After the end of the cold war, the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union ended, and the factors of World War broke out all over the world were eliminated.
However, the world is not at peace.
Some new regional conflicts and wars break out frequently and spread rapidly, such as the Arab Israeli conflict in the Middle East, the Indian Pakistani Kashmir issue in South Asia, the Korean Peninsula issue, the Gulf War and the Gulf crisis.
Conflicts and crises in these regions pose a great threat to world peace and stability.
The outbreak of conflicts and crises in these regions is not accidental, but has a profound historical background and complex practical factors. I. Arab Israeli conflict in the Middle East Arab Israeli conflict in the Middle East refers to the conflict between Arab countries in the Middle East and Israel.
The essence of the contradiction is the territorial issue, in which the conflict between Palestine and Israel is the core.
The territorial disputes between the two sides have been formed in the past few decades.
In the early 19th century, Zionism rose, and Jews from all over the world flocked to Palestine.
After the first World War, Palestine became the British trusteeship, and Jerusalem was the capital of the Palestinian trusteeship.
Britain divides it into two parts: Taking the Jordan River as the boundary, Palestine is divided into East and west parts.
The East is called outer Jordan (now the kingdom of Jordan) and the west is still called Palestine (now Israel, the West Bank of the Jordan River and the Gaza Strip).
Since then, Jews around the world began to migrate to Palestinian areas.
In the process of Jews pouring into Palestine, there have been many bloody conflicts between Jews and local Palestinian Arabs.
As the British army was unable to control the situation in Palestine, it announced its withdrawal from Palestine and referred the issue to the United Nations.
In 1947, the United Nations Security Council adopted the resolution on the partition of Palestine, which divided the Palestinian territory with a total area of more than 26000 square kilometers into two.
14477 square kilometers were allocated to Jews to establish the state of Israel and 11655 square kilometers were allocated to Arabs to establish Palestine.
Jerusalem was tentatively designated as an “international city”, that is, the ownership was uncertain.
The Arab League announced that it would not recognize the Jewish state established in Palestine and would mobilize its members to intervene in the situation in Palestine.
During this period, Jews also launched armed attacks everywhere.
The Middle East began to fall into conflict.
On May 14, 1948, the state of Israel announced its establishment.
In the Arab Israeli war that broke out on May 15, 1948, the day after the founding of Israel, Israel annexed more than 6200 square kilometers of land allocated to Palestine and forcibly occupied West Jerusalem.
At that time, King Abdullah of Jordan occupied 5268 square kilometers of West Bank territory, including East Jerusalem, which was assigned to Palestine.
Egypt controls the Gaza Strip.
The Palestinian state has not been completed.
More than 700000 Palestinians have become refugees.
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a large-scale surprise attack on Egypt, Syria and Jordan.
The war ended on June 11.
In this war, Israel occupied the West Bank of Palestine, the Gaza Strip, the Jordanian administrative area of Jerusalem City, the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and the Golan Heights of Syria, totaling 65700 square kilometers of Arab land, reduced nearly 500000 Arabs to homeless refugees, and declared the whole Jerusalem the capital of Israel.
In this war against Israeli aggression, Egypt announced on June 6 that it would stop shipping on the Suez Canal.
Under the manipulation of the two superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, the United Nations Security Council adopted ceasefire resolutions twice on June 7 and 8 of the same year.
Egypt, Syria and Jordan were forced to accept an unconditional ceasefire when they lost a large area of land.
In the 1982 Lebanon war, Israel occupied a 10-15 kilometer wide strip in southern Lebanon.
According to the Camp David agreement reached between Egypt and Israel in 1978, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
In 1974, Israel returned part of the Golan Heights to Syria, but continued to occupy the remaining 700 square kilometers of the Golan Heights and announced its annexation in 1981.
In recent years, Israel has built a large number of Jewish immigrant settlements in the Arab territories it occupies.
In the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel has established 200 settlements and 104000 Jewish immigrants.
Israel’s Jewish immigration policy seeks to establish a great Israeli state from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean by changing the population structure of the occupied Arab territories.
The Arab countries have always demanded that Israel comply with the resolutions 242 and 338 adopted by the United Nations Security Council in 1967 and 1973 respectively, and demand that Israel stop building Jewish immigrant settlements in the occupied territories and withdraw from the territories occupied in 1967.
