Many anti Japanese War veterans of

recalled that it was difficult to see the bodies of the Japanese army even if they won the war. In the tradition of the Japanese army, discarding corpses is an injury to the sense of belonging of soldiers and will affect the morale of the army; In addition, even from the perspective of “protecting weaknesses without showing weakness”, the bones of the dead will be dealt with in time.

Japan: when the original

was retreating, the Urn

was still hanging around the neck. In 1944, the Japanese army suffered a heavy defeat in the battlefield in western Yunnan, and the bodies of the Japanese army were everywhere. After the war, the Japanese side drew the distribution map of the remains in western Yunnan. The remains of the Japanese army were distributed as follows: 1250 in lameng (Songshan) position, 100 near mahogany tree, 2937 around Longling, 1800 around Tengchong City, 200 near Wadian and Datangzi, 100 near Qiaotou street and lengshuigou, 878 near Mangshi and Shangjie, and 400 near Zhefang and Yunnan Myanmar border, There are about 200 people near Baoshan… A total of about 8265 people. It should be noted that this information is only the situation of “discarding corpses” after the Japanese army died in Songshan, Gaoligong Mountain, Tengchong, Longling and other places, not all the figures of their deaths. According to the statistics of the Ministry of health and welfare of Japan, 14052 Japanese invaders died in the battle in western Yunnan. However, except in Songshan and Tengchong, the corpses could not be collected due to the “broken jade of the whole staff”, some of the bones were taken away after the battles in other places were defeated.

according to the memories of many anti Japanese War veterans, when fighting with the Japanese army, even if they won the war, it was difficult to see the bodies of the Japanese army. They attached great importance to the convergent treatment of the bodies of the dead. In the tradition of the Japanese army, discarding corpses on the battlefield is an injury to the sense of belonging of soldiers, which will seriously affect the morale of the army; In addition, the Japanese army has a very good face. Even from the perspective of “protecting weaknesses without showing weakness”, it will deal with the bones of the dead in time.

according to Li Jiahu, chief of the Civil Affairs Section of Tengchong County Government and Secretary General of the party Department of Tengchong County of the Kuomintang, in the Tengchong enemy report submitted on April 20, 1944: “… (Japanese Army) where there are casualties, we must keep a close watch, and the alert will not be lifted until it is burned and cleared”. In the battle of Songshan, the Japanese commander once ordered to “treat” the seriously wounded, either suicide with a grenade or swallow mercury tablets instead of poison. In fact, this approach has been a “people-oriented” move. In the past, the Japanese army even “killed” the seriously injured in operations with strong mobility or hasty failure. “… if there are casualties, the dead body will be transported and burned, and no one will be left to see. The slightly injured person will be carried back for treatment. Although the seriously injured person can still speak and move, he will not listen to the request to be carried back for treatment. He will cut it in two with a big knife and return with a horse.”. From these facts, at least at the operational level, the Japanese army’s handling of the remains is not purely based on “humanity” or the care of the spirit of sacrifice, but strongly reflects the color of using people as war tools and materials. This is what we should know.

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are currently reading the internal book “Japanese army commander’s program and commander’s reference” compiled by the Academy of Military Sciences, which is the strategic and tactical regulations and interpretation text issued by the Japanese army for the front army and military commanders (Lieutenant general and above) in 1928 and 1932. The Japanese Self Defense Force reprinted it in 1962 as a must read book for cadres and military researchers. In the book, the author found that the sacrifice of the “Yasukuni dead” was once listed as the ruling power at the core of the Japanese Empire, which was directly exercised by the emperor. The specific expression is as follows: “in view of the disadvantages of constitutional politics, in order to limit its harm, the Japanese Empire stipulated that the ruling power of commander, sacrifice, reward and so on should not be exercised with the assistance of the Minister of state. This is the spirit of the imperial constitution.” The command power mentioned in the article is the military power, which is why the Japanese army is called “imperial army”; The right of sacrifice was ranked second. We can imagine the position of this issue in the political framework of the Japanese Empire.

in 1944: Notes on the Matsuyama campaign, the author believes that the military flag and Yasukuni Shrine are the highest materialized forms of the spirit of Japanese militarism and the secret of interpreting the fierce monster of the Japanese army. In fact, the military flag corresponds to the command power, and the Yasukuni Shrine corresponds to the sacrificial right. If we add the honor reward system corresponding to the reward power, the understanding of the “spirit” of the Japanese Empire will be roughly comprehensive.

under the guidance of this system and cultural concept, the Japanese army’s practice on relevant issues is extremely eye-catching.

