or how it affected the city is enough to write a book. Let me give you a simple framework first.
Florence is a commercial city
— due to the developed shipping in the Mediterranean, it soon became rich
— the rich families headed by the Medici family had money, so they repaired the square, church and mountain villa
— the artists accepted the entrustment, Numerous buildings and sculptures
– so Florence has a large number of Public Art (architecture, sculpture, murals and palaces), attracting more artists. Later, the pope had to transfer people from Florence to repair the Mausoleum (Michelangelo)
– finally Florence became the city of art. I’m used to selling all kinds of works of art every day.
in the final analysis, is that business development and the needs of the rich contribute to public art, which in turn benefits the people.
expand what you say, make an appointment and put it directly.
photos were taken in the summer of 2013.
there is a mathematical word called Fibonacci sequence, that is, the golden section sequence. Everyone knows.
the first person in the west to describe this sequence is Mr. Leonardo Fibonacci, who is from Pisa, Italy. He has done another great business, which is rarely mentioned: in other words, Mr. Fibonacci’s father is a businessman who specializes in doing business in Algeria, North Africa. Leonardo Fibonacci followed his father in business and came into contact with Arabic numerals in North Africa. In fact, it originated in India, but Europeans came into contact with it through Arabia, It’s considered Arab. When Leonardo was in Italy, he used Roman numerals and felt very troublesome; The Arabic numerals were simple and bright. It was suddenly clear. Leonardo later wrote a Book: “liber abaci”, or “calculation sheet”. This book talks about bookkeeping, interest and exchange rate, and introduces the concept of Arabic numerals: This is the root of Arabic numerals in Europe. At that time, the gentlemen doing mathematical research in the University sneered at the Arabic numerals, hummed “pagan stuff” and threw it away, but secular businessmen picked it up and used it.
one of the first cities to use Arabic numerals is Florence.
in 1338, there were six “arithmetic schools” in Florence. Children in Florence began to learn arithmetic after completing primary school education and recognizing words. Villani, a biographer at that time, estimated a number: in Florence, 18 children were studying profound Latin grammar and intended to be literati; 14% of the children are learning arithmetic and intend to go into business. In the 16th century, a total of 1527 arithmetic publications were sold in Florence. Everyone was thinking about how to calculate interest, how to exchange money and how to make money.
of course, being able to write is not enough. In 1338, in addition to 14 children learning arithmetic and preparing to become businessmen in the future, more than 200 people were public witnesses in Florence.
in short: from the 14th to the 15th century, Florence was full of technicians, merchants, bankers and industrialists. Sign a contract and trust the property. Mr. vallada and Mr. vallada remember the rough customs of Florence around 1300. Couples eat on one plate, and there are only one or two drinking utensils in the family. Drinking water and drinking make this; Oil lamps or candles are not common; The woman at the wedding passed in a linen tights. The glory of men is to have weapons and horses.
then, in the 15th century, Florentine people had money and changed their ideas. Pogio blaziolini said,
“Of course, the pursuit of interests should not be condemned… The virtues of compassion and fraternity are built on the hard work of people committed to the cause of mankind… How generous is a person who can only maintain his own life? All brilliant and exquisite things will no longer exist without the pursuit of interests.”
Mr. Palmieri’s theory is simpler: “wealth and honesty can coexist. We need those who are proficient in calculation and understand the law to pursue interests. Then we can obtain excellence, honor and reputation.”
Giovanni rucherai, the tycoon at that time, said: “I think I have gained glory and soul satisfaction by spending money and completing the construction.”
means that Florentine people made enough money by clever calculation, and then began to hire artists.