For a long time, the Palestinian people have never given up their struggle to establish an independent state.
In November 1988, the 19th special session of the Palestinian National Committee, held in Algiers, announced the establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital, which has been recognized by most countries in the world.
After the end of the cold war, the Middle East peace process has seen waves again.
The Madrid Middle East peace conference in 1991 established the principle of “land for peace”, which became the basis of Palestinian Israeli negotiations and even the whole Middle East peace process.
The Palestinian side insists on “land for peace”, returns the occupied territories and realizes Palestinian autonomy before signing a peace treaty with Israel.
Israel demands to recognize Israel first, and then realize “peace for peace” and refuses to return the occupied territory.
The two sides are deadlocked and the negotiations have made no progress.
Rabin became Prime Minister of Israel in 1992.
Rabin adopted more flexible measures in the Middle East peace process and accepted the Security Council resolution on achieving peace in the Middle East.
In 1993, Palestine and Israel reached an Oslo peace agreement on the Gaza Jericho autonomy plan, and Palestine and Israel officially recognized each other.
This has become the first major breakthrough in the Middle East peace process.
In May 1994, Israel officially withdrew its troops from Gaza and Jericho, and the Palestinians established an autonomous regime headed by Arafat.
In July 1994, Jordan and Israel signed the declaration, officially ending the long-term hostility between the two countries, which is another major progress in the Middle East peace process.
However, in November 1995, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was unfortunately assassinated and killed, and the Middle East peace process encountered a serious setback.
In 1996, Netanyahu, the leader of the right-wing group who has always advocated a tough policy, was elected the new Prime Minister of Israel.
His tough stance cast a shadow on the Middle East peace process again.
In October 1998, Palestine and Israel signed an agreement on the redeployment of Israeli troops in the West BankHowever, the Netanyahu government has repeatedly delayed the implementation of the agreement, and no progress has been made in the Middle East peace process.
In 1999, after Barak was elected Prime Minister of Israel, he adopted some positive policies to open the safe passage of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and release some Palestinian detainees.
These positive moves have brought a new turn to the stalled Middle East peace process.
However, with regard to the final stage of Palestinian negotiations, the two sides still have not reached a permanent peace agreement because of their great differences on thorny issues such as the ownership of Jerusalem, Jewish settlements, the return of Palestinian refugees and the delimitation of the Palestinian Israeli border.
Contradictions and conflicts between the two sides continue.
In September 2000, Israeli hardline leader Sharon forcibly entered the Al Aqsa Mosque, the holy land of Islam, which triggered a protracted bloody Palestinian Israeli conflict.
In March 2001, Sharon was elected the new Prime Minister of Israel and implemented a tough policy.
The Sharon government basically rejected the practice of former Prime Minister Barak in promoting the peace process, put forward the “Five Principles” for resolving the Israeli Palestinian conflict, stressed that it would not hesitate to resort to force to “ensure the security of all Israeli people”, pursued the policy of “targeted clearance” and continued to assassinate Palestinian factional leaders.
In 2001, the Middle East peace process did not make any progress worth mentioning.
After the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the Israeli Sharon authorities took the opportunity to raise the banner of “anti-terrorism”, put the Palestinian struggle against Israeli occupation into the ranks of “terrorism”, and once again expanded the scale of military attack on Palestine.
After a series of bombings and attacks against Israelis by Palestinian radical organizations, the Sharon government’s tough policy went further and further.
In order to combat and curb the suicide bombing attacks of Palestinian radical organizations, the Israeli government has successively launched military operations of “defense wall” and “firm road”, occupied seven Palestinian controlled cities in the West Bank, arrested more than 3500 Palestinian militants and seized a large number of weapons and ammunition.
Due to the excessive use of force by the Israeli government against the Palestinian side, the anti Israeli sentiment of Palestinian radical organizations is rising.
Palestinian radical organizations, including Hamas, continue to engage in suicide bombings in Israel.
Retaliation and counter retaliation turn into a vicious circle, which intensifies the confrontation between Israel and Palestine.