usually, the Japanese army followed a complete system in dealing with the dead. Generally, the bodies of the dead are burned into bones in time on the battlefield and carried in an urn; When the war came to an end, commanders at all levels personally presided over a large-scale memorial ceremony, and then took the opportunity to transport it back to Japan for burial, and the spirit was placed in the Yasukuni Shrine. If it is difficult to deal with the complete corpse in time due to the disastrous defeat of the war, the officer shall cut an arm or hand, and the soldier shall cut a hand or finger, and use a special “chemical combustion blanket” or simply put firewood on the frame to burn the remains. At the time of the Chinese Army’s counterattack, the retreating Japanese army still carried an urn wrapped in white cloth around its neck – a widely sung military song of the Japanese Army during the war, that is, “the remains of embracing comrades in arms”; Never throw away a corpse or a bone unless it is badly defeated and cannot be disposed of in time.

a Tengchong resident returned home after the restoration and found that the second floor of his home was full of Japanese urn with watches, pens, letters, medals and other items on each box. This is obviously collected and ready for evacuation. The family was shocked and angry. It is conceivable that the Japanese army would not be so embarrassed if it were not for the “broken jade of all the staff”.

in the decades after the war, the Japanese made every effort to make up for this shortcoming.

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and “bone search” have experienced long ups and downs, but the Japanese are as persistent as ever.

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in the appendix of the book “gun smoke” of the war record of the Japanese field artillery 56 wing, there is a data about the bones of Japanese soldiers who died in Myanmar after the war, which is the first time that Japan sent a “bone collection mission” to Myanmar since 1975, It was not until 1980 that the “soothing mission” was sent to Yunnan, ChinaMemorabilia. After returning home every time, the comrades in arms of various forces in Japan organized a soul offering. The data also included detailed records of the previous memorial activities of the 56th division (Dragon regiment) of the Japanese army occupying western Yunnan and its field artillery 56th regiment. The origin of

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was that Japan initiated the establishment of the “all Myanmar comrades in arms Group Liaison agreement” in 1973, promoted the Ministry of health and welfare of the Japanese government to formulate the “bone collection plan for overseas war dead” in 1974, and raised funds for the upcoming “all Myanmar war Federation” delegation. A total of 85 million yen was raised twice in April and October of that year. According to Japanese statistics, about 137000 Japanese soldiers died on the battlefield in Myanmar, leaving a large number of abandoned corpses that could not be handled in time.

in 1975, the first “osteoclast group” embarked on a journey to Myanmar, consisting of 141 members. Among them, there are 10 employees of the Ministry of health and welfare, 90 veterans, 25 families of the dead, and 15 members of the “Japanese youth bone collection group” composed of volunteers. A total of 10717 bones were collected this time.

in 1976, the second “osteoclast group” went to Myanmar, which was composed of 163 people. Among them, there are 12 employees of the Ministry of health and welfare, 100 veterans, 40 families of the dead, and 10 members of the “Japanese youth bone collection group”. A total of 12589 bones were collected this time.

a total of 23306 bones were collected for the above two times.

how Japan opened up the situation in Myanmar, the author has not seen detailed information, but “money paving the way” is not wrong.

during the war, Myanmar was a British colony. In order to realize the intention of invading Myanmar, Japan sent special agents to Myanmar to actively carry out activities before the war. With the bait of supporting the Myanmar national independence movement, Japan organized a group of Myanmar National elites such as Aung San and Nevin to train in the Japanese occupied areas and Hainan, secretly sent them back to the country to form the Myanmar independent army, and actively cooperated with the Japanese army when it attacked Myanmar in 1942; At that time, China sent an expeditionary force to Myanmar for the first time to resist Japan side by side with the British army, but many Burmese people were deeply hostile to me. Although Aung San later saw the situation clearly and defected to join the anti fascist front in 1944 to assist the allies in fighting against Japan until Japan surrendered, in 1947, Britain reneged on the original agreement on Myanmar’s independence and ordered gangsters to assassinate Aung San, which hurt the Burmese people deeply. Since then, Myanmar’s sense of nationalism has become increasingly strong. Especially in the late 1960s, Naiwen, the successor of Aung San, based on hatred of China and anti communism, leveled a large number of Chinese military cemeteries and monuments in Myanmar, but cooperated with the Japanese who came to collect bones and comfort their souls.

