the economic and cultural development of the eastern and western regions of the Roman Empire was not balanced.
The East is more stable and prosperous, and its cultural level is higher than that of the West.
In the 3rd century, the Roman Empire fell into a deep social crisis, and the economic and political center of the Empire gradually moved eastward.
In May 330, the Roman Emperor Constantine officially announced the relocation of the capital and decided to build the new capital in Byzantium.
The Greek city of Borussia and the other cities of Byzantium were founded on the Greek side of the Strait of Borussia.
After Constantine decided to move the capital, he built large-scale construction here, built Byzantium into a magnificent and world-famous metropolis, and renamed Constantinople.
In 395, the Roman Emperor Theodosius died, and his two sons each received two parts of the East and West.
Therefore, the Roman Empire was officially divided into two parts: Rome was the capital of Western Rome and Constantinople was the capital of Eastern Rome.
In history, the Eastern Roman Empire is usually called Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Empire: the territory of Byzantine Empire spans Europe, Asia and Africa, including the Balkans, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, the two river basin and Egypt.
Most of these areas are the birthplaces of ancient oriental civilization.
They have their own long traditions and characteristics in terms of socio-economic system and culture, and this tradition and characteristics have not been completely changed by the conquest of Rome.
Therefore, the Byzantine Empire did not fall into a deep social crisis like western Rome.
From the 4th to 5th centuries, Byzantium was also repeatedly invaded by nomads.
The Huns and the East Goths attacked on a large scale.
The imperial government adopted the strategy of heavy bribes and “controlling the barbarians with barbarians”, and turned the spearhead to the West.
In 476, the Western Roman Empire perished, the Byzantine Empire continued to maintain stability and prosperity, and became a powerful country in the Mediterranean region.
The reason why the Byzantine Empire was able to avoid the fate of Western Rome and turn the crisis into safety in the wave of “national migration” lies in its economic prosperity and strong national strength.
Byzantine agriculture has always been developed.
Egypt, lesser Asia and Thrace are all areas with developed agriculture and industry.
These areas are not only rich in grain production, but also widely planted with flax, sugarcane, reed and other cash crops used to make paper grass.
Developed agriculture provides a solid foundation for Industry and commerce.
The textile industry of the Empire was very prosperous.
Linen and wool textile were the traditional handicraft industries of the country.
Later, they learned Chinese silk weaving technology and produced brocade with great reputation.
In addition, metal processing, glass manufacturing, mining, papyrus and weapons production were also important handicraft industries at that time.
Constantinople is the largest industrial and commercial center of the Empire.
It controls the sea entrance of the Black Sea and is a bridge connecting Europe and Asia.
Therefore, it has become an important traffic route between the East and the West in the middle ages.
All kinds of goods from northern Europe and the East are continuously transported to Constantinople, and then transferred from here to all parts of Western Europe.
Constantinople gathered merchants from East and west at that time.
With developed commerce and dense population, it became a prosperous and prosperous metropolis.
In the concept of ancient Europeans, there was only one Roman Empire.
After the division of the Roman Empire, a unified empire is no longer a reality, but it is still the supreme ideal of the rulers.
After the fall of Western Rome, the Byzantine Empire naturally regarded itself as the orthodox successor of the Roman Empire and took the restoration of the old Roman Empire as its own responsibility.
Some Roman elders who fled to Constantinople after the death of siroma also tried to restore their homeland by Byzantine power.
The Christian Church hopes to eliminate different sects and unify the Christian world, so it also actively supports the recovery of the West.
Justinian’s activities reflect these requirements.
In 527, Justinian succeeded his uncle to the throne of Byzantium.
He spent his whole life trying to turn the political ideal of revitalizing the power of the unified Roman Empire into reality.
At the same time, as a tough Orthodox Christian, his activities have the color of religious fanaticism.
In the early Middle Ages, many germanians believed in Christian heresy Alius.
This school believes that Christ cannot speak with God because Christ is a man created by God rather than God.
At the same time, it also opposes the possession of real estate by the church.
These ideas were unacceptable to Justinian, so he wanted to “walk for heaven” and eliminate heresy.
Political ideals and religious fanaticism merged in Justinian.
Justinian’s foreign policy was to stabilize the East and levy on the West.
In 532, he used a lot of money to seek peace from sasambos, which threatened the east of the Empire, and concentrated his forces to attack the West.
In 533, he sent his general belisaru to fight the king of vandal in North Africa.
Belisarius was a famous general of the Empire.
He was famous for his bravery and good fighting.
He served as the main commander in a series of wars launched by Justinian against the West.
In 534, vandal was occupied.
In 535, Justinian ordered him to attack the East Goth kingdom of Italy.
After several contests between the two sides, the East Gothic finally perished in 553.
In 554, Byzantine troops invaded the kingdom of Visigoth and occupied southern Spain.
The Mediterranean once again became the inner lake of the Roman Empire.
The decline of the Empire: Justinian carried out tyranny at home and military expansion abroad.
His political ideal seems to have become a reality in the bloodbath.
However, the protracted and cruel war not only made Italy more dilapidated and dying, but also made the Byzantine Treasury empty and the people exhausted.
Therefore, Justinian has been difficult to maintain this huge empire.
He acted perversely in the Western occupied areas, demanded the return of the land of Roman slave owners, forced slaves and slave farmers to return to their original owners, and tried to restore the extinct slavery by law.
However, the law could not revive slavery.
On the contrary, due to Justinian’s long-term militarism, the military power was greatly reduced and was on the verge of collapse, and the occupied West was lost one after another.
Since the late 6th century, Byzantium itself has been faced with the situation of strong enemies.
In the 7th century, the Slavs occupied the Balkans, and the Empire could only control the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and some islands.
After the rise of Arab countries, they seized the two river basins, Syria, Palestine and North Africa from Byzantium, and the Empire collapsed.
After the middle of the 7th century, Byzantium was no longer an “empire”, but a monarchy occupying only part of Asia Minor and the Balkans.
After that, the country was invaded by foreigners many times, but it still existed for a long time.
In 1453, the Turks captured Constantinople.
In 1461, all the territory was conquered by the Turks and Byzantium finally perished.