not being tried does not mean that emperor Showa does not bear war responsibility. In fact, Emperor Showa was directly responsible for Japan’s war of aggression against China. During the whole war, almost all war decisions and major military actions were closely related to the emperor, or were implied, acquiesced and approved by the emperor, or the decision made by the emperor through “secret room guidance” at the pre imperial meeting.

emperor Showa (1926-1989)

at 12 noon on August 15, 1945, the announcer of the Japan Broadcasting Association (NHK) said after the hour: “major events will be broadcast now. Please stand up.” Then, Hiroshi Shimura, director of the intelligence bureau, said, “Your Majesty the emperor will personally read a major imperial edict to all the people. Now start broadcasting the jade sound.”

the voice of emperor Showa came out: “… the war situation has not improved, and the general situation of the world is not conducive to us. In addition, the enemy has recently used cruel bombs to kill innocent people and injure people. If the war continues, it will not only lead to the destruction of our nation, but also destroy human civilization. In this case, how can I preserve the hundred million trillion red children and thank the gods of the emperor’s ancestors? Therefore, I urge the imperial government Those who accept the joint announcement also… “The imperial edict is 4 minutes and 40 seconds long, which was recorded by Emperor Showa in the early morning of that day. The “joint announcement” in the imperial edict is the Potsdam announcement, and its Article 13 clearly requires “the Japanese government to immediately announce the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces”. Although emperor Showa accepted the announcement at the pre imperial meeting, there was no word of “surrender” in the imperial edict, and a large number of classical Chinese were used. After hearing the edict, 34 generals, including the Minister of the army, who understood its meaning, cut their belly or shot themselves, but many Japanese civilians did not understand the emperor’s meaning.

therefore, the sincerity of emperor Showa’s surrender has been controversial.

stand naked under the icicle to exercise

emperor Showa was born on April 29, 1901 and is the eldest grandson of Meiji emperor. Meiji emperor personally named him “Yuren”. “Abundance” is derived from “the cultivation of harming morality and the abundance of benefiting morality” in China’s book of changes. Because Yuren’s father, crown prince Jiaren, suffered from chronic diseases and was the only son of Meiji emperor who lived to adulthood, Yuren was placed in high hopes as soon as he was born. Yuren’s length and weight at birth were higher than the average level of Japanese newborns at that time, which added a bit of joy to the royal family. At that time, not only the army fired artillery to celebrate, but also celebrations were held all over the country. There were a large number of people in ribigu Park in Tokyo.

1902. Hirohito holding the Japanese military flag.

because the imperial concubines “the mother is expensive by the son”, they often design and frame each other out of jealousy, which makes it difficult for the imperial concubines to live to adulthood. Shortly after Yuren was born, he was handed over to lieutenant general Chunyi Kawamura to be responsible for education and protection. After Kawamura’s death in 1904, Yuren, 3, returned to his parents and moved to the imperial palace of emperor sun, which was taken care of by Marquis Muhu Xiaozheng.

in April 1908, Yuren entered the Royal Academy for formal education. The president of the academy is general Nai muxidian, a fierce general in the Sino Japanese War and a “hero” in the Russo Japanese war. On the issue of educating Yuren, naimu is most worried about Yuren’s weak body and clumsy behavior, which he believes will hinder Yuren from performing his duties as emperor in the future. To this end, he taught Yuren sumo and swimming. In winter, naimu didn’t let Yuren bake around the stove, but let him run on the playground, and even let him stand naked under the icicle until he could control his trembling body and stand there quietly.

in 1912, crown prince Jiaren ascended the throne and became emperor Dazheng, and Yuren was awarded crown prince. According to the royal family status order, the crown prince and his grandson must serve as military attache of the army and Navy when they reach the age of 10. Yu Ren, who is 11, becomes a second lieutenant of the army infantry and Navy, equipped with the first wing of the guards infantry and the first fleet of the Navy.

in 1914, Yuren, 13, entered the Donggong Imperial Academy isolated from society and received many years of “imperial education”. In Yuren’s view, the emperor is equal to the state and is only responsible for the “God ancestor and God sect”. In order to achieve the goal, the means can be ignored, and the subjects can only obey the emperor.