since 1975, with the strong support of the government, consortia and the people, the Japanese have opened up all kinds of joints in Myanmar and built large and small comfort towers and monuments in all battlefields. No matter whether restaurants or residential houses have been built on the original site, the Japanese have bought them for sacrifice, and even set up monuments for the soldiers and horses who died in Burma. Zigang mountain, more than 30 miles away from Mandalay and by the Irrawaddy River, is a famous Buddhist resort in Myanmar. There are many pagodas at the top and bottom of the mountain. At its best, there is a huge gilded pagoda built by the Japanese, which is a place for mourning the souls of the war dead. The White Pagoda base is densely engraved with the names of thousands of Japanese soldiers. With this tower as the center, there are all kinds of consolation towers, memorial tablets and soul plates built by the Japanese on all sides. In spring and autumn every year, a large number of Japanese are led by monks to carry out sacrificial activities here. Beside the monument built by the Japanese for the 800 military horses killed in the war in Myanmar and Western Yunnan, there is also a monument erected by the Taiwanese to the Japanese war dead in Taiwan.

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are almost synchronized with their activities in Myanmar, and the Japanese have also started their activities in Yunnan, China. Although the period has experienced long ups and downs, the Japanese have always been persistent.

in 1974, the second year after the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, the first batch of Japanese were allowed to visit Kunming, Yunnan. They proposed to the Yunnan Provincial Revolutionary Committee at that time that they would be allowed to pay homage to the dead of the Japanese army in western Yunnan. The request was rejected as a matter of course. It is said that all the Japanese immediately burst into tears. This is the earliest negotiation between Japan and China on the issue of the remains of Western Yunnan, which was mentioned by the writer Deng Xian in the soul of a big country.

in 1978, the supplementary soldier of the 113th regiment of the 56th division of the former Japanese invading army and the reporter of Japan’s daily news agency, pinyeshi, applied for a passport to China. He was not allowed to go to the West Yunnan area at that time. The purpose of his trip was to write a book for the Japanese soldiers who died in Matsuyama – which was later written as “exotic ghosts”, which was very influential in Japan.

during this period, more and more Japanese came to Yunnan. They were allowed to visit and visit more places, but at that time, the opening area of Yunnan was limited to Dali City, more than 300 kilometers west of Kunming. Although Dali is surrounded by mountains and rivers, with picturesque scenery, and the ruins of Nanzhao ancient country and the story of five golden flowers are well-known at home and abroad, the Japanese are all frowning and look west all day without thinking about tea and food. Before leaving, they stood in silence, and then knelt down. They are still going to Western Yunnan to pay homage to the dead of the Japanese army.

in January 1980, the Japanese finally set foot on the land of Western Yunnan for the first time after the war. This time, the “Yunnan comfort group” sent by Japan’s “all Burma war Federation” came to China. Probably in the diplomatic contact link, the Japanese side has considered that the bone retraction in China will not succeed. This time, it just tentatively sent 10 people to touch the situation. The members are all composed of veterans, headed by hidtaro Jiagu. This time, pinyeshi actively fought for it, but he was still not selected, probably because he only participated in the battle of Longling during the war and was not the most important witness. Among the 10 Japanese veterans closely related to that period of history, there are former Japanese artillery Lieutenant Masahiko Matsushita, who was ordered to escape from the Matsuyama battlefield, health soldier Yoshino Xiaogong, who survived the Tengchong battlefield, Lieutenant Shisheng Shiwu, who helped the garrison captain’s cell Zhong taro commit suicide in Longling, and lieutenant Keio Ishii, who once served in the headquarters of the 56th division. According to pinyeshi《The book “exotic ghosts” describes that “with the help of China, these Japanese got the soil on the battlefield in western Yunnan this time”. After returning home, at the soul comforting ceremony held by the comrades in arms of the former 56th division of the Japanese army, these clay were distributed to the families of the dead as “spirit sand”.

after the 1980s, with China’s further opening to the outside world, more Japanese can finally come to Western Yunnan in the name of “tourism”. On the old battlefield of Songshan, they generally didn’t talk to the local people and looked solemn. After going up the mountain, he hugged the trees, grabbed the soil, cried and prayed in this lush mountain… An old Japanese man who was most impressed by the local people once came to Songshan with a group of male and daughter grandchildren and insisted on a tour guide. He was able to walk around the mountain with ease and familiarity. A local understanding person asked him: are you the Japanese artillery lieutenant who escaped? This man is Masashi Muxia. Since 1980, he has been to Western Yunnan more than ten times and has only one wish: to build a monument to comfort the souls of the Japanese army who died in Songshan. To this end, he visited the bereaved families of all the dead and told them about the last “traces of war” of the dead; His whole wish for the rest of his life is to meet the wishes of the dead. To this end, he has shown some sincerity, such as donating money to Longling to build a Baita primary school in front of the Zhao ancestral temple in the former forward command post of the 56th division of the Japanese army, which is called “atonement” school by locals. This move was understood by the local government with reservations, but he thought it was an unwarranted wish to erect a monument for the Japanese soldiers killed in Matsuyama.

during the interview in western Yunnan, the author often heard local people talk about the “reward” offered by the Japanese to find the remains of the Japanese army. It is said that the exchange condition is: a corpse for a car, a leg bone or hand bone for a color TV. These, of course, are rumors spread by Japan after its private activities through fruitless diplomatic efforts, which are not groundless.

