the reason why I ask this question is inspired by the following two questions: Why did Europe burn witches in the middle ages without mentioning witches? What is the real reason why religion initiates witch trial? What did religion gain from the witch trial? In the impression of many people, medieval Europeans burned many witches, nominally a religious trial. So what is the development context of this large-scale Witchcraft (Witch) panic? Most of the existing answers are based on simple emotional venting, and few serious answers are not clear enough. Since there are no specific historical details, I dare not agree with these answers rashly. I think this problem can be broken down for a clearer discussion. 1) How to define the “female (male) witches” who have been tried in history? 2) How do the church, secular regime and folk treat this group? 3) What are the usual forms and processes for the trial and disposal of female (male) witches? 4) How long did the incident last? 5) At different stages, what factors influence the development of events? 6) What impact will this event have on future generations? 7) What credible studies are worthy of our reference? Welcome friends to answer some of these questions.

for the time being, to be updated… Welcome to correct..

1, how to define the “female (male) witches” who have been tried in history?

is the definition standard in history? Or how to define the standard of “witches and witches” in history?

if it is the latter, it naturally comes from the records and regional logs produced by witch hunting for so many years.

here I mainly talk about the former, that is, how to define witches and witches at that time. The definition standard of

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is more from a kind of imagination about the image of witchcraft in demonology, which largely comes from the “devil temptation theory”,

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. For example, the symbol of the formalization of the “witch” trial, which is believed by some schools in the academic world to have begun with Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492). According to his state of the Union address, Jacobs prenger and Henrik Raymer, priests of the Dominican Association, were appointed as investigators to implement a creepy tyranny against “witchcraft”.

and in 1486, they specially wrote a book “hammer against witches”. This book says that witches are the descendants of the devil who have a secret contract with the devil and sell their souls to the devil. The devil can turn into sexual intercourse between men and women or into sexual intercourse between women and men; However, the son born by the devil through sexual intercourse with a woman is born by the sperm he took from other men, so his main purpose is to make men impotent. According to this book, the first prominent image of witches’ stigmatization in the era of religious change is to cater to the panic psychology of turbulence and frequent natural disasters in the era of change. In short, all this needs to find a reason to “blame”.. The “culprit” is the “devil”, and the long-term demonology legends in Europe, especially the legends describing the image of heretic witches, coincide with the “devil temptation theory” in religious myths..

and most of the trial standards come from these legends.

“witch hunt” standardized file. The witch’s hammer describes in detail the specific interrogation methods of the “witch” and the effective methods to ensure the success of the interrogation. This trial has neither prosecution procedures nor defenders. In addition to torture as a means of extorting confessions, there is the so-called “witch” test.

according to the theory provided in the book, because “Witches” are enchanted by the devil and are no longer sensitive to pain, they can torture them at will.

for example: scald the defendant’s hand with a red iron piece. If the hand is scalded, it means that the defendant is guilty;

asked the defendant to take a holy ring in boiling water with his hand, and then put a bandage and seal on his hand. If there is no trace after three days, he will be innocent, etc…

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the folk methods for identifying witches also come up with more nonsense with this absurd and fanatical movement. For example, witches don’t have to ride broomsticks, do they have to cut down their weight? Then define the suspect by weight..

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and the persecution of male witches is actually more directional. The forced victims of male witches are concentrated in the early stage, and most of them are real religious persecution, and most of the persecuted are related to heresy or witchcraft sects, and even many people simply confess in the religious court.. This is the biggest difference between male victims and female victims in the whole witch persecution, which is that most of the male victims died of the real early heresy trial movement and were religious or pan religious members..

and most of the female victims died in the fanatical social movements in the middle and late stage (some in the early stage), mainly the weak in society, such as widows, old women and so on.. The number of victims of persecution is also larger,