Florence is also one of the earliest places to improve the artist contract in Europe. Therefore, artists flock to it.
in 1487, Mr. Filippo Lippi received an order for murals. The contract said: “all the characters in the work must be completed by the painter himself”. what do you mean? Because at that time, artists were all smart people who could chop four or two pieces of meat out of egrets’ legs; There are too many orders. In order to complete the batch, let the assistant help draw.
when you go to the old city of Florence now, you will feel that the house is very high, the road is very narrow, and you walk like a valley, unlike the open and grand of Rome. In Florence, where there is a wide space where the sun can be seen, it is the square.
therefore, ordinary houses in Florence do not have much art collection, unlike Amsterdam. Florentine artists mainly do public buildings.
such as the legendary hundred flowers Cathedral of the Virgin: it was the building presided over by St. Giotto in those years. With the help of the grand architect Brunelleschi, it designed blocks of bright marble outer walls, round domes in colorful forms, andThe 87 meter high bell tower was also buried in this: at that time, the church dragged three or five generations from planning to construction, and finally the dome was completed, which was considered a miracle; Because at that time, the surrounding city states were engaged in construction and competing for beauty, and Florence couldn’t bear to be lonely: it was necessary to build the first big thing in the Apennine Peninsula, not only to shock the surrounding earth buns, but also to let the Romans see them, both jealous and resentful – as a result, they did. The Baptist Church directly opposite the church has gilberti’s embossed copper door, which is richly carved. Michelangelo thought that “I’m afraid it’s worthy to be used as the gate of heaven”.
now we say that the aesthetic style of the Renaissance is to reconstruct the correct drawings, geometric lines, bright, beautiful and symmetrical, which is far from the ancient Greek love of sculpture and architecture. This taste is actually laid down by Florentine people. There are many mountains near the place itself. The city is a place that moves around between the mountains on both sides of the Arnault river. It is relatively easy to quarrying, so sculpture and architecture are the soul of the city’s traditional art. Michelangelo’s sculpture is closely related to the convenient quarrying in Florence.
at that time, Florence had the opportunity to contact Greek and Roman art. She was greatly fascinated by the flesh and blood style of classical art and hated the rigid routine in the middle ages. Therefore, she especially loved the muscular fitness and clear sculpture style. When Michelangelo was young, he first asked the famous painter giranda to be an apprentice. After a year, giranda was surprised and envious of the apprentice’s talent, but Michelangelo himself hated painting, “I need a little more heroic art”. “Pacho” and “Pacho” were only known as “Pacho master” and “Pacho master” before Pacho and “Pacho KDS”. So far, Florence is still proud of sculpture: Chiellini, gianboloni, Michelangelo and Donatello. Of course, the demand for sculptures is also large: from religious legends to Florentines and pisians who won a sesame mung bean battle, we should make a sculpture with this theme: muscles and muscles Qiu knot, which is spectacular.
in the final analysis, there is still demand, which is why artists are raised.
take a look at the decoration of noble houses at that time. How many artists can it support?
of course, there are also wizards in painting: the birth of Venus and the sacrifice of spring by the great master Botticelli are still in the ufiz Art Museum. Not to mention the beauty of the birth of Venus itself, there is another legend closely related to Florence: Simonetta, the first beauty of Florence, married Marco Vespucci, and his fame shocked the aristocratic circle of Florence. In 1475, when Simoneta was 21 years old, Botticelli was asked to draw Athena based on her. When Simoneta died the following year, the whole city of Florence felt that the beauty was gone and could not be traced, and thousands of people buried her on foot. Nine years after Simoneta’s death, Botticelli painted the birth of Venus, a masterpiece handed down to the world. At that time, when the Florentine princes saw the Venus in the painting, they exclaimed, “ah, Simoneta!” So up to now, we can roughly distinguish the appearance of the first beauty in Florence’s history.
in the square of Florence’s old city hall, there are copies of David on one side and the statue of Apollo driving four horses on the other side in the fountain. In addition, the statue of Cosimo on one side and the ancient Roman mythological sculpture group on the other side are flying everywhere. Now in the art gallery of Florence academy, Michelangelo’s great work David, which has been in the open air in Florence for more than 300 years, is a hobby of Florentine people:
. First, the nobles like Medici, in order to show their wealth, set up squares and placed sculptures near luxury houses and churches; Over time, sculptures were placed in every square, which became the practice in Florence. Instead, they gave food to the sculptors. Finally, everyone got used to it and became the city of art.