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it is reported that the “Yunnan comfort group” came to Yunnan at least four times from 1980 to 1990s. It changed its name to “Japan China Friendship Symposium” in an attempt to collect the remains of the Japanese army from the people. In July 1988, hidaro kagu, executive director of Japan’s “all Burma war association”, and his party arrived in western Yunnan along the Yunnan Myanmar highway to apologize and repent at the battlefield sites in Longling, Tengchong, Mangshi, buting and other places. The veterans who participated in the event were 60 or 70 years old at that time. They also did some things to promote China Japan friendship, but these can not hide their real purpose of coming to Yunnan again and again. At that time, Ms. Chen Xiaoyun, who worked in the Kunming Office of Japan Huaxing Co., Ltd., a Japanese funded enterprise in Kunming, witnessed the incident.

in 1990, Chen Xiaoyun was invited to a banquet welcoming Hideo Kaguya. Jiagu thought that Chen Xiaoyun was an employee of a Japanese company and seemed to be trustworthy, so he visited Chen Xiaoyun’s place of work many times during his stay in Kunming. Chen Xiaoyun learned that Jiagu participated in the war against Myanmar. Once, Jiagu gave Chen Xiaoyun a map of the distribution of Japanese remains in various battlefields in western Yunnan, in which the battle situation from June to September 1944 was clearly recorded in the map of lameng (i.e. Songshan) position and the map of garrison near Tengyue (i.e. Tengchong, the old place name). Jiagu apologized for the Japanese invasion of China and hoped to make a breakthrough in the collection of remains. After many unsuccessful diplomatic and non-governmental negotiations, Jiagu hoped that Chen Xiaoyun could help him do some work on this matter. After returning to Japan, he called again many times. However, Chen Xiaoyun believed that the historical facts of Japan’s invasion of Yunnan was a crime that could never be erased, so he declined his request and asked him to respect the national feelings of the Chinese people.

then, what was the situation of the bones discarded by the Japanese army in western Yunnan? Some Japanese soldiers’ data were saved by “spekds” and “spkds” after they died; A large number of corpses were buried by local people after the war because they could not be collected in time. It was difficult to find the exact location because the parties died one after another. However, some bones discarded by the Japanese army have also been preserved locally, and some of them have been excavated and are still intensively preserved.

Fang Jun, author of the book “devil soldiers I know”, is the first person to disclose this information in China. In 2002, when Fang Jun interviewed the “last group of people” who witnessed the war of resistance against Japan in Longling, he saw these Japanese remains and reported them for the first time in Baoshan daily. According to the staff of the historical records office of Longling County at that time, from 1988 to 1989, the county government organized manpower to collect some Japanese bones and relics in Songshan area. At that time, the purpose of organizing the excavation was based on humanitarian considerations and the need for the historical records office to collect some war-related data and physical evidence. After that, these bones and relics were packed in pottery pots and wooden boxes and kept in the warehouse of the historical records office of Longling County. It is said that Longling Anti Japanese War Memorial square was completed in 2005, and these things were moved to the new anti Japanese War Memorial Hall.

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Fang Jun once classified and introduced the relics of the Japanese Army:

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have five pottery urn ashes, which were burned by the Japanese soldiers killed in the war in Myanmar by the 56th division of the Japanese army and brought into western Yunnan, China. It is said that the Japanese army was preparing to take these ashes to Kunming and Chongqing. The small mouth and big belly of the pottery pot containing bone ashes are the ceramic utensils used by women in Myanmar’s Salween River Basin on their heads.

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after the end of the war that year, the local people worried about polluting the air and water sources and converged on the bodies of the Japanese army, which was hastily buried. In 1988, only part of the bones were excavated in Songshan and put in more than 30 locally fired pottery pots.

in addition, the remains were unearthed with Japanese helmets, leather shoes, lunch boxes, shells and other items, which were packed in more than 20 wooden boxes.

it is said that after seeing it, Japan negotiated with the Chinese Ministry of foreign affairs and hoped to negotiate on the return of the remains. But then the news was that the local government responded that there was no such thing.