The prospect of Israeli Palestinian peace talks is not optimistic. 2. The Korean Peninsula issue in February 1945, on the eve of the end of World War II, the heads of state of the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union reached a secret agreement at the Yalta meeting and decided to send troops to fight against Japan on the Korean peninsula with the 38th parallel of north latitude as the boundary.
The Red Army of the Soviet Union occupied the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and the American Army stationed in the southern part of the peninsula.
On August 15, 1945, Japan, which had colonized the peninsula for 36 years, announced its surrender.
During the next three years, the north and the South tried to establish a unified government and made various efforts to this end.
However, when this wish could not be realized at that time, the north and the south, with the support of the United States and the Soviet Union, established the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in August and September 1948, respectively, making the division of the Korean peninsula a reality.
On June 25, 1950, the Korean War trying to reunify the peninsula by force broke out.
In a more complex international context, the two sides conducted a seesaw battle with the 38th parallel as the boundary.
Finally, the belligerents signed an armistice agreement on July 27, 1953, and the Korean War ended.
The 38th parallel has become the military demarcation line of the Korean Peninsula and an insurmountable gap between the people in the north and south of the Korean Peninsula.
In the early 1990s, with the collapse of the bipolar pattern of confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, there was a new adjustment in international relations in Northeast Asia, and the dialogue atmosphere between North and South Korea also strengthened.
In 1991, North and South Korea signed a reconciliation document to ease tensions on the Korean Peninsula, opening a historic page for ending the 47 year long cold war on the Korean Peninsula.
However, the subsequent development of the situation was not as optimistic as expected.
In 1993, the nuclear crisis on the Korean Peninsula broke out around the issue of North Korea’s nuclear facilities.
North Korea once claimed to withdraw from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), while the United States tried to pass a resolution on sanctions against North Korea in the United Nations Security Council and envisaged using military force to attack North Korea’s nuclear facilities.
Under the mediation of China and other relevant parties, in 1994, the United States and the DPRK signed a framework agreement on the establishment of the “Korean energy development organization” (KEDO), assisting the DPRK in the peaceful use of nuclear energy through international funding and making the DPRK’s nuclear energy development subject to international supervision.
The energy crisis on the Korean Peninsula has come to an end for the time being.
The Clinton Administration’s North Korea policy advocates both pressure and negotiation.
Although the US DPRK missile negotiations that began in September 1999 have not been able to persuade North Korea to abandon its missile program, they have played a positive role in curbing the further deterioration of the missile crisis.
At the same time, the missile negotiations between the United States and North Korea have reserved communication channels for promoting the parties concerned to resolve disputes through diplomatic channels.
From April to May 2000, former US Secretary of Defense Perry visited North Korea, South Korea and their surrounding countries.
In August 2000, the “Perry report” was officially released.
The report stressed that the DPRK’s missile development plan is a threat to the United States and its neighbors, and the United States cannot accept it.
As for how to solve the North Korean missile issue, the report supports the “sunshine policy” pursued by South Korean President Kim Dae Jung, advocates that the United States and North Korea continue to have dialogue on missile and nuclear issues, and requires the U.S. government to adopt a policy of engagement with North Korea.
The “Perry report” reflects the tone of the Clinton Administration’s North Korea policy.
Subsequently, the US DPRK missile talks continued.
During that period, in August 2000, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited the DPRK and spread the idea that the DPRK is willing to exchange missiles for satellites, indicating the flexible position taken by the DPRK leaders on the issue of missile development.
In 2000, the leaders of the two Koreas adopted a calm, pragmatic and rational attitude in handling bilateral relations, and both sides showed a good desire to improve relations.
In June 2000, the inter Korean summit meeting was held as scheduled, which is not only the result of South Korean leader Kim Dae Jung’s adherence to the “sunshine policy” of exchanges with the DPRK, but also the result of North Korea’s flexible diplomacy under the new situation.
The new progress in inter Korean relations is conducive to the easing of the situation on the Korean Peninsula and the peace and development of the entire Northeast Asia region.
This move has been widely praised by the international community.
After Bush took office, the United States’ North Korea policy suddenly changed significantly.
The Republican government publicly accused the North Korean leader of lacking “sincerity to truly solve the problem”, so it decided to stop all negotiations with North Korea.
The U.S. ambassador to the Republic of Korea spoke at a meeting in February 2001As a result, India controlled the land of Kashmir 23 and the population of Kashmir 34, especially the upper reaches of the janab River and Ravi River, which were of great significance for agricultural irrigation in Pakistan.
Therefore, India took advantage of the first India Pakistan war.
After the war, Pakistan controlled only 13 land and 14 population of Kashmir.
The first Kashmir war between India and Pakistan caused a long-term military confrontation between the two countries.
It has had an important impact on the national defense construction, military strategy and military construction of both sides.
In August 1948 and September 1949, the UN Security Council India Pakistan Committee adopted resolutions on the Kashmir ceasefire and referendum respectively.
The resolution enabled India and Pakistan to cease fire in January 1949 and demarcate the ceasefire line in July.
However, on the issue of referendum, although the governments of India and Pakistan reached a reconciliation in 1953, the Indian government has always blocked the referendum and insisted that Kashmir is an integral part of India.
In April 1965, the armed struggle between India and Pakistan in Kashmir often triggered the second armed struggle in Kashmir.
Kashmir was also one of the original causes of the war to dismember Pakistan on November 21, 1971.
The development and transformation of societies in South Asia and India and Pakistan are often closely related to the evolution and development of religion.
Religious thought has penetrated into all aspects of Indian and Pakistani society, and the biggest scourge of the Indian and Pakistani crisis is often caused by religious factors.
The contradiction and conflict between Hinduism and Islam on the South Asian subcontinent has a history of thousands of years.
The contradiction and conflict between Hindus and Muslims began in 712.
In order to conquer the resistance of Hindus, the Islamic rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India did not hesitate to adopt extremely harsh religious high-pressure policies to Islamize India.
At that time, the rights of the majority of Hindus were completely deprived.
They experienced great suffering.
The Islamic rulers only allowed them to be humble and obedient.
Until the seeds of Hindu hatred towards Muslims were deeply buried in their hearts, the contradictions and conflicts between the two religions did not stop for a moment.
During the period of British colonial rule, the British colonists used the old feud between Hindus and Muslims to sow discord and provoke hatred and murder between Hindus and Muslims again and again, so as to achieve the purpose of stabilizing their rule over the Indian subcontinent.
What the British did deepened the hatred between Hindus and Muslims.
After the partition of India and Pakistan, the hatred between Hindus and Muslims has not disappeared, and the crisis of religious conflict still exists.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the construction of Rama Temple triggered bloody conflict between Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat.
Therefore, religious issues have always been the bane of the India Pakistan crisis.
Religious and territorial disputes are intertwined, which makes India and Pakistan in a state of confrontation for a long time, and often leads to tension in bilateral relations and even armed conflict due to some accidents.
For example, the riots in Indian controlled Kashmir at the end of 1989 soon affected the relations between India and Pakistan.
The diplomatic and press circles in New Delhi and Islamabad once warmly discussed the possibility of another war between India and Pakistan.
Since the end of the cold war, all countries have been committed to economic development, the situation in South Asia has stabilized, and the relationship between India and Pakistan has eased.
After the end of the cold war, the United States acted as the “mediator” of the India Pakistan Kashmir dispute.
Due to the consideration of their own domestic and foreign factors and the pressure of the United States, India and Pakistan resumed the 14 month long foreign secretary of State talks in Islamabad on January 1, 1994.
The two countries have not made a substantive breakthrough on this issue because of the long distance between them.
In May 1998, India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests one after another, which once made the situation in South Asia tense, and the whole subcontinent shrouded in the shadow of nuclear threat.
In February 1999, at the invitation of Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif, Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee arrived in Lahore, Pakistan, for a two-day official visit.
The two sides signed the Lahore declaration, which once eased India Pakistan Relations.
However, in early May 1999, India and Pakistan clashed again in Kashmir’s kajil region, killing thousands of people on both sides.
Since then, the dialogue between the two countries has been interrupted, making the bilateral relations return to the freezing point after the initial easing.
On January 26, 2001, after the strong earthquake in Gujarat, India, Pakistani President Musharraf called Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee and expressed deep sympathy to the local affected people.
This is the first telephone conversation between the leaders of India and Pakistan since Musharraf took office in October 1999.
From July 14 to 17, at the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee, Pakistani President Musharraf visited India and held talks with Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee.
