I feel that the crusade is very cruel in modern film and television works and literary works, but there is no such feeling in the book (just an ordinary war in the Middle Ages). How cruel is this war? Can you give an example?
can’t you feel the cruelty of war when reading history books? Probably because the history book from the perspective of God will only focus on the causes and consequences of war. Even if you read that the Crusader slaughtered one city and two cities, your mind is only an abstract concept. You can’t intuitively imagine the streets with bleeding flesh, the suburbs with corpses everywhere, and the desperate eyes of prisoners trembling and waiting for the judgment of life and death.
moreover, due to various considerations, China’s historical circles often intentionally or unintentionally weakened the religious fanaticism of the Crusade, and claimed that secular interests were the main reason for the eastern expedition. Therefore, readers often formed the impression that greedy knights were to blame, or thought that the Crusade was essentially no different from other wars in the middle ages. This is bullshit.
if you want to experience the cruelty of the Crusade, you must first understand the innocence and fanaticism of those people.
at the Claremont conference in 1095, Pope Urban II promised to take up arms and go to the East. God will forgive all your sins and allow all of you to go to heaven after death. You know, in that era when the Holy See had absolute faith authority, the papal edict was the word of God. The power of this order was enough to make people excited. Not to mention those who witnessed the Pope’s provocative speech – we can’t imagine how glorious it was to hear such a speech in Europe at that time.
in order to express their piety and obtain salvation, it is not enough to embroider cross marks on clothes. Without tattoo technology, many people burn a cross on their chest with a soldering iron.
Inthissignweshallconquer. So they embarked on the journey.
start with the civilian crusade.
those simple minded French farmers, after the Pope’s call, spontaneously organized a civilian Crusade with no actual combat ability, sold their only family property, left only a sword for themselves, and more than 60000 people rushed to Jerusalem. After a group of crazy and provocative monks preached, nearly 200000 farmers in Germany joined. For those who can’t afford atonement vouchers, the eastern expedition seems to be the only way to obtain amnesty. Most of these people who only have the innocent imagination of redemption and heaven in their minds don’t even know where Jerusalem is. Many people pass by every larger city along the way and ask whether this is Jerusalem.
one can imagine what would happen to such a group of five fighting farmers in the face of the Turkish cavalry that later swept Byzantium. But although the Byzantines warned them not to engage the Turks and waited patiently for the main force of the Crusades to arrive, the army, which had no knowledge of the war, rushed impatiently. Later, when the Turks besieged Nicaea, they cut off the water source, and the group had to drink urine to quench their thirst. They did not know the art of war and suffered repeated defeats. It was only with the help of Byzantines that 3000 people were lucky to return to Europe alive.
mortality rate was 98%. The army of
is now more regarded as a joke. But when you think about it, they used to live the same life as most people today, stable and peaceful. When they set out, they thought they could bring back some treasures from Asia to their wives and children, not to mention the promise of eternal redemption. Many of them don’t even know how to use swords.
knights are actually a group of poor people.
the First Crusade had no leadership at the national level, and the kings actually responded coldly to the Pope’s call. However, a large number of knights and feudal landlords participated in the Jihad with great enthusiasm.
if it is really to plunder the wealth of the East, in fact, many Knights will not participate in the war. Think about it. A group of nobles with families, businesses and land sell their land and spend a lot of money to build armor and weapons.
in the market at that time, because the phenomenon of selling land, agricultural tools and livestock was too serious, all these assets suffered depreciation, while the prices of horses and spears were too high for landlords to bear for a time. But they did not turn back, smashing pots and selling iron, abandoning their families and children (some with their families) and running all the way to the East.
but they were disillusioned in the end. Even surviving Knights rarely return home to Europe. Later, the Knights traveled everywhere. The Knights of hospitals settled on the small island of Malta and lived with a group of people who couldn’t understand their own words day and night. The so-called exile, but so.
due to their religious fanaticism, the Crusade, especially the previous Crusades, is likely to be the most violent war to vent hatred in western history.
when the civilian Crusaders first arrived in Belgrade, just because of the misunderstanding caused by poor language communication, these peasant armies slaughtered 4000 Hungarians and set the city on fire.
the first Crusaders massacred Jews in large numbers, which was actually a precursor to the later massacre of Muslims: Although there was a factor of looting materials, the knights were far less interested in materials in the massacre than in forcing Jews to convert to Christianity. The internal cause of these massacres is the same, that is, the Revenge of pagans who “defiled the glory of the Lord”.