in addition, Yuren has been fascinated by the natural world since his childhood and has collected a lot of specimens of marine plants and animals. The teacher who taught Yuren natural history and physics was hirotaro fujibu, who later worked as a scientific research entourage for Yuren for more than 30 years.

in 1956, Emperor Showa and empress Xiangchun in dress.

a political marriage, a simple wedding

in 1917, Yu Ren and her mother, empress Zhenming, both chose Jiuyou Liangzi as the crown princess. Jiuyou Liangzi is the eldest daughter of Prince Jiuyou gongbangyan and the descendant of the famous vojian family. The empress and Yuren hope to use the strength of the vojian family to weaken the power of the Changzhou vassal valve represented by Youpeng in Shanxian County. However, the political struggle behind the marriage lasted for many years. It was not until 1921 that the royal family made the final decision to maintain the engagement.

in March 1921, 20-year-old crown prince Yuren embarked on a six-month visit to Europe on the warship “xiangqu”. This is his first time abroad. He has visited Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy. Everywhere he goes, he is warmly entertained. According to Yu Ren’s later memories, He made a joke when visiting Paris: “when I took the subway for the first time, I didn’t know any formalities. I held the ticket tightly. When I entered the gate, the ticket inspector had to punch a hole in the ticket. As a result, I was so nervous that I was afraid of being seized by him and held the ticket. The two sides pulled back and forth for several minutes, which angered the ticket inspector. This ticket has also been kept by me.”

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during his visit to Europe, there were two “small things” that had a deep impact on Yuren. First, Japanese military attach é s stationed in Europe, including yoshiji Okamura and others, came to pay a visit. Since then, he has won this group of young strongmenSupport of officers; Second, he bought a bust and later kept it in his study to deepen his longing for military conquest over and over again.

in September 1923, the Kanto earthquake occurred in Japan. Dressed in military uniform, Hirohito rode to inspect downtown Tokyo. According to a legend handed down from generation to generation in Japan, there is a huge catfish in the depths of the sea of Japan. Whenever the ancestor of the Japanese royal family, Tianzhao great God, is dissatisfied with her ruling prince and grandchildren, the catfish will be restless and cause earthquakes. Yuren’s visit was to offset the impact of this legend on the image of the royal family. He wanted to make the royal family popular and people-friendly, so he made a lot of efforts. For example, in 1924, his wedding with Liangzi only held some brief ceremonies. This strengthens the image of the benevolent crown prince in the hearts of the Japanese.

reviewed Yuren of the army in 1938.

“use the total strength of the country to fight”

on December 25, 1926, Emperor Taisho died of illness. Yu Ren, 25, succeeded to the throne and named it “Showa”. It is taken from “the people make clear and coordinate all nations” in the Chinese book of history, which contains the meaning of peace. But only three days later, he issued an imperial edict to pay tribute to his grandfather and Meiji emperor who launched the war of aggression: “Meiji emperor, with his excellent quality of both civil and military skills, widely taught at home, made many war achievements at home and abroad, and established great achievements and great undertakings. I will not forget the legacy and inherit the legacy.”

emperor Showa is eager to establish a “great cause” that surpasses his ancestors. Japan occupied Northeast China in 1931, invaded China in 1937, and launched the Pacific War in 1941, all of which were carried out during the reign of emperor Showa.

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launched an attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941. Emperor Showa immediately presided over the pre imperial meeting on July 2 and adopted the outline of imperial national policy to adapt to the evolution of the situation, which determined the national policy of expanding to Southeast Asia by force. Since then, Emperor Showa has turned his attention to the Pacific, but seizing the strategic resources of the Pacific will inevitably exacerbate the contradiction with the United States. Emperor Showa and his generals have been planning for a long time whether to start war against the United States. On September 5, 1941, Emperor Showa asked chief of general staff Sugiyama: “in case of any problems between Japan and the United States, how long can the army solve them? Are you sure?” Sugiyama Yuan said: “only in Nanyang, we plan to solve it in three months!” Emperor Showa asked, “you were the Secretary of the army when the Japan China Incident broke out. Don’t forget that you said ‘solve the problem in about a month’! However, after four years, the problem has not been solved yet? ” “China has a vast territory and cannot fight as planned.” Emperor Showa was even more angry: “you said that China has a vast territory, but the Pacific Ocean is not even broader. What are you sure that you can solve the problem in three months?” Sugiyama yuan bowed his head and said nothing.