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. Therefore, the standard of wizard trial is more directional, that is, trying to find out the relationship between the suspect and the German witchcraft sect, whether there is a tendency of heresy, and the personnel circle. It is not difficult for these church institutions that have great control over their religious personnel.. Therefore, the essence of the wizard trial is to try “heresy”. Of course, this extremely directional trial standard is also the reason why the wizard trial is concentrated in the early stage, because it was killed in the early stage…

2. How do the church, secular regime and folk treat this group?

(1) the church is the first. The origin of this movement is the trial of heresy, which began to become a socialized movement in the middle and late stages. There is a root of this, that is, although Christianity has become the most mainstream religious thought in the middle ages, among the beliefs of the people at the bottom, they are very utilitarian and to a large extentThe “witch” was not subjected to formal religious trial at all, but was caught by some local ruffians and hooligans who called themselves “witch hunters” and lynched in the coax of the masses. The types of lynchings are messy and may be tortured as much as possible. Moreover, the nature of the local ruffians and hooligans of the hunters, many lynchings are to satisfy animal desires…

4, how long did this event last?

generally speaking, it ended from the end of the 17th century to the middle of the 18th century, but in fact, there are many sequelae..

for example:

in 1691, the daughter of a priest in Salem Village, Massachusetts, suddenly suffered from a strange disease: walking, stumbling, aching all over, sudden spasm and unusual terror. Subsequently, seven girls who were inseparable from her had the same symptoms one after another. From the perspective of modern medicine, this is a manifestation of “dancing disease” (Netease exploration editor’s note: a neurogenic genetic disease of the brain, the person carrying the disease has a certain incubation period, and when it occurs, the symptoms are uncontrolled activities of all joints and muscles). The culprit of such symptoms is a fungus “ergot” parasitic on rye. However, it is generally believed that the real reason for the children’s strange diseases is the black female nutituba and another female beggar in the village, as well as a lonely old woman who never goes to church. The three poor women were tortured to extract confessions, and the number of “Witches” and “Wizards” increased step by step. More than 20 “Witches” and “witch men” died in this unjust case, and more than 200 people were arrested or imprisoned. In 1992, the Massachusetts legislature passed a resolution declaring the rehabilitation of all victims of the wave of witch trials in Salem 300 years ago. Not long ago, an independent body submitted a petition to the Scottish local council, asking for the rehabilitation of more than 4000 Scottish “Witches” and “Wizards” executed in the middle ages. Not only Britain, but also the State Council of Glarus, Switzerland, declared it the “last witch in Europe” last year.

5. What factors influence the development of events in different stages?

I have basically mentioned above..

began with the state of the Union address of Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492), which was the beginning of the witch hunting movement..

the repeated printing of “the hammer against the witch” and “the hammer of the witch” was publicized as a formal action.

began with the trial of heresy such as Verdot sect, and early witch hunting.. Mainly hunting heretics, especially witches, fighting in power institutions abusing the “name of witchcraft” and folk emotional fanaticism, witch hunting began to expand..

finally, the religious reform gradually died out and began to be rehabilitated..

6. What impact does this event have on future generations?

in the fourth point, I mentioned the endless follow-up “witch” rehabilitation events. The follow-up negative impact caused by that large-scale catastrophe has been tried to make up by future generations, so that it lasted until the last century..

in addition, the harm suffered by the bottom women without self-protection ability in this disaster has aroused the relevant research on “the protection of the weak”, as well as “social inequality” and “the protection of women’s rights and interests” in British and American sociology, as well as the urgency of the relevant rights protection movement..

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witchcraft persecution has also become a negative material for all factions in the Christian world to blame each other. The whole event of

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is also a research example of the negative political theoretical materials of “single authoritarianism” and “public will”..

7, what credible studies are worth our reference?

recommended books:

in addition to the above cited documents, there are also the cultural communication translation of the witch Beijing Continental Bridge Chongqing Publishing House MickclJ. Translated by Ma Zhencheng The witch, Satan’s lover Carlo M. chipolabe European economic history, Dong Jinquan, patron saint of darkness and ignorance, Carlo Ginsberg, fighting at night, Christina Lana, witchcraft and religion.

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