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on November 17, 1799, the eighth day after the “fog moon coup”, the Paris police chief signed a decree: all women who want to wear men’s clothes must obtain legal permission from the police station. The so-called “men’s clothes” are pants that we can see everywhere today. After the health movement in the 19th century, the French invented women’s pullovers and shorts. Before that, there was no clothes in the skirt of French women.

Madeleine Pelletier’s famous men’s photo.

on November 17, 1799, the eighth day after the “fog moon coup”, the Paris police chief signed a decree: all women who want to wear men’s clothes must obtain legal permission from the police station. The so-called “men’s clothes” are pants that we can see everywhere today. As of January 31, 2013, after more than 200 years of operation of the law, France finally officially abolished this act, which is in vain in modern society. Paris women wear pants legally.

in Paris in the 19th century, if you want to apply for a permit to wear pants at the police station, you need not only a medical certificate, but also a certificate from the mayor or the police station. In people’s consciousness at that time, trousers and suits were men’s unique clothes. Especially in French upper class society, women wearing trousers was regarded as a shocking move. After the health movement in the 19th century, the French invented women’s pullovers and shorts. Before that, there was no clothes in the skirt of French women. So how did the strange ban on women wearing pants come about?

in France in the 17th and 18th centuries, men had trousers. Knee length pullovers were worn by aristocrats and other upper class people at that time. Under the pullovers were long socks. Pullovers are not trousers, and ragged civilians can’t afford such clothes. However, no matter what kind of trousers men wear, social customs do not allow women to wear trousers.

before the French Revolution, “no Pullover” was a ridicule of nobles to civilians. However, during the great revolution, “no Pullover” became the glorious nickname of the extreme Democrats in the revolutionary party. The typical sleeveless party wears a red conical free hat, a shirt, trousers and a pair of clogs. There are also some women wearing trousers among the sleeveless party. Pants, women and revolution are closely linked.

for the female sleeveless party, some people call them a group of gangsters and murderers with a bloody smell, while others appreciate that they are the people who can best represent the people, have conscience and courage. In fact, during the major events of the French Revolution, they led other women and participated in them many times. For example, on the afternoon of October 5, 1789, a team of about 6000 people, mainly women, crowded into the venue of the constituent assembly in Versailles and filled the audience. From that night to the next morning, they participated in the bloody conflict with the king’s guards. In 1793, there was also a famous women’s Club – the revolutionary Republican Women’s citizen club, which was mainly composed of ordinary women representatives in the streets. They were particularly active, and later the club was called the first women’s political organization in the West. During the

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revolution, women participated personally and strongly demanded “equality”. However, although the famous declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1789 emphasized that “all human beings are born free and equal”, the concept of discrimination against women still prevailed. At that time, the French parliament explicitly denied women’s right to vote. In the view of the vast majority of members, women are naturally weak, lack of assertiveness and emotional, “which is itself a kind of property”. During the revolution, although French men did not oppose women’s participation in the revolution, they basically did not support women’s wearing trousers. Therefore, there were provisions prohibiting women from wearing trousers. Some radical factions, such as the Jacobins, have been intolerable to the women’s sleeveless party and other feminists, and have repeatedly quarreled fiercely inside and outside Parliament.

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jointly launched the “fog moon coup” with other forces in 1799, and directly adopted the suppression policy against this kind of feminism. On the eighth day after the coup, the Paris police chief signed a decree banning women from wearing trousers. However, despite the legal constraints, there are still many French avant-garde women trying to wear pants and attend the activities in public. George Sang, a pioneer of French romantic female literature and feminist literature in the 19th century, is a representative. After obtaining the “trouser permit” according to the regulations, this courageous female writer is keen to dress up as a man and go out on various occasions, especially some gatherings where women are not allowed to participate. As the first female psychiatrist, Madeleine Pelletier stood out in the history of women wearing men’s clothes. Her most famous photo is an image of a man in a man’s suit, a man’s hat and a man’s walking stick in her hand. Christina bard, a historian who studies women, published the political history of trousers. She believes that the first women to wear trousers were mainly workers and farmers, as well as many explorers, travelers, writers, artists and revolutionaries. They did not abide by the laws and regulations at that time or directly ignored their existence.

in 1892 and 1909, France issued two sheriff’s notices allowing women to wear pants when riding bicycles and horses. Then came a kind of Lantern pants, which were very wide and tightened at the knee. Even so, the bloomers have infuriated conservatives. In fact, World War I made a breakthrough in women’s dress. After the war broke out, the clothing to meet the needs of the wartime environment became the first choice. The length of women’s skirts became shorter, exposing their feet and shortening to their lower legs. As more women entered the front line of war and production, they inevitably wore work clothes, and some also wore trousers and boots.

trousers really swept the women’s world after the “may storm” in France in 1968. Mathilde dubesse, a female historian who was still in high school, happily wore jeans that had just been introduced from the United States because they were “much more free to move”. It is understood that the French labor law also has provisions on women’s wearing pants, and a variety of occupations such as salesperson and stewardess require skirtsWork. In the French parliament, Women Parliamentarians did not get permission to wear pants until 1980.