The two men discussed “all issues” in bilateral relations, including Kashmir.
This is the first meeting between the leaders of the two countries since the renewed tension between India and Pakistan in May 1999.
It is also the first time for Pakistani leaders to set foot on Indian soil in 16 years.
The talks marked the break of the two-year deadlock in India Pakistan Relations and a new turn for the better.
However, on December 13, 2001, an attack on the parliament building in India killed 14 people, including five attackers.
After this incident, India launched a new round of diplomatic offensive against Pakistan.
Relations between India and Pakistan have become tense, and the two sides have mobilized troops along the line of actual control in Kashmir and other border areas.
The two countries have carried out the largest troop build-up in the border area in 30 years, and the situation on the India Pakistan border is in a state of tension.
The day after the attack on the parliament building, the Indian government said that India had “technical evidence” that the incident was committed by two separatist organizations in Pakistan controlled Kashmir.
India asked Pakistan to ban the two organizations and bring their leaders to justice.
Pakistan responded quickly to India’s accusations, saying that India’s accusation that Pakistan’s intelligence agencies manipulated the attack behind the scenes was pure fabrication.
At the same time, Pakistan denied providing bases or training for extremist organizations.
Pakistan expressed its willingness to conduct a joint investigation with India and pledged that if the joint investigation confirmed that anyone in Pakistan was involved in the attack, the Pakistani authorities would take action against him.
Since then, the two sides have launched a series of diplomatic struggles and military mobilization preparations, and even claimed that nuclear weapons may be used.
The situation in South Asia once againMore than 100 troops died, and tens of thousands of people died in Iraq.
The war caused serious pollution to the ecological environment in the Gulf region, such as water, air and soil.
About 600 oil wells were on fire in Kuwait.
Resolution 687 adopted by the UN Security Council in 1991 requires Iraq to unconditionally destroy existing biological and chemical weapons and production capacity, and destroy missiles and missile launchers with a range of more than 150 kilometers.
From April 1991 to October 1997, under the supervision of UNSCOM, relevant units have destroyed 199 missiles, 25 missile launchers and 38000 chemical weapons in Iraq, monitored 480000 litres of chemical agents, sealed up or transported 37 kilograms of enriched uranium and 552 kilograms of other nuclear materials.
The inspectors acknowledged that after 1995, there were basically no weapons and materials that must be destroyed as stipulated in UN Resolution 687.
In order to exert military pressure on Iraq, the United States and Britain have established two no fly zones in Iraq, covering more than 40% of Iraq’s territory.
At the same time, the United States and other countries also carry out military strikes against Iraq from time to time.
From December 17 to 19, 1998, the United States and Britain launched a military strike code named “Desert Fox” against Iraq without any prior warning.
In addition, the United States has repeatedly put forward various reasons in the UN Security Council to prevent the relaxation of sanctions against Iraq.
In March 1997, US Secretary of state Albright made a public speech, claiming that the United States would not agree to lift sanctions against Iraq unless Iraqi President Saddam Hussein stepped down.
With the obstruction of the United States, the relationship between UNSCOM and Iraq has become tense, and verification crises have erupted many times.
The verification crisis in 1998 almost led to the re outbreak of war, and the United States was ready to launch an armed attack code named “desert thunder”.
The crisis was finally resolved through the mediation of the Secretary General of the United Nations and the efforts of China, Russia, France and other countries.
However, from December 17 to 19 of the same year, the United States and Britain launched a military strike code named “Desert Fox” against Iraq without any prior warning.
The severe sanctions imposed by the international community on Iraq have caused huge losses to Iraq’s national economy, lack of medical care, lack of food and extreme difficulties in people’s life.
On 1 July 2000, Iraq announced that the economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations since 1990 had killed 1.
35 million Iraqis, most of them children.
After taking office as president of the United States in 2001, Bush continued to pursue a tough policy towards Iraq.
Shortly after he took office, he launched a new round of military strikes against Iraq.
After the “9 / 11” incident, the Bush administration, in the name of counter-terrorism, determined that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, firmly demanded that Iraq eliminate these threats and demanded Saddam to step down, otherwise it would use military means to drive Saddam out of office.
Therefore, the Gulf region is in crisis again, and the shadow of war is thick.