 40% of terrorist activities in the whole 1990s were aimed at the United States and Americans.

The “native” terrorist organizations in the United States are another “stubborn tumor” of American national security.

According to statistics, there are more than 800 terrorist organizations in the United States, with millions of members, including more than 400 militia organizations and white supremacy organizations, which are distributed in 50 states.

The larger armed groups include: underground special forces, local guard, white Aryan resistance organization, white patriots, Minnesota patriot Commission, Oklahoma constitutional militia, etc.

These organizations have developed terrorist plans, have abundant funds and possess guns, ammunition and even biological and chemical weapons.

In recent years, most of the numerous bombings in the United States have been committed by these people.

(II) the fight against terrorism and international cooperation as international terrorist activities continue to become a global phenomenon, countries around the world gradually realize that in the face of increasingly severe terrorist activities, compromise means weakness, and fighting separately means giving terrorists breathing space and room for maneuver.

All countries should seek extensive cooperation with other countries on an international scale.

Many countries regard counter-terrorism as a major matter of safeguarding national security, and have carried out various international cooperation on the basis of reaching a consensus on counter-terrorism.1. There is a good momentum in the fight against terrorism and international cooperation against terrorism.

Countries all over the world have generally taken strong measures to carry out the war on terrorism.

In the first half of 2000, Russia revised and adopted the concept of national security and military doctrine, clearly listed terrorism as one of the main threats to national security, and took combating terrorism as an important part of ensuring national security.

The United States, Europe, Japan and some developing countries also stressed the need to strengthen the fight against terrorism.

In order to deal with new terrorist activities by means of cyber attacks, the US government increased the funds for combating cyber terrorist activities from US $1.

75 billion in the previous year to US $2.

03 billion in the budget of fiscal year 2001.

After the “9 / 11” incident, the United States regarded the terrorist attack on the homeland as the biggest threat to national security, and specially established the Department of homeland security, which plans to allocate billions of dollars every year to protect the homeland from terrorist attacks.

In terms of international cooperation against terrorism, countries have also stepped up efforts.

On October 19, 1999, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution drafted by Russia, firmly condemning all forms of terrorism and calling on all countries to fully implement a series of anti-terrorism conventions.

The specific measures that the resolution requires States to take include: preventing and combating terrorist acts through bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

Deny asylum to all those who plan, finance or support terrorist activities and ensure their arrest, prosecution or extradition.

Carry out judicial cooperation and information exchange.

In January and June 2000, the heads of state of CIS met in Moscow twice and unanimously stressed the need to strengthen cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism.

Since then, some Central Asian countries and Russia have also held several large-scale joint military exercises with counter-terrorism as the main content, in order to explore the establishment of a mechanism for CIS countries to jointly combat international terrorism and coordinate the joint actions of Central Asian countries and Russian forces in counter-terrorism.

On July 5, when meeting in Dushanbe, the heads of state of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan unanimously expressed the need to strengthen cooperation in combating national separatism, religious extremism and international terrorism, and decided to set up an anti-terrorism center in Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, to coordinate the actions of the five countries in the fight against terrorism.

On June 15, 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established with the participation of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Ukraine.

One of the important purposes of this organization is to jointly combat national separatism, religious extremism and international terrorism that have endangered the security of Central Asia in recent years.

After the “9 / 11” incident in the United States, the heads of the world’s major powers exchanged telephone calls, emphasizing the need for countries to strengthen cooperation with each other and jointly combat international terrorism.

While the international community has stepped up its counter-terrorism efforts, the international community has increasingly urged the United Nations to play a greater role in the fight against terrorism.

The role of the United Nations should be mainly reflected in three aspects: first, unify the understanding of all countries on terrorism, condemn any form of terrorist activities, and make terrorism lose moral support.

Second, member states are required to assist other countries in combating terrorist activities, and the fundamental point of such assistance is to cut off all links between terrorist organizations and the outside world, including the sources of funds and weapons.

Third, we must not infringe on the sovereignty of other countries and let the people of sovereign countries solve their own internal affairs.

Only in this way can we eradicate the cancer of terrorism and create a stable environment for the development of all countries in the world.

Terrorist activities are rampant all over the world, which has also attracted great attention of other international organizations except the United Nations.

In its newly revised guiding principles, Interpol clearly points out that all terrorist acts are illegal and that all Interpol Member States must cooperate closely in the fight against terrorism.

Before that, international.