at the time of the Antioch massacre, the Crusaders did not identify the people who were killed. In addition to Muslims, countless Christians were also killed in the massacre by the red eyed crusadersThis passage can well reflect the enthusiasm of the congregation at that time:
when the popeascendedaloftyscafferdinthemarket place of Clermont, hiseloquencewasaddressedtoawell prepared and impatientaudience Histopicswereobivious,hisexhortationwasvehement,hissuccessinevitable. Theoratorwasinterruptedbytheshoutofthousands,whowithonevoice,andintheirrusticidiom,exclaimedaloud,”Godwillsit,Godwillsit.” When the Pope ascended the high pulpit of the Claremont market, his audience had already heard what he was going to announce and was impatient. His speech was clear, his sermon was firm and powerful, and his success was therefore indisputable. From time to time, the speech was interrupted by the cries of thousands of people – the audience shouted the same voice in their rural accent: “God’s will, this is God’s will!”
2. The social view of the Crusade at that time was enough to prove that most people believed that the Crusade was just:
in the age of the Crusades, the Christians, both of the East West, were convinced of their law fullness and merit; theirargumentsarecloudedbytheperpetualabuseofScriptureandrhetoric; buttheyseemtoinsistontherightofnaturalandreligiousdefense,theirpeculiartitletotheHolyLand,andtheimpietyoftheirPaganandMahometanfoes. In the age of Crusaders, believers in both eastern and Western churches were convinced that Crusaders were of good character and famous. Some objections may be drowned in endless abuse and sophistication of the Bible, but people firmly believe in their defense of faith and the right to exist, their indisputable possession of the holy city, and the blasphemy of pagan Muslim enemies.
3. Thanks to @ liboti’s supplement, following the trend is also one of the reasons why the number of Crusaders is so strong. The following paragraph is about the grand occasion of the people’s participation in the Crusade:
the motivations were remote and numeric: when we were calculating the weight of the mind, we must add the infinitives, the multiple powers, of example and fashion Thefirstproselytesbecamethewarmestandmosteffectualmissionariesofthecross:amongtheirfriendsandcountrymentheypreachedtheduty,themerit,andtherecompense,oftheirholyvow; andthemostreluctanthearerswereinsensiblydrawnwithinthewhirlpoolofpersuasionandauthority. Themartialyouthswerefiredbythereproachorsuspicionofcowardice; theopportunityofvisitingwithanarmythesepulcherofChristwasembracedbytheoldandinfirm,bywomenandchildren,whoconsultedrathertheirzealthantheirstrength. They have a steady stream of strong motivation: when we consider the motivation of everyone to join the Crusade, we must consider the snowball power from example and society. The first to join will become the Crusader’s most effective and acceptable preacher. They preached among their friends and neighbors the Crusader’s responsibilities, virtues, and the ultimate good results of their sacred vows; And even the most reluctant listeners are unconsciously immersed in the baptism of these sermons. The militant youth were impatient to stay away from cowardice, while the elderly, patients, women and children, considering their enthusiasm rather than ability, joined the army to the holy land.
theywereover whelmed by the turkishharrows, and a pyramid of bones formed their companies of the place of the turkey Ofthefirstcrusaders,threehundredthousandhadalreadyperished,beforeasinglecitywasrescuedfromtheinfidels,beforetheirgraverandmorenoblebrethrenhadcompletedthepreparationsoftheirenterprise. They were routed under the rain of Turkish arrows. The mountain of bones warned the crusaders of their defeat. The first expeditionary men had lost 300000 lives before they took any city from the pagans, even before their more serious and noble comrades in arms were ready to set out.
5. The description of the Crusaders during the siege of Antioch:
the pictures off amine and pestilence area always the same, and always different; andourimaginationmaysuggestthenatureoftheirsufferingsandtheirresources. Sixtythousandhorsehadbeenreviewedinthecamp. Beforetheendofthesiegetheywerediminishedtotwothousand,andscarcelytwohundredfitforservicecouldbemusteredonthedayofbattle. Weaknessofbodyandterrorofmindextinguishedtheardententhusiasmofthepilgrims,andeverymotiveofhonorandreligionwassubduedbythedesireoflife. The scenes of famine and plague are always the same, and we can imagine their situation. At first, the 60000 war horses in the camp were eaten to two thousand at the end of the siege, and less than two hundred were called up for use before the battle. Their physical weakness and spiritual fear extinguished their firm pilgrimage enthusiasm, and the motivation of faith and honor was replaced by the desire for survival.
6. The situation after the destruction of Jerusalem: