the Chinese Communists not only accepted the Soviet Russian Marxist theory of class struggle on revolution and rebellion, but also accepted the Soviet Russian Red Flag, red star and other political symbols. Since then, in China’s social life, red symbolizes class struggle, revolution and uprising, that is, rebellion.

the author is a professor in the Russian Department of Nanjing University.

since 1950 when I began to remember, there has been no saying of “red song” in China’s social and cultural life. It is said that a Publishing House published a collection of “red songs” in 1959, but the word “red songs” did not become popular. The term “revolutionary song” was popular during the “Cultural Revolution”, but with the past of the “Cultural Revolution”, the word “revolutionary song” was replaced by “classic old song”. Since the middle of 1990, the word “main melody” has been popular in the cultural circles, so there is the saying of “main melody song”.

a few years ago, Jiangxi started the activity of singing red songs, and the word red songs began to become popular. What is “red song”? On this issue, red songs and Red Song Movement advocates have said a lot in the newspapers, but they have ignored the explanation of the word “red” in the term “red songs”. The word “red” in




and “red song” has political symbolic significance. This meaning comes from foreign countries, to be exact, from the Paris Commune and Soviet Russia, and more from Soviet Russia, because the flag of the Paris commune has three color flags in addition to the red flag. In Slavic culture, red symbolizes revolution, uprising, insurrection and “courage”, “selflessness”, “sacrifice” and so on. On November 7, 1917 (October 25 of the Russian calendar), led the soldiers and workers of Petrograd to hold an uprising and overthrow the interim government. This event is called the October Revolution. Lenin and other leaders of the Bolshevik party were well aware of the meaning of color in European and Russian culture, so they advocated red in the revolution and played the red flag, which not only expressed the proletarian and socialist nature of their cause, but also used red to encourage the people to revolt and display the spirit of courage and sacrifice — this is the most important.

at one time, Russian society blew a red whirlwind: the insurgents not only had red flags, but also put red cloth strips on their hats and red armbands on their sleeves. Their armed forces were called Red Guards (i.e. “Red Guards” and “Red Guards”) The workers’ and peasants’ Red Army (Note: either the workers’ and peasants’ Red Army of Soviet Russia, or the workers’ and peasants’ Red Army, which belongs to workers and peasants all over the world and will fight all over the world), the Central Party school is called the red Professor College, the government organ newspaper is called the red newspaper (1918-1939), and the History magazine is called the red file (1922-1941), Popular newspapers and periodicals, including literary newspapers and periodicals, include red virgin land (1922-1942), red field (1923-1931), red Yearbook (1922-1937), red youth (1921-1925), red reporter (1920), etc.

there was no symbolic meaning of red in Soviet Culture (revolution, rebellion, uprising, etc.) in Chinese traditional culture. There was no fixed color in Chinese history to express “uprising” and “revolution”, “rebellion”, etc. For example, the red eyebrow uprising, the yellow scarf uprising, the white lotus sect uprising, the black flag army uprising and other mass revolutionary movements used red, yellow, white and black to symbolize their cause. When it comes to red, what it carries most in Chinese culture is auspicious and festive, but this is a cultural significance, not a political significance.

said: “the sound of the October Revolution brought us Marxism Leninism.” For what is Marxism Leninism, Mao Zedong understood it this way: “the truth of Marxism is myriad. In the final analysis, it is a sentence: Rebellion is justified.” Under the direct and powerful influence and direct intervention of Soviet Russia, the Chinese Communists not only accepted the Soviet Russian Marxist class struggle theory on revolution and rebellion, but also accepted the political symbols of Soviet Russia – red flag, red star, etc., and the political symbolic significance of red in Russian culture. In other words, since then, in China’s social life, red has symbolized class struggle, revolution and uprising, that is, rebellion. Along with the red symbolism, the white political symbolism of the Soviet Russian period – counter revolution, suppression of uprising and rebellion – was introduced into China. For example, “red” and “white” in the words “both red and expert” and “white expert road” produced after the 1950s represent revolution, non revolution and counter revolution respectively. Similarly, the so-called red songs are songs that publicize class struggle, revolution, uprising and rebellion.

it should be pointed out that the world is colorful and colorful. Similarly, in the culture of any nation, it is impossible to have only one symbolic color. In Russian culture, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, white and other colors have their own symbolic meanings, and white symbolizes “light”, “holiness” and “loyalty”. In European culture, white symbolizes “order”, “orthodoxy”, “power” and other meanings. In Russian and European culture, in addition to “bravery”, “selflessness”, “revolution” and “sacrifice”, red also has the meanings of “disorder”, “unorthodox”, “restlessness”, “bloody” and “Rage”. The white guard movement against the Bolsheviks was a large-scale and complex social movement. In addition to the very few royalists who advocated returning to the Czar’s autocracy, there were also a large number of liberals who supported the interim government, social revolutionaries who represented the interests of farmers and socialists who opposed the extreme line. The nature of the movement is far from being limited by a “counter revolution”. To a considerable extent, it reflects the desire of the Russian people to oppose unrest and pursue tranquility, peace, orthodoxy and order. When China introduced “red” and “white” into Chinese as political words, it ignored their rich symbolic significance in Russian and European culture. As a result, “red” and “white” became a pair of political antonyms in ChineseAnd has the nature of either or. In this way, while introducing this pair of political antonyms, we also introduced a either or way of thinking.

Lenin and other Soviet leaders knew that Russian society could not always live in revolution, uprising and riots, because long-term social unrest was disgusted and disgusted by the people. Therefore, after the Soviet Communist Party and government achieved a disastrous victory over the white guard movement and consolidated their political power, they naturally had to cater to the wishes of the people, follow the iron law of social life, and change from the revolutionary party and the uprising party to the ruling party and the order party. Although the later practice proved that their transformation was not successful or complete, it was completed in form: the words “red” and “red” gradually disappeared from the names of many institutions and newspapers in Soviet Russia. By 1946, even the workers’ and peasants’ Red Army was no longer called the Red Army, but was renamed the “Soviet army” (hereinafter referred to as the “Soviet army”). In the 1930s and beyond, Stalin and later Soviet leaders rarely used the word “red” to express the political meaning it symbolized in their public speeches, but changed to more accurate political words (such as proletariat, socialism, class struggle, etc.). Between the symbolic meaning of the modifier “red” and the legitimacy of reality, the legitimacy of governance and the status of leaders of powerful countries, Stalins naturally chose the latter. In this choice, national culture (specifically, the political symbolic significance of color) and its related national cultural psychology undoubtedly play an important role.